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Physiological Aspects of Male Libido Enhanced by Standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract and Mineral Formulation

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Abstract

The aim of the clinical study was to evaluate the effect of Testofen, a standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract and mineral formulation, on male libido (sexual drive, urge or desire) in a double blind randomized placebo controlled study. The study recruited 60 healthy males aged between 25 and 52, without erectile dysfunction and randomized to an oral dose (two tablets per day) of the active treatment (600 mg Testofen per day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the DISF-SR (male) self-administered QOL total score and the four domain scores. The secondary outcome was specific quality of life parameters. Testofen had an overall positive effect on physiological aspects of libido. In particular, there was a significant increase in the subdomains of sexual arousal and orgasm. Testofen had a positive effect on QOL in self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy and well-being but did not have an effect on mood or sleep. Serum prolactin and testosterone levels remained within the reference range. It was concluded that Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Previous studies have suggested that Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract has positive effects on sexual health and quality of life, and that it demonstrates anabolic and androgenic activity in young patients [8]. It is believed that these positive effects are due to increased testosterone, and that Trigonella f oenumgraecum seed extract can be an effective treatment for the TDS in aging men. ...
... Our results are supported by those of two previous studies. One study focused on younger men using the same Trigonella f oenum-graecum seed extract, which was found to have a positive effect on sexual function in men experiencing low libido [8]. In the other study, Rao found that Testofen, a specialized Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract, reduced age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increased testosterone levels, and improved sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomized clinical study [9]. ...
... An animal study by Hamden et al [25] found that daily oral treatment of fenugreek steroids to diabetic rats over 30 days induced a considerable increase in testosterone in the plasma of the rats. However, a clinical study by Steels et al [8] and an animal study using male albino rats conducted by Aswar et al [26] did not reveal significant changes in testosterone levels. ...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of a mixed extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed and Lespedeza cuneata (TFGL) for the treatment of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Materials and methods: Patients were instructed to take a placebo or 200 mg TFGL capsule twice per day for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline in the Aging Males' Symptoms scale (AMS), as well as levels of serum total and free testosterone. Secondary efficacy measurements included changes from baseline in the number of 'yes' answers on the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire, levels of serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, all domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), perceived stress scale-10 (PSS-10), as well as changes in body composition. Results: The TFGL group exhibited a significant improvement in the AMS scores at 8 weeks, total testosterone at 8 weeks, and free testosterone at 4 and 8 weeks. At 4 weeks, 25% of the TFGL group changed to negative in terms of ADAM scores and 34.1% of the TFGL group had negative scores at the end of the study. The TFGL group exhibited a significant improvement in total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, IIEF scores, and PSS-10 scores at 8 weeks. Conclusions: The mixed extract of TFGL resulted in significant improvements in symptoms of TDS, as measured by the AMS, ADAM, PSS-10 and testosterone levels.
... Duration (weeks) Phytotherapic, dose (mg/d) Total Testosterone (ng/dL) pre → post (Gonzales et al., 2002) 56, healthy middle-age 12 Gelatinized maca, 1500-3000 ↔ (Udani et al., 2014) 26, middle-age with total testosterone < 450 ng/dL 12 Water extract of Long Jack, 300 359 → 396 (↑37) (Ismail et al., 2012) 54, middle-age health 12 Water extract of Long Jack, 300 ↔ (Henkel et al., 2014) 13, elderly 5 Water extract of Long Jack, 400 384 → 442 (↑58) (Tambi et al., 2012) 76, late-onset hypogonadism 4 Water extract of Long Jack, 200 163 → 240 (↑77) (Shukla et al., 2009) 75, oligozoospermia 12 Mucuna seed powder, 5000 389 → 540 (↑151) 75, oligozoospermia 12 Ashwagandha root powder, 5000 351 → 494 (↑143) (Ambiye et al., 2013) 21, oligozoospermia 12 Root extract of ashwagandha, 2100 445 → 522 (↑77) (Maheshwari et al., 2017) 50, healthy 12 Fenugreek seed extract, 500 ↔ (Steels et al., 2011) 27, healthy 6 ...
... The use of some herbal medicines may increase libido as evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials supports this potential. Increased libido, in both men and women, is likely results from increased levels of serum T (Akhtari et al., 2014;Rao et al., 2015;Sansalone et al., 2014;Steels et al., 2011;Udani et al., 2014). One systematic review proposed that maca may effectively increase libido (Shin et al., 2010). ...
... In a study healthy men by Steels et al., using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, those who received 600 mg/d fenugreek for six weeks, reported increased libido compared to the placebo group, although no increases in serum T were detected (Steels et al., 2011). The use of fenugreek may also be promising to increase sexual arousal in women with decreased libido. ...
Article
Ethno-pharmacological relevance: Phytotherapeutic approaches have been widely proposed to improve male health. Despite the well-touted effects of tribulus (Tribulus terrestris L) on men's health, an optimal phytotherapy remains an elusive challenge. Aim of the review: We sought to critically analyze the evidence in the phytotherapic literature beyond the effects of tribulus on testosterone (T) concentration and sperm analysis to also include indications for prostate health. Materials and methods: A focused literature search was conducted to include studies published in Cochrane, Pubmed, and Web of Science databases between the years 2002 and 2018. Results: The use of tribulus and maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, Brassicaceae) were not scientifically supported to improve serum T levels in men. Moderate evidence supports the use of long Jack (Eurycoma longifolia Jack, Simaroubaceae), mucuna (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., Fabaceae), ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Solanaceae), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Fabaceae), and black seeds (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae) to increase total T and improve seminal parameters. Data suggests an increase in total T with the use of 5000 mg/d of powdered mucuna seed and ashwagandha root (151 and 143 ng/dL, respectively) over a 12-week period in patients with oligozoospermia. The use of mucuna was supported for patients with oligozoospermia to improve sperm parameters, with an increase of 83.3 million/mL observed after use of 5000 mg/d of powdered mucuna seed over a 12-week period. Evidence supporting the use of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, (W.Bartram) Small, Arecaceae) to improve prostate health remains equivocal; whereas, evidence supporting the use of Pygeum africanum Hook.f., Rosaceae, Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae, beta-sitosterols, pollen extract, onion, garlic, and tomato, appears favorable and promising. Conclusion: Scientific evidence supports the use of mucuna and ashwagandha as phytotherapics for improving serum T concentrations and semen parameters. Despite inconclusive evidence for use of tribulus as a T booster, it may provide advantageous effects on sperm parameters in men with idiopathic infertility. Nutraceutical strategies and some phytotherapics may also be effective to promote prostate health. Popular foodstuffs (onion, garlic, and tomato), nutraceutical agents (pollen extract and beta-sitosterols), and herbal medicines (Pygeum africanum and Urtica dioica) are rational approaches.
... The furostanol saponin glycosides (FG), a major constituents from fenugreek seed, demonstrated excellent potential as a food supplement due to its biological activities [20,[25][26][27][28]. The efficacy of FG-based standardized fenugreek seeds extract (Fenu-FG) as an androgenic and anabolic supplementation in male rats [20] and human subjects [25] has been reported earlier. ...
... The efficacy of FG-based standardized fenugreek seeds extract (Fenu-FG) as an androgenic and anabolic supplementation in male rats [20] and human subjects [25] has been reported earlier. Furthermore, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies confirmed libido enhancement properties of Fenu-FG in young and aging males [26,27] and menstruating female subjects [28] with good safety profile. Considering applications of Fenu-FG as a food supplement in female subjects, evaluation of reproductive safety profile of Fenu-FG supplementation in females, especially during prenatal exposure with well-accepted international guidelines is needed. ...
... Considering NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg in pregnant female rats, HED is approximately 9.7 g considering (considering the average human weight of 60 kg). The HED value of 9.7 g per day is much higher than effective efficacy dose of Fenu-FG (600 mg per day) in male volunteers [25,27]. This safety information during a gestational period in pregnant female rats will form an important basis for the clinical development as a safe food supplement or botanical agent for female specific applications. ...
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p> Objective : To evaluate prenatal safety of furostanol saponin glycoside based standardized fenugreek seed extract (Fenu-FG) on pregnant female Wistar rats on embryo–fetal development organogenesis period in accordance with OECD guideline (No. 414). Methods : Fenu-FG was administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day over the exposure period of gestational days 5–19. The vehicle control (VC) group was also maintained. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20 and the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Results: There was no significant difference found during maternal examination (body weights, food consumption, numbers of pregnant and non-pregnant female rats) or reproductive parameters (gravid uterus weights, litter size and weights, number of fetuses, sex ratio (male/female numbers of implantations and resorption, number of implantation per female, pre-and post-implantation loss (%), dead and live fetuses (%), numbers and weights of corpora lutea) in Fenu-FG-treated as compared to VC group. Furthermore, the few incidental and non-significant malformations were observed in Fenu-FG-treated as well as VC group during external, visceral or skeletal examinations. Conclusion: The prenatal oral exposure of Fenu-FG during organogenesis period to pregnant female rats was devoid of maternal or developmental (fetotoxicity or teratogenicity) with "No Observed Adverse Effect Level” (NOAEL) greater than 1000 mg/kg.</p
... Fenugreek, a kitchen spice generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by US Food and Drug Administration, is a popular medicinal herb possessing a wide range of applications in various traditional systems of medicine (Nathiya et al., 2014;Yadav and Baquer, 2014). Modern scientific research has identified it as a rich source of steroidal saponins, an alkaloid 'trigonellin' and a non-proteinogenic amino acid '4-hydroxyisoleucine' having the ability to bind to the estrogen receptors to mediate estrogenic and androgenic effects (Sreeja and Anju, 2010;Steels et al., 2011;Nathiya et al., 2014). Fenugreek seeds were clinically evaluated for premenopausal and postmenopausal discomforts (Hakimi et al., 2005;Hakimi et al., 2006;Abedinzade et al., 2015). ...
... Many preclinical studies have demonstrated the safety and health beneficial pharmacological effects of fenugreek seeds, most importantly the hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, gastroprotective and phytoestrogenic properties (Sreeja and Anju, 2010;Nathiya et al., 2014;Yadav and Baquer, 2014). Human clinical trials have also been reported on its beneficial effects in the management of primary dysmenorrhoea (Younesy et al., 2014), hot flashes and related menopausal discomforts (Hakimi et al., 2005;Hakimi et al., 2006;Abedinzade et al., 2015), breast milk-enhancing effects (galactogogue) (Reeder et al., 2013), libido enhancement (Rao et al., 2015) and for aphrodisiac effects (Steels et al., 2011). ...
Article
Despite the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy, various reports on its side effects have generated an increasing interest in the development of safe natural agents for the management of postmenopausal discomforts. The present randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study investigated the effect of 90-day supplementation of a standardized extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) (FenuSMART™), at a dose of 1000 mg/day, on plasma estrogens and postmenopausal discomforts. Eighty-eight women having moderate to severe postmenopausal discomforts and poor quality of life (as evidenced from the scores of Greene Climacteric Scale, short form SF-36® and structured medical interview) were randomized either to extract-treated (n = 44) or placebo (n = 44) groups. There was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in plasma estradiol (120%) and improvements on various postmenopausal discomforts and quality of life of the participants in the extract-treated group, as compared with the baseline and placebo. While 32% of the subjects in the extract group reported no hot flashes after supplementation, the others had a reduction to one to two times per day from the baseline stages of three to five times a day. Further analysis of haematological and biochemical parameters revealed the safety of the extract and its plausible role in the management of lipid profile among menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... studied for its beneficial effects on male physiology, specifically sexual function and symptoms of androgen decline in older males. 13,14 Based on these studies, it is thought that the mechanism of action of Testofen ® may be its ability to increase the release of free testosterone from sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). ...
... While testosterone concentration increased in the 600 mg group, oestradiol remained unchanged, consistent with previous studies on Testofen ® at this dose. [13][14]16 In the 300 mg and placebo groups, testosterone remained unchanged which is also consistent with other studies conducted in similar populations on resistance training alone, where changes in muscle mass and strength have been seen without changes in serum testosterone levels. 18,19 Determination of localized changes in sex hormones and androgen receptor changes would have further improved this study, however, muscle biopsies were beyond the scope of this research. ...
