Article

Honey promotes lower weight gain adiposity and triglycerides than sucrose in rats

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Various dietary carbohydrates have been linked to obesity and altered adipose metabolism; however, the influences of honey vs common sweeteners have not been fully explored. We hypothesized that in comparison with sucrose, a honey-based diet would promote lower weight gain, adiposity, and related biomarkers (leptin, insulin, and adiponectin) as well as a better blood lipid profile. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats (228.1 ± 12.5 g) were equally divided by weight into 2 groups (n = 18) and provided free access to 1 of 2 diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either clover honey or sucrose. After 33 days, epididymal fat pads were excised and weighed, and blood was collected for analyses of serum concentrations of lipids, glucose, and markers of adiposity and inflammation. Body weight gain was 14.7% lower (P ≤ .05) for rats fed honey, corresponding to a 13.3% lower (P ≤ .05) consumption of food/energy, whereas food efficiency ratios were nearly identical. Epididymal fat weight was 20.1% lower (P ≤ .05) for rats fed honey. Serum concentrations of triglycerides and leptin were lower (P ≤ .05) by 29.6% and 21.6%, respectively, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher (P ≤ .05) by 16.8% for honey-fed rats. No significant differences in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, glucose, or insulin were detected. These results suggest that in comparison with sucrose, honey may reduce weight gain and adiposity, presumably due to lower food intake, and promote lower serum triglycerides but higher non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... While the long-term effects of a diet containing 10% honey resulted in less weight gain, adiposity, hemoglobin A1c levels and higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), than sucrose [16]. In rats exposed to 20% carbohydrate diet from honey, Nemoseck et al. [17] showed that honey caused less food ingest, weight gain, adiposity and less triglycerides levels than sucrose. Additionally, honey has proved behavioral effects, as less anxiety and better spatial memory, compared to sucrose [18]. ...
... While, in rats exposed to 10% honey ad libitum for 52 weeks, Chepulis and Starkey [16] found that, compared to sucrose, honey feed rats had lower LDL, triglycerides and HbA1c; and higher HDL-C and TC. Nemoseck et al. [17] reported that rats exposed to 20% honey along 33 days, compared to sucrose, developed lower glucose and triglycerides levels, similar insulin and HDL-C levels and higher TC. In our experiment, non-statistical differences were observed in biochemical analysis among groups (P > 0.407). ...
... Leptin concentration was in average similar among HS and GFS, but 30% in average higher for SS (P > 0.883); these findings are in accordance with previous reports [17]. As leptin production by adipocytes is regulated by insulin-mediated glucose metabolism, and the ingestion of fructose does not stimulate insulin segregation [50]; the less concentration of insulin and leptin observed in HS and GFS could be explained by the fructose metabolism. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: The exposure to sucrose in rats has mimic abnormalities attributed to metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effects of honey bee and "free" glucose and fructose, have not been explored in this context. The aim was to expose Wistar rodents to sucrose solution (SS), honey solution (HS) and fructose/glucose solution (GFS) at 30% to assess their effects. Subjects/methods: HS (n = 10), SS (n = 10) and GFS (n = 10) groups were formed. Solutions were ad libitum along 14-weeks. Results: Between solutions consumptions, honey was significantly 42% higher (P = 0.000), while similar consumption was observed among GFS and SS. The feeding pattern of HS consumption was irregular along experiment; while the food intake pattern showed the similar trend among groups along time. Non statistical differences were obtained in any biochemical and anthropometric measure, however, a higher concentration of leptin (721 ± 507 pg/mL), lower concentration of total cholesterol (TC; 48.87 ± 2.41 mg/100 mL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL; 16.47 ± 6.55 mg/100 mL) and triglycerides (82.37 ± 32.77 mg/100 mL) was obtained in SS group. For anthropometric values, HS showed less total adipose tissue (AT; average 26 vs. 31-33 g) and adiposity index (average 6.11 vs. 7.6). Due to sugar-sweetened beverages consumption increases the risk for the development of chronic diseases; correlations between fluid intake and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed. A moderate correlation was obtained in groups with the weight of total AT and solution intake; for the weight gain in GFS group and for triglycerides in HS and GFS. The highest hepatic tissue damage was observed in SS group with multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles, atypia changes, moderate pleomorphism and hepatocellular necrosis. Conclusions: In spite of the significantly higher consumption of HS, biochemical, anthropometrical and histological effects were not remarkably different in comparision to other sweeteners.
... Besides several health benefits and the nutritional value ascribed to natural honey (Ajibola, Chamunorwa, & Erlwanger, 2012), various honey samples from different regions have been reported to exert beneficial effects with regards to diabetes and other related conditions in experimental and clinical studies. Honey's impact with respect to pre-clinical (Adesoji & Oluwakemi, 2008;Chepulis,&;Akhtar & Khan, 1989;Al-Waili, 2003a, 2003bAnyakudo, Balogun, & Adeniyi, 2015;Busserolles, Gueux, Rock, Mazur, & Rayssiguier, 2002;Chepulis, 2007;Erejuwa et al., 2016;Nasrolahi, Heidari, Rahmani, & Farokhi, 2012;Nemoseck et al., 2011;Omotayo et al., 2010;Starkey, 2008) and clinical (Abdulrhman, 2013;Abdulrhman, 2016;Abdulrhman, El-Hefnawy, Hussein, & El-Goud, 2011;Abdulrhman et al., 2013;Agrawal et al., 2007;Ahmad, Azim, Mesaik, Nazimuddin, & Khan, 2008;Al-Waili, 2003a, 2003bAl-Waili, 2004;Bahrami et al., 2009;Enginyurt et al., 2017;Gheldof, Wang, & Engeseth, 2003;Khalil, Shahjahan, & Absar, 2006;Larson-Meyer et al., 2010;Majid et al., 2013;Münstedt, Böhme, Hauenschild, & Hrgovic, 2011;Münstedt et al., 2008;Münstedt et al., 2009;Mushtaq, Mushtaq, & Khan, 2011;Rana, Sharma, Katare, Shrivatava, & Prasad, 2012;Samanta, Burden, & Jones, 1985;Shambaugh, Worthington, & Herbert, 1990) work can be realized from studies presented in Tables 1 and 2. ...
... Few experimental studies have documented the effects of honey on appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (modulate satiety, appetite, body weight, calorie intake and expenditure) (Batterham et al., 2006;Klok, Jakobsdottir, & Drent, 2007). Rats that have been fed honey have shown lower leptin levels when compared with rats that have been fed sucrose (Nemoseck et al., 2011). Honey also delays postprandial ghrelin release and results in the enhancement of total peptide YY response in healthy human subjects (Larson-Meyer et al., 2010). ...
... Fructose in honey has been put forth as a suggestion to reduce the secretion of leptin, and for the attenuation of ghrelin's postprandial suppression (Erejuwa et al., 2012a(Erejuwa et al., , 2012bTeff et al., 2004). It has to be noted though that the impact of honey administration on body weight is equivocal included weight loss (Chepulis, 2007;Chepulis & Starkey, 2008;Nemoseck et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Honey is being used in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, especially in Indian Ayurvedic Medicine, as an adjuvant and supplement in diabetes mellitus treatment since immemorial times. In recent times, the use of honey has experienced a renewed interest in the context of diabetes treatment because of the rise in the accessibility of evidence-based pharmacological and clinical findings, signifying its health benefits. Scope and approach There are differential opinions regarding the traditional use of honey in diabetes mellitus. The present review highlights various research propositions, hoisted issues, and misconceptions regarding the effects of honey in diabetes management and presents current challenges and future perspectives. A comprehensive critical review was performed by probing the traditional antidiabetic claims of honey, considering published reports in online databases. Key findings and conclusions A total of 20 pre-clinical and 25 clinical studies investigated the antidiabetic effect of honey. Though in vivo studies are still limited, the findings reinforce the multi-targeted antidiabetic effect of honey, exerting antioxidant, nutritional, antihyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycaemic activities. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that honey may possess multi-faceted and adjunct effects to accomplish a better glycaemic control, ameliorate several metabolic derangements, and mitigate oxidative stress-evoked diabetic problems. Nevertheless, the findings remain inconclusive due to poor study designs and other limitations (e.g. short duration, few participants, the difference in type of study participants, varied honey sources, and administered doses). Overall, there is a significant gap in knowledge, and hence, carefully planned, detailed in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies are warranted to reach better conclusions.
... Increased C-peptide and insulin secretion and modulation of appetiteregulating hormones such as leptin, ghrelin and peptide YY may also contribute to improved glycemic control as a result of honey supplementation. In addition, honey could reduce prostaglandin levels and elevate NO [74,68,69,80,[83][84][85][86]. It was proven that PGE2 is one of the major physiological inhibitors of insulin, acting via specific receptors [87]. ...
