The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific IgE in the general US population.
We estimated the prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population.
Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005-2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (n = 8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgE levels against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins, and selected foods (egg white, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE by using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire.
In NHANES 2005-2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever, and 23.5% had current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE levels (adjusted odds ratios for a 10-fold increase in total IgE level of 1.86 [95% CI, 1.44-2.41] for hay fever and 1.64 [95% CI, 1.41-1.91] for allergies). Increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgE (adjusted odds ratio, 4.75; 95% CI, 3.83-5.88).
In the US population self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE.
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"Salo et al. found a sensitization rate of 44 % based on the investigation of 9440 children aged 6 years and older in a US population study (NHANES) by using a panel of 19 allergens. In young children, aged 1 to 5 years a lower prevalence of 36.2 %, was seen in the same population . Additional prevalence studies were performed in a population of 1700 children aged 7–8 years by Rönmark et al. , who found a et al. found that 40 % had one or more positive specific IgE test of which 31 % were mono-sensitized . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Data on specific IgE sensitization prevalence in children with allergy-like symptoms seen in the primary care setting are rare. Early diagnosis of allergic diseases is important to prevent clinical manifestations, exacerbations or expansion of allergic diseases to other organ systems. The present study aims to assess the usefulness of early serological diagnosis in children with common allergic symptoms.
532 children (<15 years of age), with at least one of ten allergy-like symptoms, from 21 primary care centers in two geographic areas of Italy and Spain were included in the study. Patients were tested with, either Phadiatop® Infant (0–5 years of age) or Phadiatop® and food mix (fx5e) (>5 years of age) to discriminate atopic from non-atopic subjects. A blood sample of atopic subjects was taken for additional 6–26 specific IgE antibody determinations from a predefined panel using the ImmunoCAP ® System.
267 children (50.2 %) were positive in the initial test and were classified as atopic. 14 % were mono-sensitized, 37 % were sensitized to 2–3 allergens and 49 % to more than 3 allergens. The average number of symptoms in the atopic group was 3.3 vs 2.8 in the non-atopic group. The prevalence of sensitization to single allergens was highest for grass and ragweed pollen and house-dust mites (19–28 %). Sensitization to tree allergens was highest for olive tree (16.5 %). Cow’s milk and egg white were the most sensitizing foods (~15 %). Food allergen sensitization predominated in younger children (OR = 2.8) whereas the inverse occurred with inhalant allergens (OR = 2.5 to 5.6). A significant positive correlation between patient age and the number of sensitizations was found.
Specific IgE sensitization in children with allergy-like symptoms is common. Multiple sensitization is predominating. Number of clinical symptoms was higher in the atopic group compared to the non-atopic without a correlation with the number of positive allergens. Age seems to play a crucial role in the development of sensitization with a significant positive correlation between patient age and the number of sensitizations.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Italian Journal of Pediatrics
"It is now well-established that ragweed is one of the major causes of allergic rhinitis in the general population in North America. In NHANES 2005, among those who reported hay fever in the past 12 months, the sensitization rate for ragweed was 32.8% . In the French Rhône-Alpes region, up to 12% of the population is allergic to ragweed . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, is a highly allergenic annual herbaceous plant that is spreading quickly across the globe. Few studies have investigated the relationship between ragweed pollen counts and hay fever symptoms. We investigate the dose-response relationship between ragweed exposure in patients sensitized to ragweed and daily hay fever symptoms.
A panel study was conducted among 31 adult patients sensitized to A artemisiifolia in France and Switzerland. Rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and bronchial symptoms were recorded daily, as well as daily pollen counts of ragweed, air pollutants, and meteorological data over 2 successive years. Data were analyzed with generalized estimating equation models to quantify effects of ragweed pollen whilst controlling for confounders.
The relationship between ragweed pollen and the percentage of patients with nasal, ocular, and bronchial symptoms was linear. For every increase of 10 grains/m3, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for nasal symptoms was, in 2009, 1.18 [1.04-1.35] on weekdays and 1.43 [1.16-1.75] at weekends, and in 2010, 1.04 [1.00-1.07] on weekdays and 1.25 [1.06-1.46] at weekends.The OR for ocular symptoms was 1.32 [1.16-1.56] in 2009 and 1.05 [1.02-1.07] in 2010. Finally, the OR for bronchial symptoms was 1.14 [1.03-1.25] in 2009 and 1.03 [0.97-1.08] in 2010.
There is a statistically significant linear relationship between ragweed pollen counts and hay fever symptoms. Our study shows that nasal symptoms differ on weekdays and at weekends.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología
"Sensitization was defined as detectable specific IgE (!0.35 kU/L). We investigated five allergic sensitization outcome variables . These included: 1) any of the IgE antibodies; 2) outdoor allergen-specific IgEs (A. alternata, A. fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass); 3) indoor allergen-specific IgEs [cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus), mouse proteins, rat urine proteins]; 4) inhalant (indoor or outdoor allergen-specific IgEs); and 5) food allergen-specific IgEs (egg white, cow's milk, peanut, shrimp). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear.
To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population.
We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM10, and per 5 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status.
Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and indoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data.
Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Respiratory medicine