Article
This study aimed to examine changes in muscular strength and endurance, body composition, functional threshold power and sex hormones in response to an 8‐week calisthenic program with daily supplementation with Testofen® (extract of Fenugreek) or a placebo. A double‐blind, randomised, placebo‐controlled trial over 8‐weeks. 138 male participants (25‐47yrs) were enrolled and randomised to 3 equal groups: 600 mg Testofen®/day, 300 mg Testofen® /day or placebo. Muscle strength and endurance, functional threshold power, body composition and sex hormones were measured at baseline, week 4 and 8. Participants completed a whole body calisthenic program 3 times a week. All groups improved their maximal leg press from baseline to 8 weeks, however, both Testofen® treated groups improved more than placebo (p < 0.05). The 600 mg group showed decreases in body mass of 1.2 kg, ‐1.4 % body fat and an increase in lean mass (1.8 %) from baseline to 8 weeks. The 600 mg group demonstrated an increase in testosterone concentration from baseline to 8 weeks. This study indicates that Testofen® may be an effective ergogenic aid for individuals wanting to rapidly improve their exercise performance capabilities and body composition above and beyond that of calisthenic exercise alone.
... However, the present study revealed reproducible results of the use of resveratrol and L-citrulline for ED patients with PDE5i. A previous study using testofen at 600 mg/d reported significant improvements in sexual cognition, arousal, and behavior, and in orgasm in healthy aging males and also showed that sexual satisfaction was associated with better quality of life [16]. However, in another previous study also using testofen at the same dose, there were no changes in sexual cognition, sexual behavior, or orgasm in healthy aging males [7]. ...
... The safety of testofen was assessed by oral toxicity studies using acute (2,500 mg/kg for 14 days) and subchronic (1,000 mg/kg for 90 days) administration [26]. Previous studies reported that testofen administered at a dose of 600 mg/d is safe and effective in healthy aging males [7,16]. Thus, we used 600 mg of testofen in the supplement drink. ...
Article
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Purpose: Sexuality is very important for men's health. Currently, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) remain the first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction, and no other oral drugs or drinks are approved and used clinically to treat male libido or orgasm dysfunction. In reference to a pharmaceutical dosage document, growing health consciousness is said to have boosted yearly sales of supplement drinks to more than 170 billion yen (1.58 billion US dollars) in Japan. We have created a supplement drink comprised of testofen, L-citrulline, resveratrol, and caffeine. We hypothesized that our supplement drink would be effective for men with sexual dysfunction, and especially libido dysfunction. Materials and methods: In this study, men with sexual dysfunction received a placebo drink for 14 days or our supplement drink (testofen, 600 mg/d; L-citrulline, 800 mg/d; resveratrol, 300 mg/d; and caffeine, 40 mg/d) for another 14 days separated by a 7-day washout period. Patients continued on-demand use of PDE5i. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score and adverse events were assessed. Results: Twenty patients aged 30-47 years old were enrolled in and concluded the study with no adverse events experienced. The IIEF domains of desire frequency, erection frequency, erection firmness, erection confidence, intercourse satisfaction, ejaculation frequency, orgasm frequency, and overall satisfaction were significantly improved with our supplement drink. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that our supplement drink may not only be effective for erection but also for libido, orgasm, and ejaculation.
... Recently, clinical studies also documented the effect of a specialized fenugreek seed extract (e.g., Testofen) on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function, and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males (237)(238)(239)(240). Supplementation of the extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks improved the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire, a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; sexual function; and increased both total serum testosterone and free testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men (237). ...
... Recently, clinical studies also documented the effect of a specialized fenugreek seed extract (e.g., Testofen) on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function, and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males (237)(238)(239)(240). Supplementation of the extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks improved the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire, a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; sexual function; and increased both total serum testosterone and free testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men (237). Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels (239). A protodioscin-enriched fenugreek seed extract (500 mg/day) increased serum-free testosterone levels up to 46% as well as sperm counts, and it improved mental alertness, mood, and libido in the male study population (238). ...
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Spices and herbs have been in use for centuries both for culinary and medicinal purposes. Spices not only enhance the flavor, aroma, and color of food and beverages, but they can also protect from acute and chronic diseases. More Americans are considering the use of spices and herbs for medicinal and therapeutic/remedy use, especially for various chronic conditions. There is now ample evidence that spices and herbs possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumorigenic, anticarcinogenic, and glucose- and cholesterol-lowering activities as well as properties that affect cognition and mood. Research over the past decade has reported on the diverse range of health properties that they possess via their bioactive constituents, including sulfur-containing compounds, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic diterpenes, and vitamins, especially flavonoids and polyphenols. Spices and herbs such as clove, rosemary, sage, oregano, and cinnamon are excellent sources of antioxidants with their high content of phenolic compounds. It is evident that frequent consumption of spicy foods was also linked to a lower risk of death from cancer and ischemic heart and respiratory system diseases. However, the actual role of spices and herbs in the maintenance of health, specifically with regards to protecting against the development of chronic, noncommunicable diseases, is currently unclear. This review highlights potential health benefits of commonly used spices and herbs such as chili pepper, cinnamon, ginger, black pepper, turmeric, fenugreek, rosemary, and garlic.
... [29] Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) Significantly increased the sexual arousal in men and orgasm domain. [30] Gingko biloba L. Ginkgo biloba extract has been suggested to have positive effects on erectile dysfunction. [31] Ginseng (Panax Ginseng or Korean Ginseng) More effective than placebo in treating erectile dysfunction. ...
... In a study conducted by Steels et al., it has also been shown to significantly elevate the sexual arousal in men and orgasm domain. In the same study, serum testosterone and prolactin levels were measured, showing to be normal [30]. ...
Article
Background: Sexual dysfunction and infertility are conditions with high prevalence in general population. Nutritional factors have been reported to have impact in sexual and reproductive health. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the data on nutritional factors that have influence in male and female sexual and reproductive function, including nutritional status, specific foods (e.g. dairy food), nutrients and other food components and dietary supplements. Method: A literature search was performed using Cochrane Library, Medline and ScienceDirect databases without time limitations. Results: Obesity has a negative influence in male fertility, and weight loss improves male fertility. Food insufficiency is associated with increased sexual risk behaviours, more significant in women. Regarding to macronutrients and group foods, trans-fatty acids, high glycemic index food, high carbohydrate diet and high animal protein intake prejudices fertility; omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, low glycemic index food and low carbohydrate diet, vegetable proteins and antioxidants improves fertility. Isoflavones has a negative impact on men fertility and improves sexual health of menopausal women. Whole milk improves women fertility, but men benefit from skim milk. Concerning to dietary supplements there is weak evidence sustaining efficacy, and the most promising supplements are yohimbine, vitamin B, L-arginine and vitamin D. Conclusion: The compiled results indicate that despite the multifactorial etiology of sexual/reproductive dysfunction, nutritional factors may affect the sexual and reproductive health in both men and women. However, it is necessary further studies to clarify this association, and simultaneously improve the approach and treatment of patients with sexual and/or reproductive problems.
... It is also reported that perineal wash with seeds decoction significantly reduced vaginal discharge and vulval itching (Thilagavathy, 2016) [84] . Fenugreek seed has potential in balancing hormones to support libido in male (Steels et al., 2011) [85] . Seeds extract improves the level of total serum testosterone and sexual function in aging men (El-Masry et al., 2018; Rao et al., 2016) [66,86] . ...
... It is also reported that perineal wash with seeds decoction significantly reduced vaginal discharge and vulval itching (Thilagavathy, 2016) [84] . Fenugreek seed has potential in balancing hormones to support libido in male (Steels et al., 2011) [85] . Seeds extract improves the level of total serum testosterone and sexual function in aging men (El-Masry et al., 2018; Rao et al., 2016) [66,86] . ...
Article
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The leaves and seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L), an annual herb, are common condiments used in India, Mediterranean and North African regions. Fenugreek has a long history of its use in traditional medicine. It is one of the oldest medicinal plants used in traditional medicine that contains many natural chemical compounds like trigonellin, diosgenin, quercetin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, galactomannan, and scopoletin. Several studies on identification of different chemical compounds present in fenugreek and their therapeutic effects have revealed its hypocholesterolemic, antidepressant, galactagogues, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective properties suggesting their potential use in prevention and treatment of many diseases in human and animals. This article summarizes recent research findings regarding the therapeutic potential and safety profile of fenugreek.
... Besides, the plant also contains choline, coumarins (trigocoumarin, trimethyl coumarin, and scopoletin), fenugreekine, nicotinic acid, phytic acid, gentianine, apigenin, luteolin, orientin, quercetin, vitexin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, and furostanol saponins, also called as trigoneoside (Tejaswini et al., 2012). Diosgenin is supposed to be the precursor of many sex hormones (Steels et al., 2011). The structures of various chemical compounds isolated from fenugreek are well shown in Table 3. ...
... The plant exhibits pronounced efficacy in maintaining reproductive health because the compound Diaszhenin found in Trigonella seeds has been reported to be used in the formulation of contraceptive pills (Bahmani et al., 2016). Steels et al. (2011) carried out a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study on 60 healthy males to evaluate the effect of Testofen (standardized fenugreek extract and mineral formulation) on male libido. The candidates were orally supplemented with 2 tables (consisting of 600 mg Testofen) per day. ...
Article
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Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) belonging to the family Fabaceae, is widely used for both culinary as well as clinical purposes since antiquity. Folkloric medicines across globe particularly use this plant for boosting immunity and combating digestive and reproductive impairments. The plant is rich reservoir of different phytoconstituents attributed to their diverse pharmacological effects. Therefore, the present article is planned on its ethnomedicinal uses, botanical description, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, clinical efficacy, mechanism of action and nanoparticle synthesis. In all pharmacological studies, the dose, major bioactive, type of extract and possible outcomes is also discussed, to establish its specific role against a particular ailment. It was hypothesized that the nanoparticle synthesis will lead to the enhanced pharmacology. Results showed that ethnomedicinal data well supports the different pharmacological aspects of Trigonella formulations in different countries. Trigonelline (phytoestrogen) renders most of therapeutic potential of Trigonella. The reported therapeutics can also be accounted as the synergistic pharmacology of different bioactives. Nanoparticle synthesis significantly improves its pharmacological efficacy. Clinical studies well validated its antidiabetic and reproductive health improving efficacies. Though no serious toxic effects were observed with the use of this plant but further well-designed placebo trials are still needed to demonstrate its full therapeutic potential.
... Saponins are likely to be responsible for physiological effects. [31] Magnolia bark extract, Isoflavones (soy) plus Lactobacillus sporogenes, associated or not with a natural anxiolytic agent (calcium and vitamin D3) F (634) ↑ Estrogen levels. Isoflavones present in soy are phytoestrogens, with affinity to connect to the beta-estrogen receptor. ...
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The libido is considered to be a sexual drive in individuals that can be determined and influenced by several factors, such as social, psychological, and hormonal factors. It is known that nutritional aspects are important hormone regulators and that sexual dysfunction may, in many cases, be reversed with simple lifestyle changes. The aim of the study is to describe the actions of herbal medicine on the libido with an appropriate level of scientific evidence. A systematic review of the PUBMED, Scielo, and EMBASE databases was conducted, using the keywords “libido, food, and nutrient.” This study identified 2798 articles, 34 of which were selected, as they discussed exclusive studies involving herbal medicine. Some herbal medicines stood out, including Tribulus terrestris, used to increase testosterone serum levels; Eurycoma longifólia, which, in addition to the increased testosterone serum levels, also leads to an increased biosynthesis of several androgens; ginseng, which increases energy levels and stimulates smooth muscle relaxation with nitrous oxide; Maca (Lepidium meyenii), which improves sexual performance, in addition to having androgenic effects; and Mondia whitei (ginger), which improves the libido and erection. In addition to these, one study has demonstrated the effective impact of a hypocaloric, hyperproteic, and hypolipidemic diet on the libido, both improving sexual and erectile functions and increasing testosterone levels. Herbal medicine analyzed in this study demonstrate positive effects on the libido, thus proving that, along with nutritional intervention, it is also a promising field in nutrition actions that provide support to combat sexual dysfunctions.