... Although the mechanisms by which honey decreases weight gain are still not fully understood, findings from some recent studies suggest that honey may also reduce weight gain via modulation of appetite-regulating hormones such as leptin, ghrelin and peptide YY [84,85]. Furthermore, based on findings which showed lack of significant difference in food efficiency ratio (FER) in sucrose-and honey-fed rats, reduced food intake might contribute considerably to reduce weight gain in honeyfed rats [84]. ...
... Although the mechanisms by which honey decreases weight gain are still not fully understood, findings from some recent studies suggest that honey may also reduce weight gain via modulation of appetite-regulating hormones such as leptin, ghrelin and peptide YY [84,85]. Furthermore, based on findings which showed lack of significant difference in food efficiency ratio (FER) in sucrose-and honey-fed rats, reduced food intake might contribute considerably to reduce weight gain in honeyfed rats [84]. Fructose and oligosaccharides which are present in honey may also contribute to reduced body weight and food intake in honey-fed rats [90][91][92][93]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Apitherapy is the scientific term which refers to the medical use of honey, bee venom, propolis, royal jelly, bee pollen, beeswax and apilarnil. Bee venom therapy for arthritis, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases is the most well-known. Numerous studies supported honey for healing of wounds and burns, and even as an anticancer agent. Moreover, several studies evaluating the cardiovascular effects of honey bee products revealed very promising results, paradoxically, apitherapy is still not in focus with a cardiovascular neuropharmacological viewpoint. In an effort to provide extensive information about the cardiovascular bioactivity of natural honey, as the major honey bee product, both in terms of familiarity and profit, this review overviews, for the first time; (1) cardioactive and vascoactive effects of natural honey, (2) mechanisms underlying cardioactive and vasoactive potentials of natural honey, and (3) how improving our knowledge of the mechanisms mediating protective and ameliorative outcomes of natural honey may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases? Future challenge remaining will be to permit full exploitation of apitherapy potency to expand novel horizons in the cardiovascular autonomic neuropharmacology.
... This is corroborated by a recent study which proved that consumption of honey for four weeks improved obesity-related parameters and reduced weight gain of Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet (Samat et al., 2017). Results obtained from Chepulis and Starkey (2008), Nemoseck et al. (2011) and Ajibola et al. (2013) have also shown the potential benefits of honey in controlling weight gain and obesity. However, these in vivo studies do not address how honey could affect weight gain and obesity at the cellular level. ...
... Previous studies using animal model and clinical trial on human have demonstrated the potential of honey in controlling obesity (Chepulis & Starkey, 2008;Mushtaq et al., 2011;Nemoseck et al., 2011;Ajibola et al., 2013;Alvarez-Suarez et al., 2013). Nemoseck et al. (2011) showed that clover honey could help in improving weight regulation and reducing triglyceride level in rats. ...
... Previous studies using animal model and clinical trial on human have demonstrated the potential of honey in controlling obesity (Chepulis & Starkey, 2008;Mushtaq et al., 2011;Nemoseck et al., 2011;Ajibola et al., 2013;Alvarez-Suarez et al., 2013). Nemoseck et al. (2011) showed that clover honey could help in improving weight regulation and reducing triglyceride level in rats. Another study by Chepulis and Starkey (2008) showed that honey reduced visceral adiposity of rats supplemented with honey compared to rats fed with low dose-diet of golden syrup. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey has potential in controlling obesity by reducing excess weight gain and other obesity parameters such as triglyceride levels. However, its effects on the cells that stores lipid (adipocytes) is still unclear. This study was performed to observe the effects of pineapple honey on the growth and lipid accumulation of adipocytes in vitro. Pineapple honey was standardised according to its total phenolic and flavonoid contents prior to treating on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Proliferation of adipocytes was observed using 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dipenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay while lipid accumulation and droplet size were determined using oil red O staining and Feret’s diameter. Pineapple honey exhibited 0.0379 ± 0.001 mg/100 mL GAE of total phenolic content and 0.098 ± 0.001 mg catechin/kg of total flavonoid content. It significantly inhibited adipocytes’ proliferation starting from 6.25% of pineapple honey concentration. In addition, the honey also significantly reduced lipid droplet size by 33.78% to 70.36% and reduced lipid accumulation compared to the control. These findings suggest that pineapple honey may affect the storage of lipids in adipocytes. Future investigation involving the biomarkers of adipogenesis is required to confirm whether the reduction in lipid accumulation is attributed to the effect of honey on these pathways.
... In contrast, the body weight of GrI and GrIII kept increasing and decreasing in weeks 2 to 5 before increasing slightly again in weeks 6, 7, and 8. Administration of mixtures of honey and EOs for two months significantly prevented overall weight gain in rats compared to the control group or the rats receiving only honey. The anti-obesity effect of honey was further demonstrated in multiple studies compared to a sugar-free diet or sucrose and mixed sugar diets [125][126][127]. ...
... Several studies also investigated EOs as potential dietary supplements for weight loss. Earlier research has shown that the flavor of the citron group from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and lemon (Citrus limonia) essential oil increased the sympathetic nerve activity to white adipose tissue in anesthetized rats, suggesting increased lipolysis and suppressed body weight gain [128]; sweet orange EO reduced body weight gain and fat rate in obese rats [129], and administration of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) essential oil to mice caused sig- The anti-obesity effect of honey was further demonstrated in multiple studies compared to a sugar-free diet or sucrose and mixed sugar diets [125][126][127]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout history, honey has been used to treat various diseases. The present work examined and assessed the in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of Moroccan thyme honey and its association with essential oils from three selected plants: Origanum vulgare L.; Mentha spicata L.; Eucalyptus globulus L. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied, and preliminary toxicity, in vitro anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial tests were conducted. Then the anti-inflammatory effect was determined by applying carrageenan and an experimental trauma-induced paw edema test in rats. The essential oils were rich in phytochemicals and showed significant antibacterial activity against four selected ATCC bacterial strains. The results revealed the significant anti-inflammatory potential of honey and mixtures with essential oils and indicated higher efficiency of mixtures compared to honey alone. It can be concluded that the mixtures of honey and essential oils have advantageous anti-inflammatory effects and may be used for treating different types of inflammation in humans after certain clinical trials.
... However, more studies are required to understand the mechanism and to identify the phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the effects. Results presented in this study are consistent with different types of pure honey reported by other studies (Chepulis et al., 2009;Nemoseck et al., 2011;Ajibola et al., 2013;Samat et al., 2018). Samat et al. (2018) reported that pineapple honey reduced the lipid droplet size and lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ...
... Samat et al. (2018) reported that pineapple honey reduced the lipid droplet size and lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Another example, clover honey, another mono-floral honey was found to improve weight regulation and reduce triglycerides level in rats (Nemoseck et al., 2011). Moreover, a diet comprising of low-dose golden syrup and sucrose (some FH types are invented with sugars) increased visceral adiposity in rats (Chepulis et al., 2009;Ajibola et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey authenticity is one of the most critical honey trading issues worldwide. Fake honey (FH) represents almost 80% of the honey market in Malaysia. Apart from violating consumer’s rights, FH consists of none of the beneficial nutritional value other than pure honey (PH). Moreover, prolonged consumption of FH may cause harm to human health. However, data regarding these issues is limited. In this study, both PH and FH were tested using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese Sprague Dawley rats. Initially, a physicochemical analysis was performed on both the honey samples according to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and International Honey Commission procedures. After 72 hr, PH significantly reduced lipid accumulation and triglyceride levels in the adipocytes. In the rats, low glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly detected after orally administered for 16 weeks. Conversely, FH significantly induced higher lipid accumulation and triglyceride levels in adipocytes and excess high blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in rats. The results demonstrated that FH has negative effects on lipid metabolism, and prolonged consumption may cause health complications. Furthermore, prompt actions are required to address this problem.
... Results showed a significant decrease in final body weight in lead acetate treated with honey, Vitamin C and both compared to the lead acetate group [ Figure 1]. This observation is in accordance with the report of Nemoseck et al. [36] who reported that honey promotes lower weight gain than sucrose and other common sweeteners in rats. In addition, Yaghoobi et al. [37] also reported a weight decrease in overweight patients treated with natural honey. ...
... [50] There are controversial reports in the literature on the effects of honey on lipid profiles. [36,51,52] We found a significant decrease in cholesterol in lead acetate treated with honey and honey+Vitamin C, a significant decrease in triglycerides in lead acetate treated with honey, Vitamin C, and both, a significant decrease in HDL in lead acetate treated with Vitamin C and a significant decrease in LDL in lead acetate treated with honey+Vitamin C compared to lead acetate only [ Table 3]. This observation is in line with the work of Yaghoobi et al. [37] and Rasad et al. [53] who reported a decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL in healthy subjects. ...
