Effects of varying virus-spiking conditions on a virus-removal filter PlanovaTM 20N in a virus validation study of antibody solutions
Technology Development, Planova Div., Asahi Kasei Medical Co. Ltd., 2700 Asahimachi 6-Chome, Nobeoka, Miyazaki 882-0847, Japan.Biotechnology Progress (Impact Factor: 2.15). 01/2011; 27(1):162-9. DOI: 10.1002/btpr.533
We aimed to investigate the effect of virus-spiking conditions on the filter performance (flux, flux decay, and parvovirus reduction) of the small virus filter Planova™ 20N. We used three kinds of porcine parvovirus (PPV) stocks: serum, serum-free, and purified. The flux profile with PPV spiking was similar to that without spiking for normal load filtration of about 250-300 L/m(2) . High volume (3 vol %) of serum-free PPV and 1 vol % serum PPV reduced the flux to some extent for high-load filtration (over 10 h, ca., 500 L/m(2) , 5 mg/mL IgG solution). Log reduction value (LRV) of PPV was maintained at a high level (>5) over the filtration volume. Flux for Planova™ 20N was only minimally affected by the use of different virus stocks for spiking. Transmission electron microphotography showed that the distribution of PPV particles captured inside the membrane wall was reached until the -60% thickness of the membrane, showing that the membrane of Planova™ 20N has a thick effective layer for virus removal. These results provided evidence for the robustness of the filter performance of Planova™ 20N, showing that it was not easily affected by virus spiking conditions and that it has a large capacity for high-load conditions.
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ABSTRACT: During the manufacture of human plasma derivatives, a series of complementary measures are undertaken to prevent transmission of blood-borne viruses. Virus filtration using 15 nm (Planova15N) filters has successfully been implemented in manufacturing processes for various plasma derivatives primarily because virus filtration is a technique, mild for proteins, that can effectively remove even small non-lipid-enveloped viruses, such as HAV and parvovirus B19. However, the use of 15 nm filters has limitations with regard to protein capacity of the filters and the process flow, resulting in an expensive manufacturing step. Therefore, studies were performed to test whether the use of 20 nm (Planova20N) filters, having different characteristics compared to 15 nm filters, can be an alternative for the use of 15 nm filters. It is shown that 20 nm filtration can be an alternative for 15 nm filtration. However, the virus removal capacity of the 20 nm filters depends on the plasma product that is filtered. Therefore, an optimisation study must be performed with regard to process parameters such as pressure, pH and protein concentration for each plasma product. In this study, using optimised conditions, the virus removal capacity of 20 nm filters appears to be comparable or even better when compared to that of 15 nm filters.
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ABSTRACT: Virus-removal filtration technology is commonly used in the manufacturing process for biologics to remove potential viral contaminants. Virus-removal filters designed for retaining parvovirus, one of the smallest mammalian viruses, are considered an industry standard as they can effectively remove broad ranges of viruses. It has long been observed that the performance of virus filters can be influenced by virus preparations used in the laboratory scale studies (PDA, 2010). However, it remains unclear exactly what quality attributes of virus preparations are critical or indicative of virus filter performance as measured by effectiveness of virus removal and filter capacity consistency. In an attempt to better understand the relationship between virus preparation and virus filter performance, we have systematically prepared and analyzed different grades of parvovirus with different purity levels and compared their performance profiles on Viresolve® Pro parvovirus filters using four different molecules. Virus preparations used in the studies were characterized using various methods to measure DNA and protein content as well as the hydrodynamic diameter of virus particles. Our results indicate that the performance of Viresolve® Pro filters can be significantly impacted depending on the purity of the virus preparations used in the spike and recovery studies. More importantly, we have demonstrated that the purity of virus preparations is directly correlated to the measurable biochemical and biophysical properties of the virus preparations such as DNA and protein content and monodispersal status, thus making it possible to significantly improve the consistency and predictability of the virus filter performance during process step validations. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the virus-removal capacity of nanofiltration was assessed using validated laboratory scale models on a wide range of viruses (pseudorabies virus; human immunodeficiency virus; bovine viral diarrhea virus; West Nile virus; hepatitis A virus; murine encephalomyocarditis virus; and porcine parvovirus) with sizes from 18 nm to 200 nm and applying the different process conditions existing in a number of Grifols' plasma-derived manufacturing processes (thrombin, α1-proteinase inhibitor, Factor IX, antithrombin, plasmin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and fibrinogen). Spiking experiments (n = 133) were performed in process intermediate products, and removal was subsequently determined by infectivity titration. Reduction Factor (RF) was calculated by comparing the virus load before and after nanofiltration under each product purification condition. In all experiments, the RFs were close to or greater than 4 log10 (>99.99% of virus elimination). RF values were not significantly affected by the process conditions within the limits assayed (pH, ionic strength, temperature, filtration ratio, and protein concentration). The virus-removal capacity of nanofiltration correlated only with the size of the removed agent. In conclusion, nanofiltration, as used in the manufacturing of several Grifols' products, is consistent, robust, and not significantly affected by process conditions.
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