... Foenum Graecum had a positive effect on quality of life (QoL) in selfreported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy, and well-being but did not have effect on mood or sleep or hormones investigated (Steels, Rao, & Vitetta, 2011). Respect to western-style medication for ED, characterized by a single agent, which action results in a quick response, herbal medicine leads to a slower response and often involves a mixture of supplemental facts, each one targeting a specific mechanism involved in erection and libido (Sansone, Jannini, & Romanelli, 2017). ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nutraceuticals containing multiple supplemental facts (Virherbe®/Rekupros®) on sexual satisfaction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in young–old men. In an open-label trial, 40 males (mean age 66 ± 13) with sexual disturbances and mild LUTS but without cognitive/motor impairment and clinical hypogonadism were enrolled. Sexual desire (SD; IIEF-SD domain) and satisfaction (Global Assessment Question; GAQ), the capacity to perform daily activities (evaluated by 6-min walking test [6MWT]), and International Prostate Symptoms Scores (IPSS) were evaluated before and after oral administration of 2 capsules/day of each supplement for 8 weeks. The difference from baseline for SD was +2.6 (p < .05) and −4.2 points for IPSS (p < .05), with significance in subscales of urinary streaming/nocturia (p < .01), respectively; 6MWT increased from 507 ± 44 versus 527 ± 58 meters (p < .001). GAQ scale-responses showed overall improvement in overall 75% population, with a significant improvement in QoL (p < .01). These changes returned to baseline at 1-month withdrawal follow-up. No adverse events were reported. These supplemental facts improved sexual desire, satisfaction with sex life, physical performance, and LUTS in young–old men, suggesting that they may be effective in patients in whom standard treatments are not suitable.
... In a single-blind trial, 20 healthy men treated with an aqueous extract minimal side effects were observed (feeling of hunger, dizziness and frequency of micturition; Abdel- Barry et al., 1997). A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled 6-week trial in 60 healthy adult males showed no adverse side effects using a standardized fenugreek extract, except for three individuals that complained about slight stomach discomfort after taking the extract in the absence of food (Steels et al., 2011). In another double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled three-period cross-over trial, 25 healthy male individuals were supplemented with fenugreek for three 14-day treatment period with a 14-day washout period, only few side effects were described (abdominal pain and urine smell; Chevassus et al., 2009). ...
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Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment. Despite the popularity and the potential of medicinal plants for the treatment of cancer, scientific evidence on their anticancer effects are still scarce for most of the described plants. Objective: Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the aim of this review is to give an overview of studies, namely ethnobotanical surveys and experimental evidence of anticancer effects regarding medicinal plants used in North Africa for cancer therapy. Method: The research was conducted on several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The research focused primarily on English written papers published between the years 2000 and 2016. Results: This review on plants traditionally used by herbalists in North Africa highlights that Morocco and Algeria are the countries with most surveys on the use of medicinal plants in folk medicine. Among the plethora of plants used, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum are the most referred ones by herbalists for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, a plethora of scientific evidence qualifies them as candidates for further drug development. Furthermore, we report on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Conclusion: Overall, this review highlights the therapeutic potential of some medicinal plants as anticancer agents. The North African flora offers a rich source of medicinal plants for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. The elucidation of their modes of action represents an indispensable condition for the rational development of new drugs for cancer treatment. Furthermore, testing the anticancer activity in vivo and in clinical trials are warranted to explore the full therapeutic potential of North African plants for cancer therapy.
... The global prevalence of testosterone deficiency ranges from 10-40% and this prevalence increases with age, ranging from 12% among men in their 50s to 49% among those in 80s and older. Between the ages of 40-70 years, the prevalence of hypogonadism is 52% [2]. [4]. ...
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A multicentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted using the novel combination of Fenfugreek seeds extract and curculigo orchiodes extract to determine their efficacy on Testosterone levels. This being an exploratory study, it was planned to enroll 60 subjects in the study, 30 in each of the two treatment arms in a randomized fashion.
... Similarly, in the case of effects of diet supplements on serum testosterone level, a reduction noted after Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract consumption in mean level of testosterone level were in order of 0.5 nmol/litre (14.8 nmol/ litre pre-intervention vs 14.3 nmol/liter post-intervention) [20]. Herein, an enhanced order of increased level could be obtained as acute effects of heavy-resistance training [21], but AS level elevations are rather transient. ...
Article
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Anabolic steroids (AS) have been a subject of intensive research for the last several decades. Due to wide use of AS in pharmacological treatment and in professional and amateur sport, it is, hence, worthwhile to describe the biochemical mechanism of the effects of AS usage in humans and its potential health risks. In this work, the relationship between diet and its effect on the level of testosterone in blood is described. Testosterone affects the nervous system, however, there is need for further researches to examine the influence of AS therapy on emotional and cognitive functioning. AS therapy has known negative effects on the cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy can occur, blood pressure can vastly increased, thrombotic complications can come about. These effects are observed not only in patients who are treated with AS, but also in athletes. The paper also describes the relationship between AS and reproductive system diseases. Decreased libido and erectile dysfunction are only some of the many side effects of an incorrect AS treatment.
... Testofen TM promoted positive effects on male libido and maintained normal testosterone levels. Also, fenugreek extract enhanced the physiological aspects of libido and improved the overall quality of life [154]. ...
Article
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Plant-derived natural products have long-standing utility towards treating degenerative diseases. It is estimated that about two-third of world population depend on traditional medicine for primary medical needs. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.), a short-living annual medicinal plant belonging to Fabaceae family, is used extensively in various parts of the world as herb, food, spice and traditional medicine. Fenugreek is considered as one of the oldest medicinal plants and its health-promoting effects have been cited in Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine. The investigations into the chemical composition and pharmacological actions have seen a renaissance in recent years. Extensive preclinical and clinical research have outlined the pharmaceutical uses of fenugreek as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antiobesity, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, galactogogue and for miscellaneous pharmacological effects, including improving women's health. The pharmacological actions of fenugreek are attributed to diverse array of phytoconstituents. The phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids, lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids and hydrocarbons. This review aims to summarize and critically analyze the current available literature to understand the potential of fenugreek for disease prevention and health improvement with special emphasis on cellular and molecular mechanisms. Current challenges and new directions of research on fenugreek are also discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Because the subject population of this study consisted of young college-aged males (21.4 ± 2.95) it may be beneficial to conduct a follow-up study utilizing older men. Another study found that a fenugreek formulation improved certain aspects of libido and quality of life in a sample of healthy men [104]. Potential mechanisms explaining an increase in testosterone due to fenugreek supplementation are currently unknown and may be explained to a greater extent providing future research is conducted in this area. ...
Article
Low circulating testosterone levels can present numerous problems related to the overall health and well-being of individuals, men in particular. This finding is well-documented in the literature and low testosterone appears more prevalent in older men, in particular those who are physically inactive and who present with elevated levels of body fat. Multiple botanical (herbal) products have been claimed to elevate circulating testosterone in men; however, data pertaining to the use of such herbal preparations obtained from human clinical trials are limited. This review examines the research to date pertaining to the use of herbal ingredients with regards to their ability to elevate blood testosterone levels. A collective summary of the findings indicate that certain herbal supplements may actually yield an increase in testosterone (e.g., Longjack root), while most others have little to no evidence in support of their use in human subjects. Additional, well-controlled clinical trials are needed to generate data relative to the use of herbal dietary supplements to increase circulating testosterone.
... In another trial, one case of abdominal pain was reported in a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial in healthy volunteers administered with fenugreek seed extract at 1.176 g/day for three 14-day periods separated by 14-day washouts (Chevassus et al., 2009). Recently, a six-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 60 healthy adult males to evaluate the effect of Testofen, a standardized fenugreek extract, on male libido showed that three of the participants reported a slight stomach discomfort when taking it in the absence of food (Steels et al., 2011). ...
Article
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), used as traditional medicine and natural additive food, has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antidiabetic, antianorexic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, antihyperlipidemic, galactogogue and anti-inflammatory effects in several human and animal models. Besides, several medicinal pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties, fenugreek have toxic effects as well. The aim of this review is discuss the cumulative evidence, which suggests that consumption of fenugreek induced some serious toxicological side effects. In this review, many teratogenic effects of fenugreek, from congenital malformations to death, were reported in human, rodent, rabbit, and chick. Moreover, results obtained in rats, mice and rabbits show a testicular toxicity and anti-fertility effects in male associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as anti-fertility, anti-implantation and abortifacient activity in females related to saponin compound of fenugreek which suggest that fenugreek is not recommended for use during pregnancy. Indeed, the consumption of fenugreek should be avoided for persons having peanut and chickpeas allergy because of possible cross-reactivity as well as chronic asthma. Accumulating evidence suggest also that fenugreek may have neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral and neuropathological side effects. It is suggested that future studies would be conducted to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the fenugreek toxicological properties.
... A 6-week clinical trial involving 60 healthy man aged between 25 and 52 years old indicated that standardized fenugreek seeds extract can enhance male's sexual desire, improve sexual life quality, and regulate orchidic hormone and lactogen level (Steels, Rao, and Vitetta 2011). A research with 80 healthy women aged between 20 and 49 years old found that the fenugreek standardize extract (33:1) may raise the level of free testosterone and estradiol and also increase sexual desire and excitement . ...
Article
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Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is one of the oldest applied medicinal herbs. Significant pharmacological and clinical evidence have highlighted the medicinal application of fenugreek. Explore the current knowledge regarding the bioactivity (animal aspects) and clinical application of fenugreek and its bioactive components, as well as the products, markets and patents related to fenugreek. This review highlights the phytochemicals, bioactivity (animal aspects) and clinical application of fenugreek from recent literatures and products, markets and patents from database. Until now, more than 100 phytochemicals have been isolated from fenugreek seeds, mainly including polysaccharides, saponins, alkaloids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Fenugreek extract and its bioactive compounds showed excellent antidiabetic activity and anti-obesity activity in animal and human study. Although the fenugreek seed has been used as TCM raw materials for a long time of period in China, China is lacking the research of fenugreek in both depth and width.
... Fenugreek fiber in a breakfast meal increased feeling of fullness and reduced hunger, as well as reduced energy intake at lunch in 18 healthy obese subjects Handa et al., 2005;Mathern et al., 2009;Chevassus et al., 2010 Exercise and physical performance-fenugreek extract may have beneficial effects on endurance capacity by increasing fatty acid utilization and by sparing glycogen Ruby et al., 2005;Ikeuchi et al., 2006;Slivka et al., 2008 Sexual Health-Fenugreek seed extract has demonstrated hormone modulatory activity, providing biological plausibility for relieving menopausal symptoms; extract-treated group has a significant increase in plasma estradiol; fenugreek extract supplementation resulted in a significant increase in blood free testosterone and E2 levels as well as sexual desire and arousal, compared with the placebo. For healthy middle-aged and older men, supplementation of the extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks improved the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms, sexual function, as well as increased both total serum testosterone and free testosterone Wilborn et al., 2010;Steels et al., 2011;Rao et al., 2015;Rao et al., 2016;Shamshad Begum et al., 2016;Maheshwari et al., 2017;Steels et al., 2017 Anti-cancer agent ...
Article
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Culinary spices and herbs have been used in food and beverages to enhance aroma, flavor, and color. They are rich in phytochemicals that provide significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. There is growing interest in identifying compounds from spices and herbs responsible for modulating oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This contribution will provide an overview of culinary spices and herbs, their classification, their sources or origins and more importantly, their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and their impacts on human health based on important and recent studies.
... The prevalence of testosterone deficiency in Europe was significantly lower than in the US, ranging from 8-20%. In Asia, the prevalence is estimated to be only 10% which is comparatively much lesser than the other parts of the world [2]. ...
Experiment Findings
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A Multicentric Randomized double blind placebo controlled comparative study to evaluate the effect of Nutraceutical/Health Supplement 'FUROSAP PLUS' as Testosterone Booster.