Objectives Lead is an environmental toxicant known to cause dyslipidaemia through oxidative stress damage. The therapeutic potential of honey has widely been reported. However, there is a paucity of reports on its effects on lipid profile in Wistar rats exposed to lead. Materials and Methods The effects of honey on antioxidants and lipid profile indicators were studied in 25 male Wistar rats. The rats were randomly assigned to one of the five groups ( n = 5) as follows: Group I served as the control and received deionised water; Group II served as a lead acetate group (40 mg/kg bw) and Groups III, IV and V served as lead acetate groups coadministered with honey (1 mL/kg bw), Vitamin C (100 mg/kg bw) and honey+Vitamin C, respectively. The treatments were orally administered for 28 days. Body and liver weights were determined using an analytical weighing balance. Glucose and lead concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the lipid profile indicators were determined using spectrophotometry. The liver histology was assessed by haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance, and the results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. at P < 0.05. Results Body weight, SOD, and TAC increased significantly in the treatment groups compared to lead acetate only. However, lead, glucose concentration, MDA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL decreased significantly in the treatment groups compared to lead acetate only. Normal histoarchitecture of the liver was seen in the treatment groups compared to lead acetate, which showed areas of inflammation. Conclusion These findings imply that honey prevents dyslipidaemia which is a risk factor for metabolic diseases.
... g) in the last week of study followed by G 6 (239.70 g). The researchers have found two possible reasons for the body weight reduction in the honey fed subjects, first one is the high concentration of antioxidants especially the flavonoids, and secondly the lower glycemic index of honey, which allow it to digest, absorbed and metabolized at slower rate, causing a slower rise in blood glucose, which indirectly help in weight loss by reducing the appetite of subjects (Nemoseck et al. 2011). Another possible reason in this scenario could be presence of hydrogen peroxide in the honey, which acts as a powerful insulin mimetic agent, produced by the oxidation of glucose by glucose oxidase enzyme (Samat et al. 2017 Week 0 ...
... Münstedt et al. (2009) also found the same declining pattern in the LDL level of hypercholesterolemic subjects, which were supplied with pure honey solution for two weeks, in comparison with the subjects receiving same amount of sugar solution. The main reason for the LDL reduction in the hypercholesterolemic subjects by the ingestion of honey was found to be not only its strong antioxidant potential but also owing to its ability in weight reduction, which could resultantly lessen the level of bad cholesterol in subjects (Nemoseck et al. 2011). HDL, also known as good cholesterol is a factor which needs to be increased in the blood of healthy subjects. ...
Article
During the last decade, scientific investigations have put more focus on diet based therapies to prevent numerous maladies especially hypercholesterolemia and related disorders. Current project was designed to discover the nutraceutical worth of natural unifloral honeys from Acacia nilotica (Desi Kikar) and Citrus limetta (Mosambi) against hypercholesterolemia. Initially both honey varieties were analyzed for TPC and TFC, followed by DPPH and FRAP assays. Afterwards, honey drinks were prepared using different concentrations of Acacia and Citrus honeys (10:20:30 g/250 mL water) and were tested in experimental rat model. Initially the rats were provided with high cholesterol diet (2%) to induce hypercholesterolemia, which were then provided with honey drinks for 8 weeks. These were monitored regularly for feed and water intake and weekly for body weight gain. The blood samples for total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglyceride levels as well as safety assessment tests were analyzed at the intervals of 0, 28, and 56 days, which showed that Acacia honey was better in terms of antioxidant potential (DPPH, FRAP, and TPC) than the Citrus honey. Feed and drink intakes along with body weight gain showed significant effect among all the experimental groups. Substantial reduction in cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides was observed in G3 (213.82±3.36 to 183.95±3.02 mg/dL), (150.05±2.30 to 125.44±3.32 mg/dL) and (163.24±4.87 to 133.64±4.75 mg/dL), respectively, from 0 to 56th day. Liver and kidney functioning values decreased within the normal range. Owing to strong antioxidant potential, Acacia honey was proved to be more effective in controlling hypercholesterolemia than the Citrus honey.
... Stingless bee honey regulated blood glucose and controlled body-weight in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Sahlan et al., 2020). Clover honey also produced similar effects in diabetic rats (Nemoseck et al., 2011). Intake of honey with metformin and glibenclamide had a synergistic effect on the drugs and also significantly reduced serum lipids, creatinine, and bilirubin levels (Erejuwa et al., 2011). ...
... In an animal study, intake of honey ameliorated the derangement in lipid profile, weight, and serum glucose (p < 0.05) caused by a high-fat diet in male Wistar rats (Gohar et al., 2020). In another animal study, clover honey (20% of diet) reduced adiposity and improved lipid profile in comparison to sucrose (Nemoseck et al., 2011). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Honey is one of the most popular functional foods, speculated to be in use since the advent of human civilization. Its health-protective activity is endorsed by many religions and traditional medicines. In Unani medicine, honey is prescribed for many health conditions as wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, etc. In the present era, honey is gaining popularity over sugar for its myriad health benefits and low glycemic index. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the biological activities and potential therapeutic uses of honey, with scientific evidence. Methodology In this paper, we have provided a comprehensive overview of historical uses, types, physical characteristics, bioactive constituents and pharmacological activities of honey. The information was gathered from Classical Unani textbooks and leading scientific databases. There is a plethora of information regarding various therapeutic activities of honey, and it is daunting to draw practical conclusions. Hence, in this paper, we have tried to summarize those aspects which are most relevant to clinical application. Observations and conclusions Many important bioactive constituents are identified in different honey types, e.g. phenolics, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, etc., which exert important biological activities like anti-microbial, wound healing, immunomodulatory, anti-toxin, antioxidant, and many others. Honey has the potential to alleviate many lifestyle disorders, mitigate the adverse effects of drugs and toxins, and also provide healthy nutrition. Although conclusive clinical evidence is not available, yet honey may potentially be a safer alternative to sucrose for diabetic patients.
... 7,8 Honey, as a product of bee also able to decrease of leptin in obese subject. 9 Almost study about leptin and honey bee products using mice or rat as subject and using human is still rare; it makes study just subjected obesity only not central obesity. This study aimed to examine whether honey and propolis Trigona can reduce the level of leptin in central obesity human. ...
... It will delay postprandial ghrelin response and blunted the glucose response. 9,15 This study did not explore response of doses, and further study should explore effect of propolis and honey with different dose. ...
Article
Objective This study aimed to examine whether honey and propolis Trigona can reduce the level of leptin in central obesity human. Methods It was a quasi-experimental study, population and sample were central obesity and normal weight as control. Sample size was 30 participants taken using purposive sampling. Results Intervention as long as 14 days make an increased level of leptin as many as 97.076 pg/ml in control group and decreasing respectively 171.803 pg/ml and 245.293 pg/ml in honey and propolis intervention group, both significant statistically. The dose of honey given was 105 mg/days divided into 3 packs, and each pack contains 35 mg. The dose of propolis was 60 mg/days and divided into 3 capsules, each of it contains 20 mg. Intervention as long as 14 days and leptin levels examined using human ELISA Kit three times, that is before intervention, 7 days after the intervention and 14 days after intervention. Conclusion Honey and propolis Trigona has the ability to decrease leptin level of central obesity participants. These honey bee products are potential to be a dietary supplement for central obesity patients.
... Lipoproteins are divided into high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), thus cholesterol (C) is classified accordingly into HDL-C (good cholesterol), LDL-C and VLDL (bad cholesterols) [106]. Clover honey Rat blood serum ↓ Weight gain and adiposity, ↓ TGs but ↑ non-HDL-C levels [108] Native honey Rat blood samples ↓ glucose and lipids no deteriorated effects on hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia [109] Local honey Rat blood serum ↑ Plasma TG, HDL-C and VLDL-C but ↓ plasma LDL-C and TC [110] Tualang honey Rat heart tissue ↑ Antioxidant enzyme levels in heart tissue and ↓ lipoprotein oxidation (LPO) [111] Tualang honey Rat blood serum, kidneys ↓ TC and TG compared to the control at 7 days; ↓ Serum creatinine level than no honey group after 48 h; No structural effect histologically in the HCD-fed rats [112] Gelam, Acacia honey Rat blood serum, internal organs ↓ Excess weight gain and adiposity index; ↓ plasma glucose, TGs, TG and obesity at similar levels to orlistat drug group [113] Malícia honey Rat blood serum, liver ↓ Food consumption, ↑ glucose tolerance and SOD activity; ↓ TC, LDL and AST levels; ↑ beneficial bacteria and organic acids; ...
