Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, et al. EAU Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. Part II: Treatment of Advanced, Relapsing, and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Department of Urology, Clinique Mutualiste de la Loire, Saint Etienne, France.
European Urology (Impact Factor: 13.94). 04/2011; 59(4):572-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.01.025
Source: PubMed


Our aim is to present a summary of the 2010 version of the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on the treatment of advanced, relapsing, and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
The working panel performed a literature review of the new data emerging from 2007 to 2010. The guidelines were updated, and the levels of evidence (LEs) and/or grades of recommendation (GR) were added to the text based on a systematic review of the literature, which included a search of online databases and bibliographic reviews.
Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists are the standard of care in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Although LHRH antagonists decrease testosterone without any testosterone surge, their clinical benefit remains to be determined. Complete androgen blockade has a small survival benefit of about 5%. Intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) results in equivalent oncologic efficacy when compared with continuous androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in well-selected populations. In locally advanced and metastatic PCa, early ADT does not result in a significant survival advantage when compared with delayed ADT. Relapse after local therapy is defined by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values >0.2 ng/ml following radical prostatectomy (RP) and >2 ng/ml above the nadir after radiation therapy (RT). Therapy for PSA relapse after RP includes salvage RT at PSA levels <0.5 ng/ml and salvage RP or cryosurgical ablation of the prostate in radiation failures. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging and (11)C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) are of limited importance if the PSA is <2.5 ng/ml; bone scans and CT can be omitted unless PSA is >20 ng/ml. Follow-up after ADT should include screening for the metabolic syndrome and an analysis of PSA and testosterone levels. Treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) includes second-line hormonal therapy, novel agents, and chemotherapy with docetaxel at 75 mg/m(2) every 3 wk. Cabazitaxel as a second-line therapy for relapse after docetaxel might become a future option. Zoledronic acid and denusomab can be used in men with CRPC and osseous metastases to prevent skeletal-related complications.
The knowledge in the field of advanced, metastatic, and CRPC is rapidly changing. These EAU guidelines on PCa summarise the most recent findings and put them into clinical practice. A full version is available at the EAU office or online at

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    • "In any instance where there was more than 1 suitable case we selected the one with the closet match for the tumour characteristics. Biochemical relapse was defined for each treatment modality based on the EAU guidelines for prostate cancer [7]. For EBRT this was a PSA value of 2 ng/ml above the nadir. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Most biomarkers in prostate cancer have only been evaluated in surgical cohorts. The value of these biomarkers in a different therapy context remains unclear. Our objective was to test a panel of surgical biomarkers for prognostic value in men treated by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). Methods The Fluidigm® PCR array was used for multi-transcript profiling of laser microdissected tumours from archival formalin-fixed diagnostic biopsies of patients treated by EBRT or PADT. Cases were matched for disease characteristics and had known 5 year biochemical relapse outcomes (n = 60). Results were validated by immunohistochemistry in a custom needle biopsy tissue microarray. Six biomarkers previously tested only in surgical cohorts were analysed (PTEN, E-Cadherin, EGFR, EZH2, PSMA, MSMB). Transcript and protein expression was correlated with clinical outcome analysed using Kruskal Wallis, Fisher’s test and Cox proportional hazard model. Results Altered expression of E-Cadherin (p = 0.008) was associated with early relapse after EBRT. In PADT treated men however only altered MSMB transcript was prognostic for early relapse (p = 0.001). The remaining biomarkers however did not demonstrate prognostic ability in either cohort. In a separate tissue array we validated altered E-Cadherin protein as a predictor of early relapse after EBRT (n = 47) (HR 0.34, CI p = 0.02) but not in PADT treated men (n = 63). Conclusion We demonstrate proof of principle of multiple transcript profiling in archival diagnostic biopsies of non-surgically treated men for biomarker discovery. We identify a role for E-Cadherin as a novel biomarker of early relapse following EBRT.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Cancer
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    • "The PSA doubling time (PSADT) was computed as previously reported [7], and was calculated using first order kinetics by dividing the natural log of 2 by the slope of the linear regression line of the natural log of PSA over time. Early salvage RT was defined as RT initiated when the PSA level was ≤0.5 ng/mL at the time of treatment [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction A significant proportion of patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy (RT) for biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP) may again experience BCR after salvage RT. Thus, we evaluated the clinical significances of different parameters on the biochemical outcome of RT in salvage setting. Methods We reviewed the records of 212 patients who underwent salvage RT between November 2003 and December 2012 for BCR following primary RP. BCR-free survivals after salvage RT were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to evaluate the impacts of clinicopathologic parameters on BCR following salvage RT. Results The overall median follow-up duration was 63.5 months. The BCR-free survival rate after salvage RT was 58.2% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis showed that a pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of ≤0.5 ng/mL, a pre-RT PSA doubling time (PSADT) of >4.5 months, concomitant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with salvage RT, and a positive surgical margin were independent predictors of favorable biochemical outcomes after salvage RT (hazard ratios [HR] = 3.012, 1.132, 2.000, and 1.805, respectively, p = less than 0.001, 0.013, 0.005, and 0.036, respectively). In the early (pre-RT PSA ≤0.5 ng/mL) salvage RT setting, concomitant ADT administration was also shown to be significantly associated with higher risk of BCR-free survival following salvage RT (HR = 2.611, p = 0.038). Conclusion Lower pre-RT PSA value, longer PSADT before salvage RT, concomitant ADT administration, and a positive surgical margin were significant predictors of favorable biochemical outcomes following salvage RT performed for BCR after primary RP.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "On the other hand, prostate biopsy documenting local recurrence represents the main cornerstone in the decision-making process for salvage RP in patients with rising PSA levels following a nadir after radiation therapy. It is a general recommendation to wait about 18 months after radiation therapy or seed implantation [4]. Patients with rising PSA and viable cancer on biopsy 2 years after radiation therapy have true locally recurrent disease and might be candidates for salvage RP. "
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, we will review the available literature about robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in patients who have undergone prostate surgery or radiotherapy. Current data about this topic consists of small case series with limited follow-up. Despite being technically demanding, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) can be considered feasible in either setting. Prostate surgery or prostatic irradiation should not be considered as a contraindication for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Nevertheless, patient counseling about the possible complications and the need for reintervention is of extreme importance in this patient population. Early oncologic and functional results of RARP performed in case of radiorecurrent prostate cancer look promising. Regarding postprostate surgery RARP, some series have reported comparable results, while some have demonstrated more inferior outcomes than those of naive cases. In order to assess the exact functional and oncologic outcome of RARP in patients with previous prostate surgery and radiotherapy, studies enrolling higher number of patients and providing longer follow-up data are needed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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