... The global prevalence of testosterone deficiency ranges from 10-40% and this prevalence increases with age, ranging from 12% among men in their 50s to 49% among those in 80s and older. Between the ages of 40-70 years, the prevalence of hypogonadism is 52% [2]. [4]. ...
Article
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Background: Hypogonadism in men is a disease, which involves serious impact on the quality of life of a person due to the inability of testes in men to function properly. This inability of testes results in decreased circulating levels of testosterone in blood. The Nutraceutical/Health supplement FUROSAP PLUS has been examined for its effectiveness in testosterone deficient subjects. It has been chosen because of its components extracted from herb known as Trigonella Foenum-Graecum, which is also known as Fenugreek and Black Musli Extract (Curculigo Orchioides), a very potent ayurvedic aphrodisiac herb. Protodioscin helps to boost the testosterone levels via stimulating pituitary gland and improves the medical state of patients suffering from hypogonadism or testosterone deficiency. Method: A multicentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted using the novel combination of Fenfugreek seeds extract and curculigo orchiodes extract to determine their efficacy on Testosterone levels. This being an exploratory study, it was planned to enroll 60 subjects in the study, 30 in each of the two treatment arms in a randomized fashion. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ‘FUROSAP PLUS’ on Testosterone Levels. Result: The results showed improvement in serum testosterone levels from baseline to end of therapy. Improvement in sexual wellness as assessed by International Index for Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF) from baseline to end of therapy was also noticed. There was no significant change in liver function tests, renal function tests and hematological parameters, suggesting the investigational product was safe for human consumption.
... 13,14 Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract has beneficial effects on reproductive hormones; it has androgenic and anabolic activity in patients. 15 This activity may be related to the fact that this extract contains soluble glycosides (furostanol), which are responsible for increasing testosterone level and complexation of cholesterol in the cell membrane. 16,17 Other studies have found that Trigonella foenum-graecum increases sperm viability and decreases the abnormality in sperm shape. ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia over a prolonged period, since a long time, diabetes has been treated with plant medicines, one of these important plant is Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek), thus, the investigation goals of this study to clarify the role of fenugreek seed aqueous extract in its therapeutic dose on blood glucose , triglycerides, total cholesterol, lower density lipoprotein( LDL), higher density lipoprotein (HDL),very lower density lipoprotein( VLDL), liver and kidney function by estimating alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Blood Urea and serum creatinine, also to clarify the role in treatment of infertility by estimating Lutilising hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ), testosterone hormone level, sperm count, motility and viability in Stereptozotocin induced diabetes rat for 4-weeks of treatment , 60 adult male albino rats were divided into 4-groups (15 rat for each group), control (normal rats received normal saline), diabetic rats without treatment ,diabetic rats were treated with 300 mg /kg of methanolic plant extract for 4-weeks, diabetic rats treated with 650mg/kg of metformin drug. The result indicated that after 4- weeks of treatment of fenugreek seed aqueous extract, there was an improvement in blood glucose, lipid profile, liver and kidney function. Although there was an improvement in LH, FSH, testosterone hormone, sperm count , viability and motility.
... Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and green leaves, which are used in food as well as in medicinal application. The seeds ( Figure 34) are used as laxative, demulcent, stimulant etc. and medicinally in preventing wounds, arthritis, ulcer etc and also used as hair cleanser [83][84]. ...
Article
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There are thousands of herbs that are used in preparation of various herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations. Day-by-day, use of herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations are increasing as currently available cosmetics are showing unwanted effects upon prolong used. They are prepared by using different herbs or their extracts or juice derived from them. Herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations are being used by Indian peoples and peoples from Indian sub-continental region since ancient time. They are used to improve the appearance of the skin. Herbal cosmetics are becoming more popular because they are comparatively cheaper, safe and easily available. WHO as well as AYUSH department of India, encourages the peoples to use these types of cosmetics for routine use. In the present paper, we have covered various pharmacognostic and relevant information of medicinal plants used in the cosmetics and toiletries preparations.
... Testofen showed a remarkable impact on self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, libido, and energy. Both serum prolactin and testosterone levels were preserved within normal range 12 . ...
Article
Trigonella foenum-graecum has long been used as a medicinal plant for the treatment of nutritional, metabolic and sexual dysfunction in both genders.Objectives: our study aimed at evaluating the possible effects of different dosage forms of fenugreek seeds on the male reproductive system in animals.Methods: In a randomized controlled study, 40 male albino rats weighing 180 to 260 gm. were equally divided into four groups, one control and the other three groups were treated by the administration of either powder (200 mg/kg), aqueous (500mg/ml) or oily extract (200mg/ml) forms, 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone levels were evaluated, as well as histological examination & sperm analysis. Results: Concerning the oily extract dosage form, a highly significant decrease (P< 0.01) in FSH was recorded in comparison to other groups. LH was reduced significantly (P< 0.05) in the three treated comparative groups. However, progesterone and estrogen levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) after the administration of the oily form. Testosterone level was detected higher only in the aqueous form with a significant increase (p< 0.05) in sperm count, unlike the other 2 forms. The results have revealed a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in all sperm evaluated parameters as well as destructions in testicular tissues after the administration of the oily form. Conclusion: The effect of the aqueous form on the male hormonal levels have been significantly noticed with remarkable changes in the sperm vitality as well the sperm count. The oily form showed a devastating action on all the evaluated parameters.
... Fenugreek seeds have been touted to have a wide range of health benefits and anti-inflammatory properties and have been used to treat women's health conditions, diabetes, and hypercholesterolism (45). It has been suggested that this compound also improves testosterone levels and symptoms associated with testosterone deficiency (46,47). This compound is thought to have androgenic effects via its soluble steroidal saponin content and incomplete 5-alpha reductase and aromatase inhibitor (AIs) activity (47). ...
Article
Testosterone deficiency is defined as a total testosterone level <300 ng/dL confirmed on two early morning lab draws. Testosterone therapy has historically been offered to men with symptomatic testosterone deficiency in the form of injections, gels, or pellets. However, these treatments are invasive or have undesirable effects including the risk of drug transference. Additionally, testosterone therapy has been associated with increases in hematocrit and controversy remains regarding the risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events while on testosterone therapy. As such, much interest has recently been focused on alternative treatment options for testosterone deficiency in the form of orally-administered medications with more favorable side effect profiles. Lifestyle modifications and varicocelectomy have been shown to raise endogenous testosterone production. Similarly, SERMs and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been shown to raise testosterone levels safely and effectively. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) remains the only FDA-approved non-testosterone treatment option for testosterone deficiency in men. However, this medication is expensive and requires patient-administered injections. Over the counter herbal supplements and designer steroids remain available though they are poorly studied and are associated with the potential for abuse as well as increased hepatic and cardiovascular risks. This review aims to discuss the existing treatment alternatives to traditional testosterone therapy, including efficacy, safety, and side effects of these options. The authors suggest that the SERM clomiphene citrate (CC) holds the greatest promise as a non-testosterone treatment option for testosterone deficiency.
... Libifem (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a botanical extract rich in steroidal saponins, which has been found to have estrogenic and androgenic effects and generate improvements in male sexual function [35]. ...
... The oestrogen/testosterone levels are imperative in influencing the libido, hence augmenting sexual performance. Recent studies revealed that the libido stimulation may be enhanced by the influence of the central and peripheral nervous system as well as gonadal tissues during sexual intercourse (Steels et al., 2011). However, treatment with MEAH at different doses enhanced the mounting behaviour in experimental animals i.e., improved the sexual arousal in male mice. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Aglaonema hookerianum Schott is an ethnomedicinally important plant used to treat a variety of diseases, including sexual and depression-like disorders. However, the scientific basis underlying the aforesaid properties have not been well justified. Aim of the study The present investigation aimed to investigate the anxiolytic, antidepressant and aphrodisiac potentials of methanol leaves extract of A. hookerianum (MEAH) in Swiss albino mice. Materials & methods Swiss albino mice (20–30 g) were orally administrated with MEAH at the doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg, b.w. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole board test (HBT) were performed to determine the anxiolytic activity and the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were performed to determine the antidepressant activity of MEAH. Besides, the aphrodisiac activity of MEAH was conducted through the mounting behaviour and orientation behaviour analysis. Diazepam (1 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.) for EPM and HBT; fluoxetine HCl (20 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.) for FST and TST, and sildenafil (5 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.) for the mounting behaviour analysis and orientation behaviour analysis were used as reference drugs. Results The administration of the MEAH produced a strong (p < 0.001) dose-dependent anxiolytic effects in both HBT and EPM tests. Likewise, the extract revealed a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in the immobility time in both FST and TST as compared to the control group. Besides, the MEAH also found to possess marked aphrodisiac activity complying several facets such as an increase in the sexual performance at the highest dose (400 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as the orientation toward female mice (p < 0.001) at all tested doses. Conclusion Taken together, MEAH can be recommended as a potent source of neuroprotective and a libido-boosting drug candidate for the management of neurological and sexual disorders.
... Tribulus terrestris have suggested that saponins exert aphrodisiac activity through the conversion of testosterone into dehydrotestosterone, which in turn enhances the sex drive and masculinity (201). Besides this, saponin diosgenin present in Trigonella foenum graecum extract reversed age related decline of libido and also promoted an increase in muscle mass, energy, stamina and serum testosterone levels (202). Furthermore, saponins promote sexual function and spermatogenesis through activation of steroid receptors (203). ...
Thesis
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Male reproductive health is characterized by infertility, premature ejaculation, lack of sexual desire and erectile dysfunction. Management of the aforementioned involves use of pharmaceuticals, neutraceuticals and surgery among others. These management approaches are expensive and not well tolerated. As such, men worldwide resort to use of herbal aphrodisiacs as they are cheap, easy to access and with no side effects. Secondary metabolites have been suggested to protect the testicular cell hierarchy, positively modulate the hormonal profile, increase sperm motility and concentration. Unfortunately, scientific data in support of these aphrodisiac claims and their mechanisms of action is scanty. The aim of this study was to identify secondary metabolites and establish the mechanisms of action of three Malawi herbal aphrodisiacs Cassia abbreviata, Dioscorea bulbifera and Newtonia hildebrandtti on male reproductive system. This study, fingerprinted and quantified secondary metabolites using calorimetric methods. The atomic absorption spectroscopy of the three herbs showed the presence of magnesium, zinc chromium, arsenic, copper and manganese. After 56 days of treatment, the rat model showed positively modulated sexual hormonal profile, high progressive and total motility, high mean body and testis weight, increased seminiferous tubule diameter and germinal epithelial height compared to the untreated male albino rats. In vitro studies of human semen showed high sperm survival rate, high progressive and total motility of the human sperm. In conclusion, the three herbal aphrodisiacs appear to be strongly associated with high antioxidant capacity, presence of trace elements and secondary metabolites which elsewhere have been implicated in the reversal of male infertility through improved hormonal levels, positive structural changes in the testis, high sperm concentration, high progressive and total motility. The observed parameters are provocative and warrant further research.
... Testofen ® is a standardized formulation containing Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract combined with magnesium, zinc, pyridoxine and methylcobalamin. It is known to have a positive effect on libido and to contribute in maintaining normal healthy testosterone levels (Steels et al., 2011). ...
Article
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TBP is a natural product from Tamarindus indica L. seeds used as a natural remedy in India. This product is an antioxidant and may have beneficial effects on endocrine and metabolic functions. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. In males, testosterone is synthesized by Leydig cells from the testis. With aging and obesity, testis function declines, leading to decreased testosterone synthesis. The aim of the current research is to determine how TBP improves testosterone production in male mice under a high fat diet leading to hypoandrogenic condition. Using C2C12 myoblast cells, we have found that TBP increased mitochondrial mass and oxygen respiration, as well as the production of the IGF-1 hormone. In addition, treatment of TM3 Leydig cells with TBP resulted in increased testosterone production. In mice under a high fat diet, TBP lowered blood glucose level and corticosterone production and improved total testosterone production after five weeks of treatment. In addition, testicular expressions of genes encoding the mitochondrial transporter of cholesterol (Star) and steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1 and Hsd17b3) were increased by TBP. Hence, TBP may prevent the detrimental effects of long-term consumption of a high fat diet and may have health benefits on the endocrine function.