... The authors found that the honey diet reduced body weight (p ≤ 0.05) and serum TGs concentrations (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the relevant sucrose diet. However, honey did not result in significant differences in serum HDL-C and TC [108]. In another study, honey significantly increased TG, HDL and VLDL levels and decreased plasma LDL and TC levels compared to the control group [110]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey, a natural sweetener has been used universally as a complete food and in complementary medicine since early antiquity. Honey contains over 180 substances, including sugars mainly fructose and glucose, water and a plethora of minor constituents such as vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. The chemical composition of honey varies depending on floral origin, environment and geographical conditions. The sugar components dominate honey composition and they are accountable for sensory and physicochemical properties in food industry. Although present in small quantities, non-sugar components are the major contributors to the health benefits of honey. Our review summarizes and discusses composition of honey, its protective effects and possible action modes on risk factors of atherosclerosis.
... El presente estudio longitudinal, experimental, del tipo "casos y controles" pretende evaluar si el consumo de miel de abeja con etanol grado alimenticio o sin etanol generan variaciones en la glicemia, colesterol y triglicéridos en sangre, mediante el consumo de dosis repetidas durante 28 días en ratas albinas mediante cánula orogástrica. Por tal motivo, se diseñó una metodología de estudio preclínico in vivo, con técnicas sustentadas en investigaciones nacionales e internacionales, lo que garantiza la confiabilidad de los datos obtenidos (13)(14)(15)(16) . ...
... Sin embargo, en diversos estudios vinculados, no se observó efecto significativo de la miel sobre el peso corporal en ratas no diabéticas (21,29) . Aunque los mecanismos por los cuales la miel de abeja se ha asociado a una menor ganancia ponderal aún no se comprendan, los hallazgos de estudios recientes sugieren que la miel podría disminuir el peso promedio mediante la modulación de las hormonas reguladoras del apetito, como leptina, grelina y péptido YY (15,31) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo: Evaluar si el consumo de miel de abeja durante 28 días produce variaciones en las concentraciones de glucosa, colesterol y triglicéridos en ratas albinas de la cepa Holtzman. Materiales y métodos: El estudio realizado fue de tipo experimental, analítico, prospectivo y longitudinal. Se realizó un tamizaje fitoquímico preliminar de la miel de abeja. Para el estudio bioquímico se empleó 40 ratas albinas machos cepa Holtzman de 14 semanas de edad, aleatorizadas y divididas en cuatro grupos de diez ratas: grupo I (agua destilada); grupo II (etanol 10 %), grupo III (solución de miel de abeja 2 %) y grupo IV (solución de miel de abeja 2 % en etanol 10 %), cuya administración oral se realizó durante 4 semanas mediante cánula orogástrica y se evaluó 1 semana adicional a la administración oral. Se realizó la medición de las concentraciones de glucosa, colesterol y triglicéridos en sangre, en los días 0, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 35. Resultados: Se determinó la presencia de alcaloides, triterpenoides y compuestos fenólicos. En el estudio bioquímico, el grupo IV presentó aumento en el promedio del peso corporal, concentraciones de glucosa y colesterol; el grupo I presentó aumento en el promedio de la concentración de triglicéridos en suero sanguíneo. Al finalizar el estudio, el grupo IV presentó disminución en el promedio de la concentración de triglicéridos. No se observó alteraciones en los parámetros hematológicos, fórmula leucocitaria, ni lesiones microscópicas ni macroscópicas relacionadas a los tratamientos en estudio. Conclusiones: En condiciones experimentales el consumo de miel de abeja al 2 % en etanol al 10 % se ha evidenciado variaciones en las concentraciones sanguíneas de glucosa, colesterol y triglicéridos en ratas albinas.
... Improvement in body weight was observed in diabetic rats receiving oral honey and isolated proteins as compared to non-treated diabetic rats (Fig. 4), where continuous reduction in body weight was observed. No effect on body weight was shown by diabetic rats receiving I.P treatment of honey and its isolated protein, validating the hormone regulation and appetite modulatory effects of honey as well as its protein via oral route [49]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM) poses a serious health problem worldwide and several inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Honey composed of various constituents which have been proven to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of Ziziphus honey and its isolated crude proteins in modulation of immune system and inflammation involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Methodology The proteins from Ziziphus honey were isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and estimated by Bradford method. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated by inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from phagocytes via chemiluminescence immunoassay and nitric oxide (NO) by Griess method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT Assay. The comparative effect of oral and IP routes of honey and isolated proteins was observed in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. qRT-PCR technique was utilized for gene expression studies. Results The honey proteins suppressed phagocyte oxidative burst and nitric oxide (NO) at significantly lower concentrations as compared to crude honey. The isolated proteins showed promising anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects along with maintenance of body weight of rodents via both oral and IP routes, with significant down-regulation of inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, iNOS, caspase 1, Calgranulin A (S100A8) and NF-κB expression in diabetic rats. Conclusion The isolated honey proteins showed better immunomodulatory and therapeutic potential at significantly lower doses as compared to crude honey.
... It is important to note, however, that the doses of honey given to these animal subjects were extremely high, often 10% to 20% of their daily energy intake, and are therefore not replicable in humans. [62][63][64][65][66][67][68] Other studies in rats confirm a beneficial effect on glycemic outcomes, demonstrating a reduction in fasting blood sugar levels. 66,67,69,70 Most of the honey types used in these animal trials were also monofloral raw honey, confirming the benefits of unprocessed raw honey for a variety of outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Excess calories from free sugars are implicated in the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Honey is a free sugar but is generally regarded as healthy. Objective: The effect of honey on cardiometabolic risk factors was assessed via a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched up to January 4, 2021, for controlled trials ≥1 week in duration that assessed the effect of oral honey intake on adiposity, glycemic control, lipids, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammatory markers, and markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Data extraction: Independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95%CIs. Certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Data analysis: A total of 18 controlled trials (33 trial comparisons, N = 1105 participants) were included. Overall, honey reduced fasting glucose (MD = -0.20 mmol/L, 95%CI, -0.37 to -0.04 mmol/L; low certainty of evidence), total cholesterol (MD = -0.18 mmol/L, 95%CI, -0.33 to -0.04 mmol/L; low certainty), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD = -0.16 mmol/L, 95%CI, -0.30 to -0.02 mmol/L; low certainty), fasting triglycerides (MD = -0.13 mmol/L, 95%CI, -0.20 to -0.07 mmol/L; low certainty), and alanine aminotransferase (MD = -9.75 U/L, 95%CI, -18.29 to -1.21 U/L; low certainty) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD = 0.07 mmol/L, 95%CI, 0.04-0.10 mmol/L; high certainty). There were significant subgroup differences by floral source and by honey processing, with robinia honey, clover honey, and raw honey showing beneficial effects on fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Conclusion: Honey, especially robinia, clover, and unprocessed raw honey, may improve glycemic control and lipid levels when consumed within a healthy dietary pattern. More studies focusing on the floral source and the processing of honey are required to increase certainty of the evidence. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42015023580.
... Clover honey, USA 33 days − Body weight gain was 14.7% lower, epididymal fat weight was 20.1% lower -Decreases TG (29.6%) and leptin and (21.6%) level -High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was higher by 16.8% -No significant differences in serum TC, HDL-c, adiponectin, c-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, glucose, or insulin 131 In vivo Melipona subnitida D. honey 35 days -A decreased in TC, LDL and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood levels in rats fed with honey *supplementation with honey did not influence the weight gain or food intake in rats 132 In vivo Honeydew honey, New Zealand 42 days -Weight gain lower in honey-fed rats compared to sucrose or mixed-sugars group. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey has a long history of therapeutic properties for multiple diseases, including inflammation and oxidative stress. This review aimed to provide a better understanding and renewed interest in the potential role of honey in obesity control, obesity-related diseases treatment and weight management, with specific reference to its components and the effect of honey overall. There is compelling evidence that honey possesses the desired properties for this purpose, as seen in the in vitro, in silico, in vivo and clinical analyses discussed in this review. This review also highlights the components potentially responsible for the health benefits of honey. Honey and its components reduce blood sugar levels, improve insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism by reducing triglycerides, and reduce total cholesterol and LDL levels while increasing HDL levels that prevent excessive weight gain and reduce the risk of obesity and its complications. Further controlled studies are necessary to validate the role of honey in the management of obesity, both as a preventive and as a therapeutic agent.
... The liver is the largest gland and major metabolic organ, and among its several functions, is the production of glucose (via gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis) and its release into circulation 20 .Taken together, it is a principal organ in controlling blood sugar, because an imbalance in glucose release from the liver and uptake from peripheral tissues can lead to the persistent hyperglycaemia; a major contributing factor to the development of diabetes 21 Treatment with CW, HON and both synergistically decreased CHOL and TG levels suggesting hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyceridemia. Previous studies have demonstrated that honey provided antihypercholesterolemia and antihpertriglyceridemia in rats [22][23][24] . Coconut water has also been reported to possess cholesterol-lowering effect in rats 25 . ...
