Chromosome 7q31 POAG locus: Ocular expression of caveolins and lack of association with POAG in a US cohort

Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
Molecular vision (Impact Factor: 1.99). 02/2011; 17(47-48):430-5.
Source: PubMed


To determine the role of the recently discovered primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) risk factor mapped to chromosome 7q31 in glaucoma patients from Iowa and to determine the expression pattern of genes in the locus in human eyes.
A cohort of 545 POAG patients and 297 control subjects from Iowa were genotyped with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs4236601) in the chromosome 7q31 locus using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The expression of genes within the 7q31 locus, caveolin-1 (CAV1) and caveolin-2 (CAV2) in human eyes was investigated with immunohistochemistry.
The minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs4236601 was 27% in control subjects and 29% in POAG patients. We detected no statistical difference when we compared the allele frequencies of rs4236601 between POAG patients and control subjects (p=0.5). Similarly, we detected no statistical difference in the frequency of the three possible rs4236601 genotypes between patients and controls (p=0.22). Immunohistochemistry showed caveolin expression in human retina, ciliary muscle, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm's canal. In our small cohort of donor eyes, the genotype of rs4236601 did not obviously influence labeling intensity or distribution of CAV1 and CAV2 in the retina.
A genome-wide association study of subjects from Iceland mapped the first common genetic risk factor for POAG to a small region of the genome on chromosome 7q31 that contains the caveolin genes CAV1 and CAV2. We were unable to detect this association in our patients from Iowa, suggesting that this risk factor may not have a strong effect in all populations.