Article
The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a standardised Trigonella foenum‐graecum (Fenugreek) extract on the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) using a double‐blind randomised placebo controlled design. The study recruited 100 healthy males aged between 45 and 80 years with symptoms of BPH who recorded a minimum score of eight on the International Prostate Symptom Score. Participants were randomised to an oral dose of either 600mg Trigonella foenum‐graceum per day or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the International Prostate Symptom Score total and subdomain scores. The secondary outcomes were serum levels of the hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin) prostate‐specific antigen, and safety markers. The results indicated that Trigonella foenum‐graceum did not have an effect on improving the symptoms of BPH. Hormone levels, safety markers, and prostate‐specific antigen remained unchanged and within normal limits after 12 weeks, which adds to the safety profile of this specialised extract.
Chapter
Most international guidelines advise reducing blood lipoproteins and blood glucose by diet and lifestyle changes before administering drug therapy. Many experts believe that beyond low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, oxidized LDL and oxidation of other lipids are important in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, which leads to atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress and inflammation are also important in the pathogenesis of dysfunction of beta cells of the pancreas, adipocytes, hepatocytes, and neurons. There is a need to find a hypolipidemic agent that also has antioxidant effects to counteract these mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as well as of other chronic diseases. Fenugreek is rich in soluble fiber, saponins, polyphenolics, trigonelle, diosgenin, and 4-hydroxyisoleucine. Dietary fiber, flavonoids, and saponins may be responsible for hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic actions, and the beneficial effects may be due to decreased inflammation. In humans, fenugreek seeds acutely reduce postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations by decreasing oxidative stress. Several longer-term clinical trials showed reductions in fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations and glycated hemoglobin as well as blood lipoproteins without decline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Experimental studies have shown that fenugreek seed extracts have the potential to slow enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates, reduce gastrointestinal absorption of glucose, and increase glucagon-like peptides. Fenugreek seeds are rich in polyphenolic flavonoids, such as quercetin, trigonelline, saponins (4%–8%), and phytic acid. The seeds of fenugreek also contain lysine and L-tryptophan-rich proteins, mucilaginous fiber, and other rare chemical constituents, such as coumarin, fenugreekine, nicotinic acid, folic acid, sapogenins, phytic acid, scopoletin, and trigonelline, which are thought to account for many of the presumed therapeutic effects that may inhibit cholesterol absorption and decrease blood sugar concentrations. Fenugreek seeds have no serious side effects except for a bitter taste, which can be reduced by defatting.
Article
Testosterone deficiency, defined as low total testosterone combined with physical, cognitive, and sexual signs and/or symptoms, is a common finding in adult men. Functional hypogonadism (FH) is defined as borderline low testosterone (T) secondary to aging and/or comorbid conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and/or metabolic syndrome. The relationship between FH and metabolic disorders is multifactorial and bidirectional, and associated with a disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Resolution of FH requires the correct diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition(s) with lifestyle modifications considered first-line therapy. Normalization of T levels through dietary modifications such as caloric restriction and restructuring of macronutrients have recently been explored. Exercise and sleep quality have been associated with T levels, and patients should be encouraged to practice resistance training and sleep seven to nine hours per night. Supplementation with vitamin D and Trigonella foenum-graecum may also be considered when optimizing T levels. Ultimately, treatment of FH requires a multidisciplinary approach and personalized patient care.
Article
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Background: Dietary fiber rich fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds have exhibited cardioprotective, hypolipidemic and other health benefits. Furosap (FS), an innovative, patented, 20% protodioscin-enriched extract was developed in our laboratory from fenugreek seeds. This study examined the free and total testosterone levels, sperm profile and morphology, sexual health, mood and mental alertness, and broad spectrum safety parameters of FS in 50 male volunteers following supplementation over a period of 12 weeks. Methods: Institutional Review Board (IRB) and other regulatory approvals were obtained for our study. This one-arm, open-labelled, multi-center study was conducted in 50 male volunteers (age: 35 to 65 years) over a period of 12 weeks to determine the efficacy of FS (500 mg/day/subject) on free and total testosterone levels, sperm profile, sperm morphology, libido and sexual health, mood and mental alertness, and broad spectrum safety parameters. Results: Free testosterone levels were improved up to 46% in 90% of the study population. 85.4% of the study population showed improvements in sperm counts. Sperm morphology improved in 14.6% of volunteers. Majority of the subjects enrolled in the study demonstrated improvements in mental alertness and mood. Furthermore, cardiovascular health and libido were significantly improved. Extensive safety parameters were evaluated which included blood chemistry data. No significant changes were observed in serum lipid function, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels, hemogram (CBC), hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Overall, the results demonstrate that FS, enriched in 20% protodioscin, is safe and effective in attenuating testosterone levels, healthy sperm profile, mental alertness, cardiovascular health and overall performance in human subjects.
Article
The present work is aimed at studying acute oral toxicity (AOT), subchronic oral toxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity of furostanol glycosides-based standardized fenugreek seed extract (Fenu-FG) using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The AOT and subchronic (90-day repeated dose) toxicity studies were performed on Wistar rats as per OECD 423 and OECD 408 guidelines, respectively. The mutagenicity (reverse mutation assay, Ames test) and genotoxicity (mammalian chromosome aberration test) were assessed in vitro using OECD 471 and OECD 473 guidelines, respectively. At an acute oral limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg, Fenu-FG did not show any mortality or treatment-related adverse signs. Ninety days of subchronic oral administration of Fenu-FG (250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg) in rats did not induce any treatment-related significant changes with respect to body weight, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalysis, gross pathology, or histopathology. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level of Fenu-FG was 1,000 mg/kg/day. Furthermore, Fenu-FG did not demonstrate mutagenic potential up to a concentration of 5,000 µg/plate (Ames test) and did not induce structural chromosome aberrations up to 2,000 µg/ml (in human lymphocyte cells in vitro). In conclusion, Fenu-FG was found safe during preclinical safety assessments.
Article
Background The medicinal herb fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, fortified with dietary fibers and furostanolic saponins including protodioscin, have demonstrated a significant contribution to human health. In our laboratories, Furosap®, a patented 20% protodioscin-enriched extract was developed from fenugreek seeds. Objective In an open-label, one-arm, single-center longitudinal study, we examined the safety and efficacy of Furosap® on free and total testosterone levels, fasting blood sugar, blood pressure, sperm count, motility and morphology, dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), sexual health, reflex erection, mood alleviation, mental alertness, and total blood chemistry analyses over a period of 12 weeks in healthy male volunteers. Methods Institutional Ethics Committee approvals and Clinicaltrials.gov registration were obtained. Effect of Furosap® (500 mg/day) was examined of free and total testosterone levels, sperm count, motility and morphology, sexual health, mood and mental alertness, and total blood chemistry analyses in 100 healthy volunteers (age 35–60 Y) over a period of 12 consecutive weeks. Results No changes were observed in body weight and BMI. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and DHEA levels significantly decreased. Free and bound testosterone levels improved significantly at 12 weeks of treatment. Sperm motility significantly increased at 8- and 12-weeks of treatment, while abnormal sperm morphology significantly decreased at 12-weeks of treatment. Mental alertness, mood, and reflex erection score significantly alleviated. An age-induced increasing effect was observed. Furthermore, cardiovascular health and libido significantly improved. Blood chemistry analyses exhibited broad spectrum safety. A decreasing trend was observed in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and VLDL levels, while an increasing trend was observed in HDL level at 12 weeks of treatment. LDL level decreased significantly at 12-weeks of treatment. No adverse events were observed. Conclusion Results demonstrate that Furosap® is safe and effective in improving testosterone levels, cardiovascular health, healthy sperm profile, mental alertness in human male volunteers.
Chapter
Many cultures throughout history have passed down knowledge rumored to enhance sexual performance of both men and women including sexual techniques, foods, and nutritional supplements. Sexual techniques can take the form of stimulating certain aspects of the female anatomy and sexual positions such as stimulation of the Grafenberg “G” spot. Other techniques focus on the psychological aspects of sex including synchronization of orgasms and ejaculation prolongation. Cultures around the world have imbued foods as aphrodisiacs, in addition to herbs, plants, and other dietary supplements, collectively known as nutraceuticals. Among the more common ones are pomegranates, antioxidant rich foods, omega-3, basil, cardamom, garlic, watermelon, oysters, l-arginine, caffeine, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Herbs such as Chlorophytum borivilianum of the Indian subcontinent to Lepidium meyenii of the South American Andes have long been reported to have aphrodisiac qualities. Many of these products are rich in components that promote cardiovascular health, produce anti-inflammatory activity, cause vasodilatation and increase androgen levels—all important factors in sexual performance. This chapter reviews the various sexual enhancement techniques, foods, and nutraceuticals and the evidence to support their use.
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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the Fabaceae family designated by the FDA as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). Its seeds are used as a cooking spice in India to imitate maple flavor. Because it is high in steroidal saponins, fenugreek is used in the commercial production of steroids. It may be beneficial for hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, lactation, dysmenorrhea, polycystic ovary syndrome, menopause, female and male sexual dysfunction, Parkinson’s disease, and athletic performance. Fenugreek has hypocholesterolemic, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antiplatelet, antimicrobial, and hepatoprotective effects. This chapter examines some of the scientific research conducted on fenugreek, both alone and in combination formulas, for treating numerous health conditions. It summarizes results from several human studies of fenugreek’s use in treating cardiometabolic, genitourinary, and neurological disorders, among others. Finally, the chapter presents a list of fenugreek’s Active Constituents, different Commonly Used Preparations and Dosage, and a Section on “Safety and Precaution” that examines side effects, toxicity, and disease and drug interactions.
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Several medicinal plants are traditionally used in different regions of Africa for the treatment of male infertility, sexual asthenia, erectile dysfunction, and impotency or used as an aphrodisiac. Scientific studies, mostly conducted in vitro or in animals, have proven the acclaimed traditional use of these plants to enhance sexual activities or sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Some of the mechanisms of actions associated with these plants include increased level of testosterone and the relaxation of the smooth cavernosal muscles. However, some plants were also shown to have detrimental effects on the male reproductive system. This may be due to the varying modes of plant extraction, duration of treatment, experimental design, dosage used, quality of the plant, or toxic effects. There is a need to standardize the protocols as well as to better understand the mechanism of actions of the respective plants. Further studies should be conducted using human subjects.
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Some of the areas of concern in andrology are erectile dysfunction, late onset hypogonadism, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and infertility. Often these are associated with depletion in androgens, particularly the testosterone hormone. Lack of physical, mental, and sexual vitality, particularly in elderly men, is recognized as a worldwide health problem, which is challenging medically as well as in healthcare. There are numerous traditional herbal products that claim to enhance male overall well-being and restore reproductive health. Proof of acceptance and relevance of herbal treatment in men’s health management are underlined by the tremendous number of publications as well as clinical data, which meet the highest quality, safety, and efficacy standards. This chapter reviews scientific evidence from clinical trials performed with well-known traditional herbs, claiming therapeutic benefits in men’s health: Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek). Furthermore, information of acceptance in terms of regulatory issues is summarized.
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For downloading the full-text of this article please click here. Background and Objective: Sexual drive is one of the main human instincts whose proper management can lead to mental health improvement. Adolescents whose sexual drive is growing during their teenage years don’t find proper ways to fulfill their sexual desires. Therefore, they should manage this drive through selecting appropriate strategies. The current paper aimed to offer some religious health-related physical and behavioral strategies parallel to experimental evidences in order to help adolescents manage their sexual drive and behaviors. Method: In line with the purpose of the study, Islamic resources (the Quran and Hadith) and experimental studies were systematically searched. Physical and behavioral factors related to sexual drive/ behavior were extracted and organized into two groups of sexual drive/behavior amplifiers or reducer. All ethical issues were taken into account. Furthermore, the authors declared no conflict of interests. Results: In total, forty nine factors affecting sexual drive/behavior were collected from the studied resources. The main portion of these factors were relatred to nutrition, nutrients and nutritional behaviors. Physical activities, personal hygenic behaviors, smells and colours were the other affecting factors. Conclusion: It seems focusing on nutritional behaviors such as calorie intake restriction, low food intake, reducing the intake of nutrients and nutritional supplements that boos the sexual drive, promoting invovleemt in psysical activities and some modifications in enviroments that are frequented by adolescents can help young adults manage the sexual derive/behavior. For downloading the full-text of this article please click here.
