Medication adherence in children and adolescents with HIV infection: Associations with behavioral impairment

ArticleinAIDS patient care and STDs 25(3):191-200 · February 2011with16 Reads
DOI: 10.1089/apc.2010.0181 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The impact of behavioral functioning on medication adherence in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection is not well-explored, but has important implications for intervention. This report addresses the relationship between behavioral functioning and child self-report or caregiver report of medication adherence among children and adolescents enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219C (conducted 2000-2007). A total of 1134 participants, aged 3-17 years, received a behavioral evaluation and adherence assessment. Complete adherence was defined as taking 100% of prescribed antiretroviral medications during three days preceding the study visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between adherence and behavioral functioning, adjusting for potential confounders, including demographic, psychosocial, and health factors. Children demonstrated higher than expected rates of behavioral impairment (≈7% expected with T > 65) in the areas of conduct problems (14%, z = 7.0, p < 0.001), learning problems (22%, z = 12.2, p < 0.001), somatic complaints (22%, z = 12.6, p < 0.001), impulsivity-hyperactivity (20%, z = 11.1, p < 0.001), and hyperactivity (19%, z = 10.6, p < 0.001). Children with behavioral impairment in one or more areas had significantly increased odds of nonadherence [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.49, p = 0.04]. The odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for those with conduct problems and general hyperactivity (aOR = 2.03, p = 0.005 and aOR = 1.68, p = 0.02, respectively). Psychosocial and health factors, such as recent stressful life events and higher HIV RNA levels, were also associated with nonadherence. Knowledge of behavioral, health, and social influences affecting the child and family should guide the development of appropriate, evidence-based interventions for medication adherence.
    • "Finally, several US-cohort studies revealed significant cooccurrence of mental health problems with other behavioural risks, similar to studies of adolescents in the general population [88]. Mental health problems in PHIV' youth were associated with substance use [89], non-adherence [54,62,90] and sexual risk behaviour [54,91]. Importantly, few studies in this review focused on protective factors that promote mental health. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Across the globe, children born with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) are reaching adolescence and young adulthood in large numbers. The majority of research has focused on biomedical outcomes yet there is increasing awareness that long-term survivors with PHIV are at high risk for mental health problems, given genetic, biomedical, familial and environmental risk. This article presents a review of the literature on the mental health functioning of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents, corresponding risk and protective factors, treatment modalities and critical needs for future interventions and research. Methods An extensive review of online databases was conducted. Articles including: (1) PHIV+ youth; (2) age 10 and older; (3) mental health outcomes; and (4) mental health treatment were reviewed. Of 93 articles identified, 38 met inclusion criteria, the vast majority from the United States and Europe. Results These studies suggest that PHIV+ youth experience emotional and behavioural problems, including psychiatric disorders, at higher than expected rates, often exceeding those of the general population and other high-risk groups. Yet, the specific role of HIV per se remains unclear, as uninfected youth with HIV exposure or those living in HIV-affected households displayed similar prevalence rates in some studies, higher rates in others and lower rates in still others. Although studies are limited with mixed findings, this review indicates that child-health status, cognitive function, parental health and mental health, stressful life events and neighbourhood disorder have been associated with worse mental health outcomes, while parent–child involvement and communication, and peer, parent and teacher social support have been associated with better function. Few evidence-based interventions exist; CHAMP+, a mental health programme for PHIV+ youth, shows promise across cultures. Conclusions This review highlights research limitations that preclude both conclusions and full understanding of aetiology. Conversely, these limitations present opportunities for future research. Many PHIV+ youth experience adequate mental health despite vulnerabilities. However, the focus of research to date highlights the identification of risks rather than positive attributes, which could inform preventive interventions. Development and evaluation of mental health interventions and preventions are urgently needed to optimize mental health, particularly for PHIV+ youth growing up in low-and-middle income countries.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
    • "Common to all settings is the challenge of maintaining life-long adherence and access to increasingly expensive ART regimens. Adolescent adherence is particularly complex because of the socio-economic pressures related to orphanhood, neurocognitive deficits associated with chronic and severe HIV infection, and stigma and discrimination [5, 20–22]. In a US cohort of treatment-experienced adolescents, poor adherence and pre-existing resistance led to poor viral load responses despite regular access to the third- and fourth-line ARVs darunavir, raltegravir and etravirine [14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The global paediatric HIV epidemic is shifting into a new phase as children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) move into adolescence and adulthood, and face new challenges of living with HIV. UNAIDS reports that 3.4 million children aged below 15 years and 2 million adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years have HIV. Although the vast majority of children were perinatally infected, older children are combined with behaviourally infected adolescents and youth in global reporting, making it difficult to keep track of their outcomes. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are a highly unique patient sub-population, having been infected before development of their immune systems, been subject to suboptimal ART options and formulations, and now face transition from complete dependence on adult caregivers to becoming their own caregivers. As we are unable to track long-term complications and survival of PHIVA through national and global reporting systems, local and regional cohorts are the main sources for surveillance and research among PHIVA. This global review will utilize those data to highlight the epidemiology of PHIVA infection, treatment challenges and chronic disease risks. Unless mechanisms are created to count and separate out PHIVA outcomes, we will have few opportunities to characterize the negative consequences of life-long HIV infection in order to find ways to prevent them.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
    • "Internalizing and externalizing behaviors also were unrelated to adherence longitudinally . Although Malee et al. (2011) found that conduct problems were associated with nonadherence, that study used a measure of ADHD symptoms versus the broader range of externalizing symptoms, included much younger children, and was cross-sectional. Within the individual child, only knowledge of HIV status prospectively and independently predicted nonadherence . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To apply a social ecological model to explore the psychosocial factors prospectively associated with longitudinal adherence to antiretroviral treatment in youth perinatally infected with HIV. Methods: Randomly selected youth, age 8 to <19 years old, completed cognitive testing and psychosocial questionnaires at baseline as part of a multisite protocol (N = 138). A validated caregiver-report measure of adherence was completed at baseline and 24 and 48 weeks after baseline. Results: In multivariate analysis, youth awareness of HIV status, caregiver not fully responsible for medications, low caregiver well-being, adolescent perceptions of poor caregiver-youth relations, caregiver perceptions of low social support, and African American ethnicity were associated with nonadherence over 48 weeks. Conclusions: Interventions focusing on caregivers and their interactions with the individual youth and extrafamilial system should be prioritized for prevention and treatment efforts to address nonadherence during the transition into adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
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