Article
Full-text available
honey may be of immense benefit in the treatment of several diseases. The current study investigated whether co-administration of coconut water and honey has a synergistic effect on glucose storage, hepato-reno functions and oxidative balance. Four groups of male Sprague rats weighing between 150-200g were treated with CW and HON (10mg/kg of body weight) and (5.0mg/kg body weight of 50%) respectively thus: group I: Normal saline (1ml/kg body weight); group II: CW; Group III: HON; group IV: CW and HON synergistically for 21days. At the end of the experiment, fasting blood glucose (FBG), skeletal and hepatic glycogen contents were determined. Serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL levels were also assessed. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), CAT and lipid peroxidation’s marker malonaldehyde (MDA) was assessed. Liver enzymes’ alkaline phosphatase (ALT), alanine amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and kidney function enzymes’ urea and creatinine was determined. Treatment with CW, HON and both synergistically decreased FBG and significantly increased hepatic and skeletal glycogen contents compared with control (p<0.05). Serum triglyceride level significantly decreased in all the treated groups compared with control (p<0.05). There was a significant decreased in urea and creatinine levels in all the treated groups compared with control (p<0.05). Treatment with CW, HON and both synergistically elicited lower AST, ALT, ALP levels compared with control (p<0.05). The result shows a significant increase in albumin level when treated with both CW and HON synergistically compared with control (p<0.05). GSH, SOD and CAT showed a significant increase (p<0.05) and lipid peroxidation’s marker, MDA significantly reduced compared with control (p<0.05). The current studies provide substantial evidence that CW and HON improves hepatic glucose storage, possess hypolipidemic and hepato-reno effects. They had synergistic effect on oxidative balance with concomitant reduction of lipid peroxidation.
... However, the honey diet significantly slowed weight gain, which is consistent with other studies [18]. Gelam honey fed to obese rats reduced high-fat diet-induced weight gain [19], which may be related to the absorption of nutrients [20]. Since we neglected to monitor the weight of mouse feces daily, it was not possible to ensure that the ingested honey was completely absorbed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is proposed to be the oldest natural sweetener and it is a standard component of several dietary patterns. Recent evidence suggests that replacing sugars, such as fructose, with honey has potential health benefits. In this study, we determined the effects of honey supplementation in mice on cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers and changes in gut microbiota and metabolomic profiles. We compared mice fed a honey diet (1 or 2 g/kg) with those fed an analog diet (mixed fructose, glucose, and sucrose (FSG) solutions) at exact dosages for one month. We found the same blood glucose fluctuating trends for honey- and FGS-fed mice. The honey diets resulted in less weight gain and fewer ballooned hepatocytes. Additionally, honey diets decreased the total serum cholesterol and TNF-α and increased the antioxidant enzyme activity. Each diet type was associated with distinct gut microbiota and metabolomics profiles. Systems biology analysis revealed that Lactococcus spp., Lachnospiraceae spp., and oleamide had the strongest correlations with lipid metabolic networks. Although in an animal model, this study provides a good understanding of the potential benefits of choosing honey rather than mixed sugars in regular dietary patterns.
... These findings are supported by several studies. In comparison to rats given sucrose solution, Nemoseck and colleagues discovered that rats given natural honey had lower TG levels and less weight gain [13]. Khalil et al. also reported that Tualang honey decreases total cholesterol and TG levels [14]. ...
... The health-promoting characteristics are due to the presence of molecules with recognized antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties [17]. Although honey is speculated to be a potential agent in preventing and reversing metabolic syndrome by reducing obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension [18][19][20][21][22], the consequences of honey chronic ingestion on glucose homeostasis are still debated, and the impact on brain health conditions remains poorly known. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of regular honey intake on HFD-induced neurodegeneration in an animal model. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of long-term honey ingestion on metabolic disorders and neurodegeneration in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Three groups of mice were fed with a standard diet (STD), HFD or HFD supplemented with honey (HFD-H) for 16 weeks. Biochemical, histological, Western blotting, RT-PCR and Profiler PCR array were performed to assess metabolic parameters, peripheral and central insulin resistance and neurodegeneration. Daily honey intake prevented the HFD-induced glucose dysmetabolism. In fact, it reduced plasma fasting glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations and increased adiponectin levels. It improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and HOMA index without affecting plasma lipid concentration. HFD mice showed a significantly higher number of apoptotic nuclei in the superficial and deep cerebral cortex, upregulation of Fas-L, Bim and P27 (neuronal pro-apoptotic markers) and downregulation of Bcl-2 and BDNF (anti-apoptotic factors) in comparison with STD- and HFD-H mice, providing evidence for honey neuroprotective effects. PCR-array analysis showed that long-term honey intake increased the expression of genes involved in insulin sensitivity and decreased genes involved in neuroinflammation or lipogenesis, suggesting improvement of central insulin resistance. The expressions of p-AKT and p-GSK3 in HFD-H mice, which were decreased and increased, respectively, in HFD mouse brain, index of central insulin resistance, were similar to STD animals supporting the ability of regular honey intake to protect brain neurons from insulin resistance. In conclusion, the present results provide evidence for the beneficial preventative impact of regular honey ingestion on neuronal damage caused by HFD.
... This study was in line with several other studies in which subjects given a diet with sucrose or simple sugars caused weight gain 26,24,25,21 . Another study said a sucrose diet led to significant weight gain and an increase in gonadal adipose tissue 31 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Latar belakang: Obesitas merupakan masalah kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh berbagai faktor salah satunya dari faktor diet. Diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa dapat memicu terjadinya masalah gizi lebih yaitu overweight dan obesitas. Diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa jika dilakukan seseorang yang mengalami obesitas akan menyebabkan masalah kesehatan seperti penyakit metabolik. Tujuan: Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah adalah membahas pengaruh diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa terhadap obesitas. Metode: Penelusuran artikel berdasarkan literatur dalam 10 tahun terakhir (2010-2020) menggunakan database elektronik seperti Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, dan PubMed/Medline yang menganalisis pengaruh diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa terhadap obesitas Ulasan: Hasil penelusuran penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa dapat menyebabkan kenaikan berat badan, overweight, obesitas, meningkatkan lingkar pinggang, meningkatkan lemak dalam tubuh dan inflamasi pada jaringan adiposa. Dampak penyakit penyerta dari diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa yaitu Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, kerusakan hati, penurunan energy expenditure dan stress oksidatif pada ginjal. Kesimpulan: Diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa menyebabkan kenaikan berat badan hingga masalah gizi lebih yaitu overweight dan obesitas. Dampak diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa dengan penyakit akibat obesitas yakni menyebabkan NAFLD (Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease). Penelitian terkait diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa banyak dilakukan pada hewan coba. Penelitian selanjutnya diharapkan banyak dilakukan pada manusia juga, agar nantinya bisa dibandingkan dengan hasil penelitian dengan hewan coba, hasil tersebut sesuai dengan teori atau tidak.
... The influence of Clover honey on weight gain, adiposity and blood lipid profile on Sprague-Dawley rats has been evaluated [213]. They were equally divided into two groups and provided either clover honey or sucrose. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: vegetative diversity is based on different climate and geographical origins. In terms of beekeeping, herbal diversity is strongly correlated to the production of a wide variety of honey. Therefore, based on the existing plant diversity in each country, multiple honey varieties are produced with different health characteristics. While beekeeping potential and consumption preferences are reflected in products’ variety, this leads to an increase in the region’s economy and extensive export. In the last years, monofloral honey has gained interest from consumers and especially in the medicinal field due to the presence of phytochemicals which are directly linked to health benefits, wound healing, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Scope and approach: this review aims to highlight the physicochemical properties, mineral profiles and antioxidant activities of selected monofloral honeys based on their botanical and geographical origin. Moreover, this review focuses on the intercorrelation between monofloral honey’s antioxidant compounds and in vitro and in vivo activities, focusing on the apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition in various cell lines, with a final usage of honey as a potential therapeutic product in the fight towards reducing tumor growth. Key findings and conclusions: multiple studies have demonstrated that monofloral honeys have different physicochemical structures and bioactive compounds. Useful chemical markers to distinguish between monofloral honeys were evidenced, such as: 2-methoxybenzoic acid and trimethoxybenzoic acid are distinctive to Manuka honey while 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid is characteristic to Kanuka honey. Furthermore, resveratrol, epigallocatechin and pinostrobin are markers distinct to Sage honey, whereas carvacrol and thymol are found in Ziziphus honey. Due to their polyphenolic profile, monofloral honeys have significant antioxidant activity, as well as antidiabetic, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. It was demonstrated that Pine honey decreased the MDA and TBARS levels in liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues, whereas Malicia honey reduced the low-density lipoprotein level. Consumption of Clover, Acacia and Gelam honeys reduced the weight and adiposity, as well as trygliceride levels. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect of chrysin, a natural flavone in Acacia honey, was demonstrated in human (A375) and murine (B16-F1) melanoma cell lines, whereas caffeic acid, a phenolic compound found in Kelulut honey, proves to be significant candidate in the chemoprevention of colon cancer. Based on these features, the use of hiney in the medicinal field (apitherapy), and the widespread usage of natural product consumption, is gaining interest by each year.