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Based on published information, potential health benefits of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), one of the oldest medicinal plants, are reviewed in this chapter. The scientific data are summarized for potential health benefits including management of blood glucose in type II diabetics, cholesterol-lowering effect, effect on growth hormone leading to modulation of metabolic syndrome, antiinflammatory and anticancer effects, enhancement of milk production in new mothers, increase in male libido, safety, and toxicity. These benefits are analyzed in terms of the weight of evidence for efficacy, effective human dose, extrapolation of animal data to humans, and the safety margin at the projected clinical dose. Effects of not only the whole seed or plant but also the main active components, such as diosgenin, trigonelline, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and galactomannan, are identified and summarized. The advantages of using the aqueous or alcoholic extract(s) instead of whole-seed powder, thus mitigating any coumarin-associated potential dermal or anticoagulation-related adverse effects, are also discussed. There appears to be strong preclinical-based evidence for most of the benefits listed here, but the clinical data appear to be not robust and need stronger evidence by conducting well-controlled clinical trials, as performed for human pharmaceuticals. Overall, the effective dose for the whole-seed powder is too high to be practical but does not pose a safety concern with respect to dose-limiting toxicity, even after repeated dosing. The use of fenugreek should be avoided during pregnancy until safety of the developing fetus is established based on quality (GLP) embryo/fetal developmental toxicity studies in appropriate animal species. Also, fenugreek, as a member of the Leguminoseae family, could be allergenic to some subjects, particularly those known to be allergic to peanuts. Further research for reducing the clinically effective dose has been proposed by using the bioactive components alone or in combination.
Article
Introduction Erectile dysfunction is the persistent or recurrent inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for intercourse. Despite various treatment options, not all patients respond adequately and their usefulness is limited by adverse effects and cost. Botanical medicine and natural products have been and continue to be invaluable and untapped sources of new drugs, including potentially those to treat erectile dysfunction. Objectives To review the current literature on botanical medicine traditionally used as aphrodisiacs and treatment of erectile dysfunction, in particular, scientific and clinical investigations that have been performed, possible active phytoconstituents, and mechanisms of action and to identify gaps in current knowledge to better guide future research efforts. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science on English publications, using various keywords, for example, “herb”, “natural product”, combined with “erectile dysfunction”, “aphrodisiac”, and “sexual performance”. Results 369 relevant articles studying medicinal plants used for erectile dysfunction were analyzed. A total of 718 plants from 145 families and 499 genera were reported to be used traditionally as aphrodisiacs and treatment of erectile dysfunction. Top plants used include Pausinystalia johimbe, Lepidium meyenii, and Panax ginseng. Different plant parts are used, with roots being the most common. Less than half of these plants have been evaluated scientifically, using various research methodologies. Clinical trials conducted were collated. Current scientific investigation shows mixed results about their usefulness in enhancing sexual performance. A limited number of studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of action of these medicinal plants. Conclusion A comprehensive literature review on botanical medicine and natural products used for treatment of erectile dysfunction was successfully conducted. Although medicinal plants serve as a potential source of lead compounds for erectile dysfunction drugs, further studies are warranted to further evaluate their efficacy and safety. Sin VJ-E, Anand GS, Koh H-L. Botanical Medicine and Natural Products Used for Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
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The present study has been designed to investigate the level expression immunohistochemical to the testosterone hormone in the testes of male rats treated mixture of Nigella sativa , Raphanus sativus and Trigon foenum graecum l. Seeds The study has been conducted on adult male rats at the Technical institute in Samawa from (8-10-2016). Forty eight mature male Wistar rats (aged 90 days and weighted (190±10g) have been randomly assigned to two equal groups (24 each), control (C) males were orally gavaged with drinking water daily for 6 weeks, treated(T) males were orally gavaged with mixture of
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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract is a bioactive ingredient of many food supplements. Hence, there is a need for systematic assessment of the quality of published toxicological studies for its use in human health, hazard consideration, and risk assessment. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the reliability of published toxicological studies of fenugreek seed by using ToxRTool (Toxicological data reliability assessment tool). A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CPCI-S, ICTRP, Ovid, and Google Scholar till October 2018. Each identified study was evaluated for its quality using the ToxRTool with outcomes such as combined score, weighted score, and reliability category by three independent raters. Correlations of various criteria groups with the combined score were evaluated by Pearson correlation and Kendall rank correlation coefficient. Inter-rater consistency was measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The database searches initially yielded 436 results, of which 391 (89.67%) studies were “not assignable”. The remaining 45 studies were included for quantitative analysis by ToxRTool. Based on the weighted score, 17 in-vivo, and 3 in-vitro studies were determined to be “Reliable Without Restriction” which were conducted according to international guidelines such as GLP. These studies have a significant difference (p < 0.05) for the combined and weighted score as compared to non-GLP studies. Remaining 28 in-vivo and 2 in-vitro studies were determined to be “Not Reliable.” The GLP studies conducted with “identified study material” have a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between combined and weighted score as compared to studies which used “non-identified study material”. For criteria group of ToxRTool I, III and V, the Pearson correlation with the combined score was found to be 0.875, 0.734 and 0.905, respectively and Kendall rank correlation coefficient was found to be 0.764, 0.551 and 0.752, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for combined score and weighted score were 0.920 and 0.887, respectively. In conclusion, the ToxRTool was found useful to identify seventeen toxicity studies of fenugreek seeds as “Reliable without Restrictions”. These studies showed a broad margin of safety for the standardized extract of fenugreek seeds and can form a basis for toxicological risk assessment with reasonable certainty.
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Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the foremost sex-related health problems among men. The global occurrence ranges from 20% to 30%, according to various studies. PE has a great impact on the men's quality of life, with deleterious effects such as embarrassment, frustration, and feeling of incompetence. Considering the necessity of treatment of PE, this study was planned to compare the efficacy and safety of OLNP-05 versus placebo for treating subjects suffering from PE. In this randomized clinical study, 60 men with PE were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either OLNP-05 or placebo one capsule twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Subjects were evaluated during visits on day 1, day 28, and day 56. Mean change from baseline in intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), improvement in premature ejaculation profile (PEP), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I) were used to assess the efficacy of treatment. P-value <.05 was considered significant. At the end of the treatment, the improvement in IELT score in the OLNP-05 group was remarkably higher than the placebo. Subjects in the OLNP-05 treatment group also reported significantly greater improvement in PEP subscale score. Majority of OLNP-05-treated subjects were found to be in the "much improved" category as per CGI-I assessment. The result confirms the safety and efficacy of OLNP-05, therefore suggesting that OLNP-05 may be a safe and effective intervention for the management of PE. Trial registration: Clinical Trials Registry India (Registration No: CTRI/2017/08/009226, 02/08/2017).
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Objectives Limited research has examined the effects of fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) supplementation to improve healthy younger men's aging male symptoms. The study objective was to examine whether a fenugreek seed extract would improve healthy men's aging male symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), grip strength, and anxiety. Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was employed, using a parallel design, with assessments at baseline, Day 30, and Day 60. Healthy male volunteers (n = 57, mean age = 26.1 years) were randomized to: fenugreek 400 mg/d (n = 19), fenugreek 500 mg/d (n = 19), or placebo group (n = 19). Results The fenugreek groups reported significant improvements in aging male symptoms, anxiety levels, grip strength, and indicators of HRQoL compared to the placebo group, p ' s < 0.05. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion Fenugreek supplementation is an effective nutritional intervention for improving aging male symptoms, anxiety levels, grip strength, and aspects of HRQoL in healthy recreationally active men. Future researchers are encouraged to examine the health and ergogenic effects of fenugreek supplementation in hypogonadal and older populations. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT03528538 .
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Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to attain or sustain an erection for sexual intercourse. Affected men endorse difficulties with intimacy and feelings of guilt and shame. Although medical treatments are available, patients are reluctant to discuss ED with physicians and often use dietary supplements to attempt to treat their ED. As such, there is a need to better understand the effects of ingredients used in nutraceuticals for ED treatment. Objectives To summarize the literature on the efficacy and safety of the most common ingredients used in ED supplements. Methods 10 of the most common ingredients in ED supplements were reviewed using PubMed-indexed literature to assess their efficacy and safety in treating ED. Key findings were summarized to include historical use, active ingredients, prior animal studies, human studies, and toxicity. Results Nutraceuticals used in ED treatment include a variety of ingredients. Although L-arginine is a safe supplement with clinical data supporting improved erectile function, limited data exist on the efficacy of other ingredients in the treatment of ED. Conclusion Despite the growing use of supplements for treatment of sexual dysfunction, ED supplements remain poorly studied, with limited data demonstrating efficacy of individual ingredients. Further study is required to definitively determine the efficacy of nutraceuticals in ED treatment. Srivatsav A, Balasubramanian A, Pathak UI, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Common Ingredients in Aphrodisiacs Used for Erectile Dysfunction: A Review. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX–XXX.
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Poor production of breast milk is the most frequent cause of breast lactation failure. Often, physician prescribe medications or other substances to solve this problem. The use of galactogogues should be limited to those situations in which reduced milk production from treatable causes has been excluded. One of the most frequent indication for the use of galactogogues is the diminution of milk production in mothers using indirect lactation, particularly in the case of preterm birth. The objective of this review is to analyze to the literature relating to the principal drugs used as galactogogues (metoclopramide, domperidone, chlorpromazine, sulpiride, oxytocin, growth hormone, thyrotrophin releasing hormone, medroxyprogesterone). Have been also analyzed galactogogues based on herbs and other natural substances (fenugreek, galega and milk thistle). We have evaluated their mechanism of action, transfer to maternal milk, effectiveness and potential side effects for mother and infant, suggested doses for galactogogic effect, and recommendation for breastfeeding.
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The main bioactive compounds of Trigonella foenum graecum L. (fenugreek) seeds are protodioscin, trigoneoside, diosgenin and yamogenin, which have anticarcinogenic potency through inhibition of cell proliferation and inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. The effect of fenugreek on ALOX and COX genes was examined in AKR/J H-2k mice exposed to dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA), a potent carcinogen. The expression pattern of these genes was determined by detecting the mRNA expression in various tissues (the lungs, liver, spleen and the kidneys) in four groups of mice. Two groups were fed with normal and two of them with fenugreek containing nutriment. Each group divided into DMBA treated and control groups. Mice were autopsied on day 7 after DMBA treatment for mRNA isolation. Fenugreek consumption itself did not change gene expression compared with the control group. DMBA could increase the expression of ALOX12, ALOX15, ALOX5 genes mainly in all organs. Fenugreek consumption was generally protective in each organ in a different manner. DMBA treatment increased COX2 gene expression, but fenugreek was protective in all tissues examined. In COX1 gene, the fenugreek diet could suppress the expression, except for spleen, independently from carcinogen exposure. Therefore by inhibiting the arachidonic acid metabolism fenugreek may prevent tumorigenesis. Copyright
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Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have long been used as a herbal medicine for treating metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate feeding behaviour in animals. We have recently observed a selective decrease in fat consumption in healthy normal weight volunteers treated with a hydro-alcoholic seed extract. However, strong clinical data on the effects of fenugreek seeds on energy intake are lacking, especially in overweight individuals. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a repeated administration of a fenugreek seed extract on the eating behaviour of overweight subjects. Thirty-nine healthy overweight male volunteers completed a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled parallel trial of a fixed dose of a fenugreek seed extract. Main endpoints were energy intake (dietary records and meal test), weight, fasting and post-absorptive glucose and insulin, appetite/satiety scores and oxidative parameters. Daily fat consumption, expressed as the ratio fat reported energy intake/total energy expenditure (fat-REI/TEE), was significantly decreased in our overweight subjects administered the fenugreek seed extract relative to those receiving the placebo (fat-REI/TEE 0.26 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.01, respectively; P = 0.032). We also observed a significant decrease in the insulin/glucose ratio in subjects treated with fenugreek seed extract relative to the placebo group (0.89 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.06 +/- 0.10 mUI mmol(-1), respectively; P = 0.044). No significant effect was observed on weight, appetite/satiety scores or oxidative parameters. The repeated administration of a fenugreek seed extract slightly but significantly decreased dietary fat consumption in healthy overweight subjects in this short-term study.
