Mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with anxiety disorders: evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30(4), 281-288

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Bergen, Christiesgate 12, 5015 Bergen, Norway.
Behaviour Research and Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.85). 04/2011; 49(4):281-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.01.007
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for patients with heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Seventy-six self-referred patients were randomized to MBSR or a waiting-list control condition. Eight participants did not complete the eight-week MBSR intervention. Treatment completers improved significantly on all outcome measures compared to controls. The completer sample showed medium to large effect sizes on measures of anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.55-0.97), and a large effect size for symptoms of depression (Cohen's d = 0.97). Intention-to-treat analyses yielded effect sizes in the small to moderate range (Cohen's d = 0.32-0.76). Gains were maintained at six months follow-up. The percentage of participants reaching recovered status was highest for symptom measures of depression and anxiety, and lower for worry and trait anxiety. Mediation analyses indicated that mindfulness fully mediated changes in acute anxiety symptoms, and partially mediated changes in worry and trait anxiety. However, the present study did not find evidence of temporal precedence for the proposed mediator. In the absence of true mediation and an active control condition, it cannot be ruled out that results are due to non-specific aspects of treatment. Despite these and other limitations, we conclude that MBSR is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders and related symptomatology.

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    • "Research has found that mindfulness-based interventions leads to increased self-reported mindfulness, and that intervention-associated increases in mindfulness predicted increases in positive states of mind, self-compassion , and spirituality, and decreases in perceived stress, psychological distress, depression, anxiety, rumination, and worry (Anderson, Lau, Segal, & Bishop, 2007; Brändström, Kvillemo, & Moskowitz, 2012; Campbell, Labelle, Bacon, Faris, & Carlson, 2012; Carmody, Reed, Kristeller, & Merriam, 2008; Dobkin & Zhao, 2011; Lau et al., 2006; Robins, Keng, Ekblad, & Brantley, 2012; Shapiro , Brown, & Biegel, 2007; Vøllestad, Sivertsen, & Nielsen, 2011). Other studies have shown that increases in mindfulness statistically mediated the effects of mindfulness interventions on reductions in rumination, anxiety, perceived stress, avoidance behavior, and cognitive reactivity (Bränström, Kvillemo, Brandberg, & Moskowitz, 2010; Nyklíček & Kuipers, 2008; Raes, Dewulf, Van Heeringen, & Williams, 2009; Shapiro, Oman, Thoresen, Plante, & Flinders, 2008; Vøllestad et al., 2011), as well as increases in positive states of mind and quality of life (Bränström et al., 2010; Nyklíček & Kuipers, 2008). Most of these studies employed a standard, 8-week long intervention. "

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    • "Such conditions include depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, stress, and chronic pain (Chiesa and Serretti 2011; Gross et al. 2011; Irving et al. 2009; Klainin-Yobas et al. 2012; Morone et al. 2008; Rosenzweig et al. 2010). For example, empirical evidence suggests that mindfulness-based interventions are highly effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and have long-term benefits for preventing relapse in adults with psychiatric disorders (Klainin-Yobas et al. 2012; Vollestad et al. 2011). Furthermore, greater estimates of efficacy were associated with increased duration of the intervention sessions and more mindfulness meditation practice (Klainin-Yobas et al. 2012). "
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    • "Over the course of the study, mindful outcome, mindful process, mental health, and physical health increased, and perceived stress decreased. These results are similar to a number of studies in which MBSR has been shown to increase mindfulness (e.g.,Baer et al. 2012;Vøllestad et al. 2011) and decrease stress (e.g.,Bränström et al. 2010;Shapiro et al. 2008). This is also consistent with several meta-analyses wherein MBSR has evidenced medium to large effect sizes in enhancing a variety of physical and mental health outcomes (e.g.,de Vibe et al. 2012;Eberth and Sedelmier 2012). "
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