... Honey supplementation in the P+H group successfully maintained the bodyweight like that of the control group and acted sometimes as a lipolytic compound. Another study on honey corroborated our findings, which stated that intake of 20% mono-floral honey reduced the body mass of rats (Nemoseck et al. 2011;Terzo et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Phthalates, plasticizing chemicals, are top-rated environmental contaminants. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), a chief member of this family, was declared a potent endocrine disruptor and carcinogen in animals and humans. The current study was designed to explore the probable reproductive damage induced by DEP and the therapeutic efficacy of raw honey in male albino mice. Four-week-old 50 male mice were randomized equally in five groups, as control (C) received 0.1 ml distilled water; vehicle control (VC) received corn oil (0.1 ml/mouse); DEP (3mg/g/BW) dissolved in corn oil; honey control (HC) administered with honey (0.2 mg/g/day); and phthalate plus honey (P+H) administered with DEP and honey (3mg and 0.2 mg/g/BW/day respectively). Mice were treated through oral gavage for 54 days routinely, acclimatized for 6 days, and dissected. In the first instance, the antioxidant potential and total phenolic contents (TPC) of honey were analyzed through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and Folin-Ciocalteu assay to confirm the antioxidant capacity of honey. The morphological, morphometric, histological, micrometric, sperm count, and hormonal analyses, and antioxidant capacity test in tissue homogenates were conducted by using tissues (testis, epididymis) and blood samples of mice. Mice exposed to DEP have a significant increase in body weight, LH level, and seminiferous tubule lumen diameter and decrease in the gonado-somatic index, testosterone level, sperm count, and seminiferous tubule diameter. Additionally, histopathology of testes showed interstitial space dilations, exfoliations, Leydig cell atrophy, germ cell degenerations, and spermatid retention in DEP-exposed testes sections. However, concomitant use of honey and DEP had shown a significant improvement in histopathological lesions, steroid hormone levels, and healthy sperm count. By these results, it is concluded that honey possessed antioxidant potential that can efficiently protect DEP-induced anomalies in male mice.
... Honey supplementation in the P+H group successfully maintained the bodyweight like that of the control group and acted sometimes as a lipolytic compound. Another study on honey corroborated our ndings, which stated that intake of 20% mono-oral honey reduced the body mass of rats (Nemoseck et al., 2011;Terzo et al.2020). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phthalates, plasticizing chemicals are top-rated environmental contaminants. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), a chief member of this family was declared a potent endocrine-disruptor and carcinogen in animals and humans. The current study was designed to explore the probable reproductive damage induced by DEP and the therapeutic efficacy of raw honey in male albino mice. Four weeks old 50 male mice, were randomized equally in five groups, as control (C) received 0.1 ml distilled water; vehicle control (VC) received 0.1 ml corn oil; DEP (3mg/g/BW) dissolved in corn oil; Honey control (HC) administered 0.2 mg/g/day); P + H administered with DEP and honey (3mg and 0.2 mg/g/BW/day respectively). Mice were treated through oral gavage for 54 days routinely, acclimatized for 6 days and dissected. In the first instance, the antioxidant potential and total phenolic contents of honey were analyzed through Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and Folin-Ciocalteu assay to confirm the antioxidant capacity of honey. The morphological, morphometric, histological, micrometric, sperm count, hormonal analyses, and antioxidant capacity test in tissue homogenates were conducted by using tissues (testis, epididymis) and blood samples of mice. Mice exposed to DEP have a significant increase in body weight, LH level, seminiferous tubule lumen diameter and decrease in the gonado-somatic index, testosterone level, sperm count, and seminiferous tubule diameter. Additionally, histopathology of testes showed interstitial spaces dilations, exfoliations, Leydig cells atrophy, germ cell degenerations and spermatid retention in DEP exposed testes sections. However, concomitant use of honey and DEP had shown a significant improvement in histopathological lesions, steroid hormone levels, and healthy sperm count. By these results, it is concluded that honey possessed antioxidant potential that can efficiently protect DEP-induced anomalies in male mice.
... Their findings outlined a decrease of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in the investigated animals, probably due to the oligosaccharides detected in honey. In addition, Nemoseck et al. (2011) fed healthy rats with a diet containing 20% honey and observed significant decrease of triglycerides, body weight, food/energy intake, and epididymal fat weight, but not significantly glucose decrease, total cholesterol decrease, adiponectin, and Creactive proteins. In another research, Aluko et al. (2014) revealed the ability of honey to lower blood pressure in healthy male subjects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey, the sweet natural substance produced by honeybees is currently considered one of the nature’s most powerful products. Natural honey can be regarded as a nutraceutical product due to its nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. In addition to this, the use of honey as food and medicine has been embraced by different civilizations, from ancient times to the present, transcending the barriers of cultural and religious beliefs. The aim of the present review was to highlight and summarize some of the numerous medicinal attributes of honey, apart from its nutritional profile, that can contribute to its framing as nutraceutical agent. In this regard, it was proved that honey can promote metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, oral and bone health, haematological beneficial effects, anticancer activity. Moreover, evidence has been found for the use of honey as an alternative cure in several skin disorders.
... Saturated fats contained in lard and quail eggs cause damage to lipid metabolism resulting in obesity (13,19). Sucrose given to rats causes an increase in body weight due to increased food intake and changes in production and sensitivity to leptin (20). A high fat diet with sucrose additions of around 10% to 40% can increase weight, abdominal fat, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipinmenia (21). ...
Article
Metabolic syndrome can affect the inflammatory state which results in increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) and decreased adiponectin levels. Tempe gembus is a functional food that can reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome through the inflammatory pathway. This study applied a quasi experimental method, with a post-test only control group design. Sprague Dawley rats (n=30) were divided into 2 control groups (K- and K+) and 3 treatment groups (P1, P2, P3) which were given a 4-wk diet that included 2.5 g (P1), 5 g (P2), and 7.5 g (P3) of tempe gembus. Adiponectin and hs CRP levels were measured with ELISA. Statistical analysis was done with a one-way ANOVA test and a Kruskal Wallis test. It apprears that administering tempe gembus in these amounts can reduce the hs CRP levels (p=0.037) and increase adiponectin levels in rats with metabolic syndrome (p=0.008). This research has shown that a 2.5 g of tempe gembus can have a strong effect on hs CRP and 5 g of tempe gembus have a strong effect on adiponectin.
... Some of the apitherapy agents intensively investigated include honey, propolis, pollen, bee venom, and royal jelly [13]. Honey is speculated to be a potent metabolic syndrome preventive agent due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory [14], hepatoprotective [15], antihypertensive [16], and antiobesity properties [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of five risk factors comprising central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, which predispose a person to cardiometabolic diseases. Many studies reported the beneficial effects of honey in reversing metabolic syndrome through its antiobesity, hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic, and hypotensive actions. This review aims to provide an overview of the mechanism of honey in reversing metabolic syndrome. The therapeutic effects of honey largely depend on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of its polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Polyphenols, such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid, are some of the phenolic acids known to have antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic properties. They could inhibit the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and its target lipogenic enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FAS). Meanwhile, caffeic acid and quercetin in honey are also known to reduce body weight and fat mass. In addition, fructooligosaccharides in honey are also known to alter lipid metabolism by reducing FAS activity. The fructose and phenolic acids might contribute to the hypoglycaemic properties of honey through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B insulin signalling pathway. Honey can increase the expression of Akt and decrease the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. Quercetin, a component of honey, can improve vasodilation by enhancing nitric oxide production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and stimulate calcium-activated potassium channels. In conclusion, honey can be used as a functional food or adjuvant therapy to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome.
... However, studies have reported honey is safe for consumption by diabetic patients, considering its low glycaemic index and overall effect on glycaemic control (Kadirvelu and Gurtu, 2013;Bobiş et al., 2018). The capabilities of honey to regulate intestinal food metabolism, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and to reduce blood glucose levels have been reported (Nemoseck et al., 2011;Sahlan et al., 2019;Shafira et al., 2019;Sahlan et al., 2020). However, information is lacking on the use of plantain bulb or corm extracts, either in their pure or blended forms, with beverages. ...