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This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The 'Yin and Yang' theory and the fundamentals of the 'five elements' applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help readers understand how ginseng balances the dynamic equilibrium of human physiological processes from the TCM perspectives. This paper concerns the observation and experimental investigation of biological activities of ginseng used in the TCM of past and present cultures. The current biological findings of ginseng and its medical applications are narrated and critically discussed, including 1) its antihyperglycemic effect that may benefit type II diabetics; in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated protection of ginseng on beta-cells and obese diabetic mouse models. The related clinical trial results are stated. 2) its aphrodisiac effect and cardiovascular effect that partially attribute to ginseng's bioactivity on nitric oxide (NO); 3) its cognitive effect and neuropharmacological effect that are intensively tested in various rat models using purified ginsenosides and show a hope to treat Parkinson's disease (PD); 4) its uses as an adjuvant or immunotherapeutic agent to enhance immune activity, appetite and life quality of cancer patients during their chemotherapy and radiation. Although the apoptotic effect of ginsenosides, especially Rh2, Rg3 and Compound K, on various tumor cells has been shown via different pathways, their clinical effectiveness remains to be tested. This paper also updates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune-stimulatory activities of ginseng, its ingredients and commercial products, as well as common side effects of ginseng mainly due to its overdose, and its pharmacokinetics.
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Fenugreek has a long history of medical uses in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, and has been used for numerous indications, including labor induction, aiding digestion, and as a general tonic to improve metabolism and health. Preliminary animal and human trials suggest possible hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of oral fenugreek seed powder.
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Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum saponin (TFGs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not well controlled by western medicine. Method: Seventy two T2DM patients, whose blood glucoses were not well controlled by oral sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drug, were randomly assigned to control group (36 cases) and treatment group (36 cases). Aside from their original western medicine, the subjects were respectively given placebo and TFGs for 12 weeks. Result: After treatment, the total effective rate in treatment group was remarkably higher than in control group (P <0.01) , and the indexes of fast plasma glucose (FPG), plasma glucose 2 hours after meals (2 h PG) , glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and clinical symptomatic accumulated points (CSAP) decreased significantly in treatment group (P < 0.01) , while no obvious changes were shown in the indicators of BMI, hepatic and renal function. Conclusion ; The combined therapy of TFGs together with sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drug could not only decrease blood glucose, but also ameliorate clinical symptoms with very good safety.
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This paper presents a simple and widely ap- plicable multiple test procedure of the sequentially rejective type, i.e. hypotheses are rejected one at a tine until no further rejections can be done. It is shown that the test has a prescribed level of significance protection against error of the first kind for any combination of true hypotheses. The power properties of the test and a number of possible applications are also discussed.
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Testosterone replacement therapy is an effective treatment of some depressive symptoms in hypogonadal men, and may be an effective augmentation treatment for SSRI-refractory major depression in such men. We treated five depressed men who had low testosterone levels and had not responded to an adequate SSRI trial with 400 mg testosterone replacement biweekly for 8 weeks. Four patients underwent single-blind placebo discontinuation. Patients were assessed at baseline and biweekly thereafter using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Endicott Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Scale (Q-LES-Q). Patients' mean age was 40 years, and mean testosterone level 277 ng/dl. All had a rapid and dramatic recovery from major depression following testosterone augmentation: mean 21-item HAM-D decreased from 19.2 to 7.2 by week 2, and to 4.0 by week 8; mean Q-LES-Q increased from 45% to 68%. Three of four subjects who underwent discontinuation of testosterone under single-blind placebo treatment began to relapse. Testosterone replacement therapy may be an effective treatment of depressive symptoms in some men, and warrants further research.
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Trigonella foenum graecum commonly known as fenugreek, has been widely cultivated in Asia, Africa and Mediterranean countries for the edible and medicinal values of its seeds. Earlier reports show that fenugreek seeds provide a mastogenic effect resulting in enhanced breast size. However, very little is known about its estrogenic effect. The present study investigated the effect of chloroform extracts of fenugreek seeds (FCE) in breast cancer cells for its estrogenic effect, and to assess its capacity as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The effect of FCE on cell proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 was studied by MTT assay at a concentration range of 20 to 320 microg/ml. The competitive ER binding assay (HAP assay) was done to find out the ER binding capacity of the extract. Transfection and reporter assay (DLR assay), and RT- PCR with an estrogen responsive gene pS2 were done to find out the transcriptional regulatory activity of FCE. FCE stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, showed binding to ER (IC(50) = 185.6 +/- 32.8 microg/ ml) and acted as an agonist for ER mediated transcription via ERE. It also induced the expression of estrogen responsive gene pS2 in MCF-7 cells. Our study provided the evidence for estrogenic activities of fenugreek seeds. Further in vitro and in vivo studies could demonstrate its suitability as an alternative to HRT.
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In obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy and chronic inflammation in adipose tissues cause insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) can ameliorate hyperglycemia and diabetes. However, the effects of fenugreek on adipocyte size and inflammation in adipose tissues have not been demonstrated. In this study, we determined the effects of fenugreek on adipocyte size and inflammation in adipose tissues in diabetic obese KK-Ay mice, and identified the active substance in fenugreek. Treatment of KK-Ay mice with a high fat diet supplemented with 2% fenugreek ameliorated diabetes. Moreover, fenugreek miniaturized the adipocytes and increased the mRNA expression levels of differentiation-related genes in adipose tissues. Fenugreek also inhibited macrophage infiltration into adipose tissues and decreased the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory genes. In addition, we identified diosgenin, a major aglycone of saponins in fenugreek to promote adipocyte differentiation and to inhibit expressions of several molecular candidates associated with inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest that fenugreek ameliorated diabetes by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissues, and its effects are mediated by diosgenin. Fenugreek containing diosgenin may be useful for ameliorating the glucose metabolic disorder associated with obesity.
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Previous clinical studies on effect of statins treatment on testosterone (T) levels have produced mixed results. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between statin therapy and hormonal parameters in a large series of subjects seeking medical care at our unit for erectile dysfunction (ED). A consecutive series of 3,484 (mean age 51.6 + or - 13.1 years) patients with ED was studied. Several hormonal and biochemical parameters were investigated, along with ANDROTEST structured interview measuring hypogonadism-related symptoms. Among the patients studied, 244 (7%) patients were being treated with statins. After adjustment for confounding factors (including body mass index and Progetto Cuore cardiovascular (CV) risk engine score), both total and calculated free testosterone levels were significantly lower in subjects taking statins, when compared to the rest of the sample (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93 [0.90; 0.96] and 0.26 [0.01; 0.18] for each decrement of total T and calculated free T, respectively; both P < 0.0001). The use of statins was also associated with a reduced testis volume and a higher prevalence of hypogonadism-related symptoms and signs, as assessed by higher ANDROTEST score (HR = 1.12 [1.03; 1.21]; P < 0.01 after adjustment for confounders). Follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher in subjects treated with statins when compared to the rest of the sample, while there was a trend toward higher luteinizing hormone levels, but this did not reach statistical significance. The lower levels of total and calculated free T observed in subjects treated with statins were also confirmed comparing them with age-waist circumference and CV risk score matched controls. Finally, subjects being treated with statins showed lower prolactin levels when compared to the rest of the sample. Our data demonstrated that statin therapy might induce an overt primary hypogonadism and should be considered as a possible confounding factor for the evaluation of testosterone levels in patients with ED.
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To screen patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) for the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), testosterone deficiency and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, in a secondary referral centre in the UK, as men with ED have a high incidence of CV risk factors that might amount to MetS, with obesity, increased risk of coronary heart disease and type II diabetes; testosterone deficiency has also been associated with both ED and MetS. We assessed 124 men presenting with ED between March 2007 and August 2008. Data were collected prospectively for patient demographics, risk factors associated with MetS, and hypogonadism. MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Criteria 2005 (based on three or more of five criteria: waist circumference, high triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance). The mean (range) age of the men was 50 (16-76) years; 50 of 124 (40%) patients had MetS and 27% had hypogonadism. The latter was also associated with a low testicular volume and decreased libido. Ninety-seven patients (82%) were either overweight or obese, and 64 (52%) were current or ex-smokers. Our audit confirms a high incidence of MetS and hypogonadism in patients with ED in the UK. We recommend routine screening for CV risk factors, MetS and testosterone deficiency in all patients in the UK with ED.
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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, used as a condiment, are documented for health benefits including amelioration of abnormalities in lipid homeostasis due to its hypolipidemic properties. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds remain obscure. In this study, hypolipidemic effect of a novel thermostable extract of fenugreek seeds (TEFS) was evaluated in vitro by employing differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, and HepG2 cells cultured in normal or sterol-enriched conditions. Hypolipidemic effect was studied by quantifying decrease in accumulation of fat or by western blot analysis of adipogenic and lipogenic factors. At molecular level, TEFS inhibited accumulation of fat in differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells via decreased expression of adipogenic factors such as peroxisome proliferators activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), and CAAT element-binding proteins-alpha (c/EBP-alpha). We also show that following TEFS treatment, cellular triglycerides (TGs), and cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HepG2 cells via reduced expression of SREBP-1, at mRNA as well as protein level. Under sterol enriched condition, TEFS upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression resulting in enhanced LDL uptake. Treating fat supplement fed C57BL6/J mice with TEFS for 15 days resulted in decrease of serum TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDLc), and body weight in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Results indicate that hypolipidemic effect of TEFS is due to inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDLR. Taken together, the study suggests that TEFS may have potential application in the management of dyslipidemia and its associated metabolic disorders.
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Hypogonadism is a common condition, especially among older men, but often goes undiagnosed and untreated. It can be associated with a number of signs and symptoms that affect health and quality of life, including feelings of low energy and fatigue; decreased sex drive and performance; decreased muscle mass and strength; decreased bone mineral density; and increased body fat, particularly abdominal fat, a putative risk factor for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The evidence supporting testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in improving these and related conditions is strong and consistent for body composition and sexual function; moderately consistent for bone mineral density; inconsistent for insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and lipid profiles; and weak and inconsistent for mood and cognitive function. The concern of some physicians about the potential for TRT to stimulate prostate cancer is not supported by decades of data accumulated to date, though studies of longer duration (eg, 10 years or more) would be even more convincing. Other research needs are discussed. As the front line of health care delivery, primary care physicians need to be vigilant in diagnosing and treating symptomatic hypogonadism. Based on current guidelines, we recommend assessing testosterone levels when an adult man exhibits signs of hypogonadism, and as part of normal medical screening in men starting at age 40 to 50 years, to establish a baseline. A physician should discuss the possibility of TRT with symptomatic patients who have a serum total testosterone level < 300 ng/dL. If TRT is initiated, a patient's response and adverse events should be assessed every 3 to 6 months, and therapy adjusted accordingly.
Article
Bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOH extract from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds resulted in the isolation of two rat growth-hormone release stimulators in vitro, fenugreek saponin I (1) and dioscin (9), along with two new, i.e., 2 and 3, and five known analogues, i.e., 4-8. The structures of the new steroidal saponins, fenugreek saponins I, II, and III (1-3, resp.), were determined as gitogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, sarsasapogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and gitogenin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. Fenugreek saponin I (1) and dioscin (9) caused ca. 12.5- and 17.7-fold stimulation of release, respectively, of rat growth hormone from rat pituitary cells, whereas gitogenin (5) showed moderate activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that steroidal saponins stimulate rat growth-hormone release in rat pituitary cells.