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    • "Taken together, the list of almost 50 genes may represent highly likely candidate genes that may be involved in POAG pathogenesis. Many studies have been performed to replicate the GWAS findings in the Asian, African-Caribbean and Caucasian/European populations using the candidate-gene approach [61,66,67,697071727374757684,89,92,93]. Also, many studies were performed to test the association of specific known genes/SNPs with POAG using the same approach in different populations including Middle Eastern [Table 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that by 2020 the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is estimated to increase to 76.0 million, and to 111.8 million by 2040 globally due to the population aging. The prevalence of POAG is the highest among those of African descent, followed by Asians, and the lowest in Europeans. POAG is a genetically complex trait with a substantial fraction exhibiting a significant heritability. Less than 10% of POAG cases in the general population are caused by specific gene mutations and the remaining cases are polygenic. Quantitative traits related to POAG pathogenesis such as intra-ocular pressure (IOP), vertical cup/disc ratio (VCDR), optic disc area, and central corneal thickness (CCT) are highly heritable, and likely to be influenced at least in part by genes and show substantial variation in human populations. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at different loci including CAV1/CAV2, TMCO1, CDKN2B-AS1, CDC7-TGFBR3, SIX1/SIX6, GAS7 and ATOH7 to be associated with POAG and its related quantitative traits (endophenotypes). The chapter provides a brief overview on the different GWAS and SNP association studies and their correlation with various clinical parameters important for POAG in the population worldwide, including the Middle East.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    • "Having said that, no glaucoma-causing mutations have been identified either in CAV1 or CAV2 to date. Failing to find a strong link between the recently discovered SNP rs4236601 by others and us [23,30] raises doubts about its importance in POAG pathogenesis, at least in some populations. However, as with many other complex disorders the interaction of genes with other confounding factors like age, gender (hormones), drugs affecting IOP may also have critical roles to play. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the role of the recently discovered primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4236601 near the caveolin-1 (CAV1) and CAV2 among patients and controls from Saudi Arabia. A cohort of 220 POAG patients and 405 control subjects from Saudi Arabia were genotyped for a SNP (rs4236601;g.2891 G>A) in the chromosome 7q31 locus near CAV1 and CAV2 using a standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing method. The minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs4236601 was 0.3 in controls and 0.31 in POAG patients. We detected no statistical difference when we compared the allele frequencies between POAG patients and control subjects (p=0.699). Similarly, we detected no statistical difference in the frequency of the three possible rs4236601 genotypes between patients and controls. The p-values were 0.928 and 0.683 for heterozygous genotype (G/A) and homozygous mutant genotype (A/A), respectively. We found no statistically significant difference among patients with any of the three possible genotypes and various clinical indices important for glaucoma. Among patients with homozygous (A/A), the mean IOP was higher (21.4) compared to patients with G/G wildtype (20.4) and to patients with G/A genotype (18.5). However, this apparent difference did not reach the statistical significance threshold (p=0.062). We were unable to detect this association in our POAG-patients from Saudi Arabia, suggesting that this risk factor may not have a strong effect in all populations. A founder effect may play a role in certain populations where the link was established.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Molecular vision
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    • "The locus spans the caveolin 1 (CAV-1) and caveolin 2 (CAV-2) genes and the minor allele of a genetic marker, rs4236601, located in the noncoding upstream region of CAV-1, was found to be tightly associated with POAG. However, a smaller population based study suggests that the rs4236601 polymorphic allele may not be a universal risk factor in all populations [6]. Although the association does not mean that caveolins are directly implicated in glaucoma, the finding has prompted interest in caveolin family members and their role in cells of the conventional outflow pathway. "
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    ABSTRACT: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which is the most common form of glaucoma, has been associated with a heterogeneous genetic component. A genome-wide association study has identified a common sequence variant at 7q31 (rs4236601 [A]) near the caveolin genes in patients with POAG. Caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins which participate in many cellular processes, including vesicular transport, cholesterol homeostasis, signal transduction, cell adhesion and migration. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of caveolin 1 (CAV-1) and caveolin 2 (CAV-2) in normal and glaucoma trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. CAV-1 and CAV-2 protein expression was quantified by immunoblot analysis using lysates isolated from primary and immortalized TM cells or TM tissue dissected from normal and POAG eyes. The localization of caveolins in TM cells was assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy. CAV-1 and CAV-2 protein expression was also investigated in TM cells at various time points after subjecting the cells to known glaucomatous insults like dexamethasone (DEX) and tumor growth factor beta2 (TGF-β2) treatment. Phosphorylation of CAV-1 at tyrosine 14 in normal and glaucoma TM cell lines was evaluated using a specific monoclonal antibody (Ab). The 5' upstream region of the CAV-1 gene was amplified and the sequence variant rs4236601 (A/G polymorphic site) and several putative transcription factor-binding sites were modified by in vitro mutagenesis. The effect of nucleotide sequence modifications in the CAV-1 upstream region on gene expression was assayed in a luciferase-based system in TM and non-TM cells. CAV-1 and CAV-2 are expressed in TM cells, with localization to the cytoplasm and perinuclear region. DEX increased CAV-1 expression in immortalized glaucoma TM cells by 2.8±0.1 (n=3) fold at 24 h and 2.5±0.1 (n=3) fold at 48 h, compared to 1.3±0.06 (n=3) fold at 24 and 48 h in immortalized normal TM cells. Phosphorylation of CAV-1 at Tyr14 was reduced by 3.2±0.15 (n=3) fold in glaucomatous TM cells when compared to normal TM cells. In POAG and normal TM tissue, CAV-1 expression was found to be uniform. CAV-2, on the other hand, was variable in independent normal and glaucoma TM tissue. Substitution of a G for an A at base pair -2,388 upstream of the start codon of CAV-1, corresponding to the minor allele rs4236601 [A], increased transcriptional activity in TM and non-TM cells when compared to the native sequence. Deletion analysis of putative transcription factor binding sites in the CAV-1 promoter region caused cell-specific effects on gene expression. CAV-1 and CAV-2 are expressed in normal and glaucoma tissue and TM cell lines. Phosphorylation of Tyr14 in CAV-1 and transcriptional regulation of CAV-1 expression may have a role in glaucomatous alterations in TM cells.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Molecular vision
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