Utility of a Three-Dimensional Endoscopic System in Skull Base Surgery

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
Skull Base (Impact Factor: 0.66). 07/2010; 20(4):223-8. DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1247630
Source: PubMed


We evaluated the utility of a three-dimensional (3-D) endoscopic system for skull base surgery. We performed a retrospective case series in a tertiary care medical center. Thirty-six patients underwent skull base (nonpituitary) resections via 3-D endoscopic system. Fifteen patients (42%) were operated for excision of malignant tumors, 19 (53%) for excision of benign lesions, and 3 (8.3%) for skull base reconstruction. The tumors involved the cribriform plate (n = 13), sphenoid sinus and planum (n = 17), clivus (n = 7), and sella (n = 7). Complete tumor resection was achieved in 31 patients and subtotal resection in two. Five patients (14%) had postoperative complications. There was one case of meningitis, and there were no cases of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The surgeon's ability to recognize anatomic structures at the skull base was evaluated using the 3-D and two-dimensional systems. The 3-D technique was superior to the conventional technique for identification of the sella, carotid prominence, optic prominence, cribriform plate, sphenoid, and fovea ethmoidalis. The two systems were equal for detection of the turbinates, clivus, maxillary, ethmoids, and frontal sinuses. Endoscopic skull base surgery with stereoscopic viewing is feasible and safe. Further studies are required to evaluate the advantage of binocular vision in skull base surgery.

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    • "Thus, at present, 3D endoscopes are similar to 2D endoscopes in size and weight. Regarding their advantages as surgical instruments, several authors have reported the results of endoscopic surgical procedures on the skull base [6] [7] [11]. Kari et al. compared the operative time, amount of bleeding, duration of hospital stay, and complications between pituitary surgery, involving 2D and 3D endoscopy, and reported that there were no significant differences [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the efficacy of a three-dimensional (3D) endoscope for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery.Methods The study design was a retrospective case series and qualitative research. The clinical efficacy of 3D endoscopes was examined on five cadavers. We performed conventional endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in five cases and hypophysectomy in two cases using a 3D endoscope. The educational advantages of the 3D endoscope were assessed using questionnaires given to the participants of cadaver dissection courses.ResultsIn the posterior portion of the nasal cavity, images captured via 3D endoscopy provided a superior perception of depth of information than those via two-dimensional (2D) endoscopy. All endonasal surgeries were completed in clinical settings using a 3D endoscope without perioperative complications. In terms of the operative time and amount of bleeding, the results of 3D endoscopic surgeries were not inferior to those of 2D endoscopic surgeries. Fatigue from 3D viewing through polarized glasses did not adversely affect performance of the surgery. Moreover, questionnaires for the evaluation of educational efficacy were completed by 73 surgeons. Of the respondents, 89% agreed that 3D endoscopy provided a better understanding of the surgical anatomy than did 2D endoscopy. As for the site where 3D endoscopy would be the most useful for understanding surgical anatomy, 40% of the respondents named the skull base; 29%, the posterior ethmoid sinuses; and 26%, the sphenoid sinus; and 9%, the ethmoid bulla and middle turbinate.Conclusion The 3D endoscope contributes to a more precise anatomical understanding of the posterior structures of the sinuses and skull base and ensures a more precise operation of the instruments. Thus, 3D endoscopes will likely become a standard device for endonasal surgery in the near future.
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    • "The advantages and limitations of the novel 3D device in visualization and depth perception have already been reported by the first comparative publications on the matter 4 5 7 12 and clinical utility has been proven in small case series 3 13 14. "
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    ABSTRACT: The recent introduction of the 3D endoscope for endonasal surgery has been welcomed because of its promise to overcome the main limitation of endoscopy, namely the lack of stereoscopic vision. This innovation particularly regarded the most complex transnasal surgery of the skull base. We therefore discuss our early experience as ENT surgeons with the use of a purely 3D endoscopic expanded endonasal approach for supradiaphragmatic lesions in 10 consecutive patients. This article will focus on the surgical technique, the complications, the outcome, and more importantly the advantages and limitations of the new device. We believe that the new 3D system shows its main drawback when surgery is conducted in the narrow nasal spaces. Nevertheless, the improved knowledge of the three-dimensional nasal anatomy enabled the ENT surgeon to perform a more selective demolition of the nasal structures even in the anterior part of the nose. The depth perception obtained with the 3D system also permitted a better understanding of the plasticity of the surgical defects, increasing the confidence to perform successful skull base plasties. We believe that, for both the ENT surgeon and the neurosurgeon, the expanded endonasal approach is the main indication for this exciting tool, although larger prospective studies are needed to determine the equality to the 2D HD endoscope in oncological terms.
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    ABSTRACT: Meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak are serious complications of skull base surgery, but whether postoperative CSF leak increases the risk of meningitis is unknown. To evaluate any association between meningitis and CSF leak after open or endoscopic skull base resection. A retrospective case series with chart review in a tertiary care university-affiliated medical center. A total of 156 patients underwent intradural tumor resection in our institution between 1994 and 2009, 135 (86%) via the subcranial approach and 21 (14%) through the expanded endonasal approach. All occurrences of meningitis, brain abscess, and CSF leak had been recorded and were available for analysis. Nine patients (5.7%) had postoperative meningitis, and 3 patients had postoperative CSF leak (1.9%). The risk of meningitis in patients without CSF leak was 4.5% (7/153) compared to 66% (2/3) in those with CSF leak. A statistical analysis revealed a significant association between CSF leak and meningitis, with a relative risk of 14.6 (95% confidence interval, 4.95-42; P = .008). Postoperative CSF leak significantly increases the risk of meningitis. Most cases of meningitis after skull base operation are probably associated with lumbar drainage infection or from an obscure leak.
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