Article
The present report summarizes work to date on the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI), a multidimensional measure of human sexual functioning. We discuss the rationale for the test as well as the selection of the primary domains of measurement. Reliability coefficients for the various subtests are given, and a review section on validation studies is provided, including a factor analysis, predictive validation, and discriminant function analyses. Prototypic clinical profiles are also provided for several of the major types of sexual dysfunction.
Article
Estrogenic action of diosgenin on the mammary epithelium of ovariectomized (OVX) mouse has been reported. Diosgenin when administered (sc) at the dose levels of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight for a period of 15 days stimulated the growth of mammary epithelium. This was indicated by the increase in DNA content, increase in number of ducts and appearance of terminal endbuds. There was a significant increase in the mammary development scores in the presence of diosgenin. Concomitant treatment of estrogen and diosgenin showed augmentation of estrogenic effect of diosgenin especially at the higher dose level (40 mg/kg body wt). Diosgenin showed a lack of progesterogenic action as was apparent from the absence of alveolar development even in the presence of exogenous estrogen.
Article
The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on blood glucose and the serum lipid profile was evaluated in insulin-dependent (Type I) diabetic patients. Isocaloric diets with and without fenugreek were each given randomly for 10 d. Defatted fenugreek seed powder (100 g), divided into two equal doses, was incorporated into the diet and served during lunch and dinner. The fenugreek diet significantly reduced fasting blood sugar and improved the glucose tolerance test. There was a 54 per cent reduction in 24-h urinary glucose excretion. Serum total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced. The HDL cholesterol fraction, however, remained unchanged. These results indicate the usefulness of fenugreek seeds in the management of diabetes.
Article
Forty-three patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate and available partners were interviewed to assess qualitatively and quantitatively their levels of sexual functioning prior to radiotherapy. The mean age was 67.7 years (58-80 years). The Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning (DISF) was the evaluation used. The Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning measures five domains of sexual functioning: sexual fantasy, arousal, experience, orgasm, and drive. Twenty-seven of the 43 (62.7%) patients evaluated were considered impotent. Fifteen of the 27 patients scored low in all five domains of sexual functioning even though they could achieve erection but they were unable to maintain erection throughout the phases of the sexual response cycle. Twelve of the 27 patients had scored 0 on sexual arousal and orgasm, thus had no ability for erection. Sixteen of the 43 (37.2%) patients were considered potent. This group of patients had achieved erection throughout the phases of sexual cycle and scored adequately in all five domains of sexual functioning. Patients with DISF score less than 20 were impotent. Those with a Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning score of greater than 45 were potent. Only 6 of 19 patients with scores between 20 and 45 were potent. The Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning score was highly prognostic for impotence, (p = .002) was easy to use and could be used for follow-up of the effect of therapy on sexual function in patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Patients who present for radiation therapy are older, 50% are on cardiac or antihypertensive medication, and the majority (62.7%) are already impotent prior to therapy.
Article
Impotence, defined as the consistent inability to maintain an erect penis of sufficient rigidity for sexual intercourse, has been estimated to affect 10 million American men. An age dependence has been shown to exist, with 25% of men over age 65 affected. A large body of clinical experience and published reports in the literature link many commonly prescribed drugs with sexual dysfunction. Drugs can affect sexual function at a variety of points such as inhibition of ejaculation or sedation/depression leading to reduced libido. Antihypertensive drugs have been most commonly associated with impotence. There have been reports of sexual dysfunction with almost all classes of antipsychotics, but little clinical investigation has been performed. Other drugs associated with sexual dysfunction include digoxin, clofibrate, cimetidine and various hormonal agents and antineoplastics. An important first step in approaching all impotent patients is the taking of a detailed medical, surgical, sexual and drug/substance abuse history. The least invasive form of therapy should be employed. Recent studies have shown intracavernous injections of alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) to be safe and effective for long term use. Vacuum constriction devices may also be of help. Better and more durable prostheses are now available should other treatment be unsuccessful.
Article
The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are traditionally assumed to have restorative properties. We have recently shown that a fenugreek seed extract containing steroid saponins increased food consumption and induced hypocholesterolemia in rats. This study aims to investigate the specific role of purified steroid saponins in these properties. For this purpose, an original technique for extraction and purification of steroid saponins was carried out. Thereafter, the effects of these steroid saponins were investigated on feeding behavior and metabolic endocrine changes in normal and diabetic rats. All the steroid saponins (furostanol type) were extracted from the seeds and separated from all other constituents of the entire extract by using several purification procedures to give an extract containing at least 90% of steroid saponins. Pharmcological experiments were performed in vivo in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats: steroid saponins were administered chronically mixed with food (12.5 mg/day per 300 g body weight). Our data show that the treatment with steroid saponins significantly increased food intake and the motivation to eat in normal rats, while modifying the circadian rhythm of feeding behavior; it also stabilized the food consumption in diabetic rats, which resulted in a progressive weight gain in these animals, in contrast to untreated diabetic controls. Both in normal and diabetic rats, steroid saponins decreased total plasma cholesterol without any change in triglycerides. In conclusion, the present work reports a clear methodology to obtain all the steroid saponins and demonstrates that these saponins enhance food consumption and motivation to eat, and reduce plasma cholesterol levels in rats.
Article
In an open trial ginkgo biloba, an extract derived from the leaf of the Chinese ginkgo tree and noted for its cerebral enhancing effects, was found to be 84% effective in treating antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction predominately caused by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, N = 63). Women (n = 33) were more responsive to the sexually enhancing effects of ginkgo biloba than men (N = 30), with relative success rates of 91% versus 76%. Ginkgo biloba generally had a positive effect on all 4 phases of the sexual response cycle: desire, excitement (erection and lubrication), orgasm, and resolution (afterglow). This study originated from the observation that a geriatric patient on ginkgo biloba for memory enhancement noted improved erections. Patients exhibited sexual dysfunction secondary to a variety of antidepressant medications including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs), serotonin and nonrepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs) monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOIs), and tricyclics. Dosages of ginkgo biloba extract ranged from 60 mg qd to 120 mg bid (average = 209mg/d). The common side effects were gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, and general central nervous system activation. The article includes a discussion of presumed pharmacologic mechanisms, including effects on platelet activating factor, prostaglandins, peripheral vasodilatation, and central serotonin and norepinephrine receptor factor modulation.
Article
Serum testosterone levels decline gradually and progressively with aging in men. Many manifestations associated with aging in men, including muscle atrophy and weakness, osteoporosis, reduced sexual functioning, and increased fat mass, are similar to changes associated with testosterone deficiency in young men. These similarities suggest that testosterone supplementation may prevent or reverse the effects of aging. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify studies of testosterone supplementation therapy in older men. A structured, qualitative review was performed of placebo-controlled trials that included men aged 60 and older and evaluated one or more physical, cognitive, affective, functional, or quality-of-life outcomes. Studies focusing on patients with severe systemic diseases and hormone deficiencies related to specific diseases were excluded.
Article
To systematically review the clinical evidence for herbal medicinal products in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials of herbal medicinal products used to lower serum cholesterol. Systematic literature searches were conducted in 6 electronic data-bases. The reference lists of all papers and our files were searched for more relevant publications. Experts in the field and manufacturers of identified herbal medicinal products were contacted for published and unpublished data. No language restrictions were imposed. All randomized clinical trials of serum cholesterol reduction, in which mono-preparations of herbal medicinal products were administered as supplements to human subjects, were included. Twenty-five randomized clinical trials involving 11 herbal medicinal products were identified. Guggul (Commiphora mukul), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), red yeast rice, and artichoke (Cynara scolymus) have been most extensively studied and have demonstrated reductions in total serum cholesterol levels of between10% and 33%. The methodological quality as assessed by the Jadad score was less than 3 (maximum, 5) for 13 of the 25 trials. Many herbal medicinal products have potential hypocholesterolemic activity and encouraging safety profiles. However, only a limited amount of clinical research exists to support their efficacy. Further research is warranted to establish the value of these extracts in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Article
Hypogonadism is often associated with diabetes and both conditions represent major risk factors for erectile dysfunction (ED). To investigate the role of hypogonadism on phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) expression and sildenafil responsiveness in diabetes. Two different models of experimental diabetes were used: (i) alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit; and (ii) streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. In both experimental models, animals were separated into three groups: control, diabetic, diabetic supplemented with testosterone (T) enanthate. Rabbits were used for "in vitro" experiments. Conversely, each rats group was further subdivided: no further treatment or acute sildenafil dosing (25 mg/kg, 1 hour before "in vivo" electrical stimulation [ES]). Erectile capacity was evaluated either by "in vitro" contractility study (alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit) and "in vivo" evaluation of erectile response elicited by ES of cavernous nerve (STZ-induced diabetic rats). Also endothelial nitric oxide synthase, neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and PDE5 protein (Western blot) and mRNA (quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) expression were measured in rat penile samples of each group. In both models, hypogonadism was observed, characterized by reduced T and atrophy of androgen-dependent accessory glands. T substitution completely reverted hypogonadism and diabetes-induced penile hyposensitivity to "in vitro" (acetylcholine, rabbit) or "in vivo" (ES, rat) relaxant stimuli, along with nNOS expression, which was reduced (P < 0.05) in STZ rats. In diabetic animals, T substitution reinstated sildenafil-induced enhancement of both "in vitro" nitric oxide donor (NCX 4040) relaxant effect (rabbit) and "in vivo" ES-induced erection (rat). PDE5 was reduced in diabetic STZ rats (P < 0.05) and normalized by T. In STZ rats, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) intracavernous injection induced a more sustained erection than in control rats, which was no further enhanced by sildenafil. T substitution normalized both hyper-responsiveness to SNP and sildenafil efficacy. In two models of diabetes T deficiency underlies biochemical alterations leading to ED. Normalizing T in diabetes restores nNOS and PDE5, and reinstates sensitivity to relaxant stimuli and responsiveness to sildenafil.
Article
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trigonella foenum-graecum L. total saponins (TFGs) in combination with sulfonylureas (SU) in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not well controlled by SU alone. Sixty-nine T2DM patients whose blood glucose levels were not well controlled by oral sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drug were randomly assigned to the treated group (46 cases) and the control group (23 cases), and were given TFGs or placebo three times per day, 6 pills each time for 12 weeks, respectively. Meanwhile, the patients continued taking their original hypoglycemic drugs. The following indexes, including effects on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms, fast blood glucose (FBG), 2-h post-prandial blood glucose (2h PBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), clinical symptomatic quantitative scores (CSQS), body mass index (BMI), as well as hepatic and renal functions, were observed and compared before and after treatment. The efficacy on TCM symptoms was obviously better in the treated group than that in the control group (P<0.01), and there were statistically remarkable decreases in aspect of FBG, 2h PBG, HbA1c and CSQS in the treated group as compared to those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while no significant difference was found in BMI, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups (P>0.05). The combined therapy of TFGs with sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drug could lower the blood glucose level and ameliorate clinical symptoms in the treatment of T2DM, and the therapy was relatively safe.
Article
To summarize recent findings related to the prevalence, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male hypogonadism. Population-based studies indicate that low testosterone levels predict development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and survival. Although a large clinical trial is needed to assess the long-term benefit-to-risk ratio, testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to have positive effects on sexual function, mood, body composition, muscle mass, and bone density. Due to its potential side effects, careful monitoring for safety is critical, mainly in old men. Testosterone replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for men with hypogonadism, treatment should be closely monitored in men over age 50.
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Brock G, Laumann E, Glasser DB, Nicolosi A, Gingell C, King R. 2003. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction among mature men and women in USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Program and Abstracts from the American Urological Association 98th Annual Meeting. Abstract. American Urological Association: Chicago, IL, USA; 1226.
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Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine-ginseng (ii): collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine
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Jai L, Zhao Y, Liang X. 2009. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine-ginseng (ii): collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine. Curr Med Chem 16: 2924-2942.
  • Male Libido Enhanced By Standardized Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Extract Copyright
MALE LIBIDO ENHANCED BY STANDARDIZED TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM EXTRACT Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytother. Res. (2011)