Article
Full-text available
The pharmacological properties of various parts of plantain trees have directed its use in folkloric management of diabetes and other human ailments. However, little is known about plantain bulb extract (PBE) and their mechanisms of action. This study evaluated the effect of PBE-beverage blends (including 1% and 2 % cocoa powder) sweetened with honey on blood glucose levels, antioxidant status, and carbohydrate hydrolysing enzyme activities in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Animals were selected at random and distributed into 7 groups (n=7), as follows: normal control (NC), untreated diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with acarbose (STZ-ACA), diabetic rats administered PBE (STZ- PBE), diabetic rats administered honey and PBE (STZ-HPBE), diabetic rats administered 1% cocoa powder-with HPBE blend (STZ-CHPBE-1), and diabetic rats administered 2% cocoa powder with HPBE blend (STZ-CHPBE-2). Compared with the controls, untreated diabetic rats exhibited increased blood glucose levels and hydrolysing enzyme activities, and significant decreases in the activities of antioxidant (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) enzyme and non-enzymatic (glutathione) antioxidants. However, changes in activities were comparatively reversed in all rats administered plantain bulb formulations. CHPBE-2 was slightly more effective than CHPBE-1. Overall, both blends could serve as nutraceutical and/or functional drinks in the management of diabetes.
... Recently, honey has also been included into the MedDiet due to their potential therapeutic activity which are responsible for enhancing human health. Honey consumption helps in the reduction of various CVD risk factors such as inflammation, type 2 DM, atherosclerosis, and hypertension [144,146]. Broncel et al. conducted a study on 22 normal subjects and 25 subjects with metabolic syndrome to evaluate favorable effects on altered metabolic activities. The subjects were administered with anthocyanin supplementation (3 x 100 mg/day) for two months. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of naturally occurring, poly-phenol supplementations, on cardiovascular system. The present review emphasizes on the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disorders (involving heart and blood vessels), and overview of preclinical and clinical trials on polyphenols for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The review collaborates PUBMED, Google Scholar and Research gate databases, which were explored using keywords and their combinations such as polyphenols, cardiovascular disease, flavonoids, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk factors and several others, to create an eclectic manuscript. The potency and efficacy of these polyphenols are mainly depending upon the amount of consumption and bioavailability. Recent data showed that polyphenols also exert beneficial actions on vascular system by blocking platelet aggregation and oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, reducing blood pressure, improving antioxidant defenses and alleviating inflammatory responses. Several studies evidently support the cardioprotective actions mediated by polyphenols, however, some studies or long-term follow-up of human studies, did not demonstrate decisive outcomes because of variations in dose regimen and lack of appropriate controls. Therefore, more data is required to explore the therapeutic benefits of bioactive compounds as a preventive therapy for CVDs.
... NCG; thus, this suggests that daily supplementation with honey for eleven weeks was associated with significant weight increase in male rats. Although a number of studies have reported that rats fed with honey-containing feeds had significantly lower weight gains compared with those fed mixed sugars and sucrose-containing diets (Chepulis, 2007;Nemoseck et al., 2011); the comparison made in such reports was between honey, sugar free and mixed sugar diets but not between honey and standard rats pellets; moreover, none of the duration of such experiments was beyond six weeks and these differ from the present study that lasted eleven weeks. Since it has been fully established that honey is rich in both simple and complex sugars, as well as enzymes, vitamins, minerals and acids (Molan, 1996). ...
Thesis
Petrol is used as fuel for internal combustion engines. Different health risks including weight loss, haematotoxicity, and oxidative stress have been reported for gasoline. Supplementation with antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E has been shown to ameliorate the toxicity effects of gasoline vapours exposure. Honey is a natural product which contains vitamins and polyphenols that possess good antioxidant properties. The present study was carried out to determine the potential protective role of honey against the adverse effects of exposure to gasoline on weight gain, haematological parameters, bone marrow cytology, and oxidants/antioxidants status in erythrocytes of rat. A total of 56 male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 6-7 weeks, 170-230g) were used in the study. Six rats were used for phase 1 and were randomized and treated as control (exposed to ambient air daily) and gasoline exposed (exposed to gasoline vapours 11.13±1.1cm3/h, 6h daily, 6 days/week) groups. Body weight was monitored weekly and blood sample for full blood count (FBC) and differential counts (DC) was collected at 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 11th week duration. At the end of this phase, the rats were sacrificed and bone marrow was extracted, smeared and stained for cytology. Fifty rats were used for phase II and randomized into five groups (10 per group) and treated for 11 weeks as follows: NCG - treated with 0.5ml distilled water and exposed to ambient air daily, EPG - exposed to gasoline + distilled water as above, HCG - treated with honey 1.2g/kg body weight daily, ETG-1- exposed to gasoline and concurrently treated with honey as above, and ETG-2 - exposed to gasoline as above and treated with honey during the last two weeks of the experiment. Weight gain was monitored weekly and at the end of experimental period, blood sample for FBC + DC and oxidative markers was collected via cardiac puncture; and bone marrow was extracted for cytology. The result of phase I established that significant alterations in weight gain and haematological parameters appeared on the 10th week. The results of phase II showed that exposure to gasoline was associated with significant (p<0.05) impairment of weight gain and reduction in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) as well as higher percentage of abnormal megakaryocytes. Honey supplementation significantly improved the percentage of abnormal megakaryocytes but did not improve the weight gain and MCHC values. In addition, exposure to gasoline did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers. In conclusion, this study indicates that exposure to gasoline caused adverse effects on weight gain, blood cell indices and bone marrow megakaryocytes; and that honey has the potential to protect against some of the adverse effects.
... Berry honey decreased TGs by about 31% while simvastatin by about 37% when compared with experimental control rats (Figure 2). This agrees with Nemoseck et al. (2011) as they concluded that honey-fed rats showed a 30% decline in TGs level as compared to sucrose-fed rats. ...
... Previous studies have shown that consumption of natural sweeteners compared to refined sugar can improve metabolic health. It was previously reported that honey consumption limits weight gain, improves dyslipidemia, and reduces glycemia in both human [18,19] and rats [20,21]. Moreover, both maple syrup [22,23] and agave syrup [24] intake has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis compared to sucrose. ...
Article
Full-text available
While the detrimental effect of refined sugars on health has been the subject of many investigations, little is known about the long-term impact of natural sweeteners on metabolic disorders. In this study we compared the metabolic responses to chronic ingestion of refined sugars compared to various natural sweeteners in diet-induced obese rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) for 8 weeks and daily gavaged with a solution containing 1 g of total carbohydrates from refined sugar (sucrose or fructose) or six different natural sugar sources, followed by assessment of glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipid accumulation, and inflammation. While glucose tolerance was similar following treatments with refined and natural sugars, lowered glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia was observed with fructose. Consumption of fructose and all-natural sweeteners but not corn syrup were associated with lower insulin resistance as revealed by reduced fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared to sucrose treatment of HFHS-fed rats. All-natural sweeteners and fructose induced similar liver lipid accumulation as sucrose. Nevertheless, maple syrup, molasses, agave syrup, and corn syrup as well as fructose further reduced hepatic IL-1β levels compared to sucrose treatment. We conclude that natural sweeteners and especially maple syrup, molasses, and agave syrup attenuate the development of insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation compared to sucrose in diet-induced obese rats, suggesting that consumption of those natural sweeteners is a less harmful alternative to sucrose in the context of obesity.
... Natural pure honey can be easily adulterated by the addition of substances like chalk, starch, gelatine, sucrose, water, commercial glucose, and various other substances. Thus, to detect adulteration and check the quality, various analytical procedures and techniques have been employed for the compositional analysis of honey [144]. Low power ultrasound has also found its application in the determination of mechanical and physical properties of honey. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food processing plays a crucial role in coping up with the challenges against food security by reducing wastage and preventing spoilage. The ultrasound technology has revolutionized the food processing industry with its wide application in various processes, serving as a sustainable and low-cost alternative. This non-destructive technology offers several advantages such as rapid processes, enhanced process efficiency, elimination of process steps, better quality product and retention of product characteristics (texture, nutrition value, organoleptic properties), improved shelf life. This review paper summarizes the various applications of ultrasound in different unit operations (filtration, freezing, thawing, brining, sterilization/pasteurization, cutting, etc.) and specific food divisions (meat, fruits and vegetables, cereals, dairy, etc.) along with, the advantages and drawbacks of the technology. The further scope of industrial implementation of ultrasound has also been discussed.
... We found less weight gain in honey group in comparison to normal group. Honey is also responsible for the lower weight gain after long term use [43]. These rats also showed hair loss and skin patches. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey and ghee are an essential component of our diet. They play an important role like anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimicrobial, etc. It is written in Charak Samhita that an equal mixture of honey and ghee turn into a harmful component for health. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of toxicity through the biochemical and histological parameters in Charles foster rats (24 rats were used). We have divided these rats into four groups (n = 6) - normal, honey (0.7 ml/100 g bw), ghee (0.7 ml/100 g bw), and honey + ghee (1:1) (1.5 ml/100 g bw). Treatment was given orally for 60 days. All rats were sacrificed on 61 days. Biochemical parameters like liver function test, kidney function test, Oxidative stress, Glycemic, and some protein modification parameters were done in blood plasma. We found weight loss, hair loss, red patches on ear, and increased liver function test, oxidative stress, Amadori product formation, advanced glycation end-product formation, dipeptidyl protease (DPP-4) and decreased incretins (glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)) in honey + ghee group. H&E and immunohistochemistry results showed mild inflammation in liver tissue but no changes in the kidney, intestine and, pancreas. Thus it concluded that the increased formation of Amadori product, DPP-4 activity and low incretins (GLP-1, GIP) activity resulting high postprandial hyperglycemic response could be collectively responsible for oxidative stress-mediated toxicity of honey and ghee in the equal mixture.
... This was the major difference found and noticed among the two types of honey and this might be based on glycemic index. As mentioned earlier under antidiabetic study CH contains low concentration of fructose resulted in high glycemic index (Nemoseck et al., 2011). It was suggested that the honey which has a high glycemic index is assumed to increase the body weight, in controversy the results of Chepulis and Starkey (2007) reported that honey fed rats had significantly lowered the body weight, adiposity etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases as well as a regular diet in many preparations without knowing its impact on health in condition like diabetes. Antioxidant activity was studied by DPPH assay and phosphomolybdenum method for mountain honey (MH) and cultivar honey (CH). This assay revealed that antioxidant activity of mountain honey was higher at lower concentration (75%) than cultivar honey, whereas in phosphomolybdenum method, mountain honey at 100%, had a greater antioxidant activity than cultivar honey. Effect of honey and food supplements (Turmeric, Lemon, Ginger and Garlic) either alone or in respective combinations were tested on alloxan induced diabetic mice. After 21 days of treatment it was found that the synergistic effect of MH with turmeric was greater in reducing the blood glucose level (143.8±24.74 to 122.4±11.82). The influence of the honey alone as well as in combination with different food supplements were studied to determine the effect on body weight in diabetic mice. This study revealed that MH is not affecting the weight in diabetic mice while the CH treated mice showed reduction (7.7 ± 0.41 g) in body weight. The two types of honey were also studied to evaluate the effect on wound healing and this study revealed that MH has significant influence on wound healing relative to CH.
... cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes) are linked to lifestyle choices. The anti-obesity effects of honey were previously reported in a rat model (75,76). The hypoglycemic effects of stingless bee honey and giant honey bee honey have been tested in rats (77)(78)(79). ...
Article
Insects are the most diverse group of organisms with one million species that account for 80% of the world's species. Particularly in East Asia, edible insects serve as a source of nutrients. Among these, silkworms and honeybees are well-known sources of food and have been used for the treatment of a large number of human disorders. This review focuses on the utilization of insects as food (entomophagy) as well as for their pharmacological properties (entomotherapy) that have been tested in vitro as well as in vivo.
... Berry honey decreased TGs by about 31% while simvastatin by about 37% when compared with experimental control rats (Figure 2). This agrees with Nemoseck et al. (2011) as they concluded that honey-fed rats showed a 30% decline in TGs level as compared to sucrose-fed rats. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The fear of Coronary Heart Disease looms over the medical science. In a considerable number of people, hyperlipidemia remains undiagnosed and it lurks silently over years until its consequences appear. Therefore, to manage hyperlipidemia is a medical challenge to reduce the burden of CHD. Statins, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, have superseded other pharmacological therapies to manage hyperlipidemia. The use of statins is not only costly but also associated with side effects and about one-third of symptomatic patients quit taking statin therapy due to discomfort. Therefore, the quest for a better treatment of hyperlipidemia urges scientists to look for alternatives of statins. Therefore, a randomized controlled experimental study was conducted to gauge the lipid lowering effect of berry honey and to compare it with simvastatin. Honey is suggested to have lipid-lowering effect. It is suggested that darker the color of honey the greater the antioxidant effect. Presence of berry trees (Ziziphus) makes Pakistani honey special due to its darker color. Rats of age 4-5 months were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each group (Normal Control Group A, Experimental Control Group B, Honey Group C and Simvastatin Group D). Rats in Groups B, C & D were induced hyperlipidemia by giving 4% cholesterol diet + 1% cholic acid for the initial six weeks. For the next six weeks, Group C was given Honey solution, in a single oral dose of 0.5G/Kg daily and Group D was given Simvastatin solution, in a single oral dose of 10mg/Kg daily. Blood samples were taken at zero, six and twelve weeks through cardiac puncture for serum TC, TGs, LDL and HDL level. Honey decreased TC, TGs and LDL by about 20%, 31% and 21% respectively. Simvastatin decreased TC, TGs and LDL by about 30%, 37% and 38% respectively. Honey raised HDL level by about 15% and Simvastatin by about 43%. Berry honey has a beneficial effect on lipid profile. Honey did not improve lipid profile to the extent as did by Simvastatin but it can be valuable if it is included as part of normal diet in the long run to decrease the incidence of hyperlipidemia and its consequences later in life
... The rate of adipocyte proliferation decreased during adolescence and remained stable throughout adulthood [70]. The anti-obesity effects of KH were conferred by reducing adipocyte hypertrophy which was in agreement with prior studies [18,71]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of conditions including central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that increases the risk for cardiometabolic diseases. Kelulut honey (KH) produced by stingless honey bees has stronger antioxidant properties compared to other honey types and may be a functional food against MetS. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of KH in preventing metabolic changes in rats with MetS induced by high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control (C), HCHF diet-induced MetS (S), and MetS supplemented with KH (K) groups. The K group was given KH (1 g/kg/day) for eight weeks. Compared to the control, the S group had significant higher omental fat mass, serum triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressures, adipocyte area, and adipocyte perimeter (p < 0.05). KH supplementation significantly prevented these MetS-induced changes at week 16 (p < 0.05). Several compounds, including 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, coumaric and caffeic acids, had been detected via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis that might contribute to the reversal of these changes. The beneficial effects of KH against MetS-induced rats provide the basis for future KH research to investigate its potential use in humans and its molecular mechanisms in alleviating the disease.
... Honey is typically consumed directly and has many uses in traditional medicine and functional food (Meo et al., 2017;Sahlan et al., 2019). For example, honey has been used to promote wound healing (Jull et al., 2008), has antimicrobial activities (Lusby et al., 2005), regulates food absorption in the intestine (Nemoseck et al., 2011), has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Alzubier and Okechukwu, 2011), antibacterial and antioxidant activities , reduce cell proliferation (Shafira et al., 2019) and enhancement of overall sperm quality (Fakhrildin and Alsaadi, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with impaired carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism caused by defects in insulin secretion or action. Based on our previous research, stingless bee honey (SLBH) from Tetragonula biroi and T. laeviceps can inhibit alpha-glucosidase activities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of daily oral administration of SLBH on body weight (BW) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of male rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of six rats each. One group of normal non-diabetic rats served as a positive control. The diabetic groups were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with STZ (50 mg/kg BW) for induction of DM and divided into five equal subgroups of six animals each: an untreated group as a negative control; a group treated with 0.6 mg/kg BW of glibenclamide as a positive control and three SLBN treatment groups that had daily oral administration of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg BW, respectively, for 35 days. The results showed that SLBH significantly reduced loss of BW in diabetic rats. FBG levels in diabetic rat blood, collected from the tail, were measured using Accu-Chek test strips. The FBG levels in diabetic rats that have oral administered intake with glibenclamide and SLBH were stable. There were no changes in serum FBG levels in SLBH-treated diabetic rats for 35 days. Pancreatic histopathology results from all groups showed no abnormalities or tissue damage in either diabetic or non-diabetic rats. The results of this study show that administration of SLBH reduced BW loss or improved BW of rats with STZ-induced DM. Meanwhile, the reduction in loss of BW that occurred in diabetic rats after 35 days of SLBH administration was the result of reduced formation of fats and proteins, which are broken down into energy. Further research is needed to determine the antidiabetic effects of honey from other stingless honeybee species.
... Although not measured, the observed lower food intake with honey consumption may be due to changes in leptin concentrations or sensitivity. Significantly lower food intake, leptin concentrations and weight gain were observed in rats fed a 20% clover honey diet compared to a 20% sucrose diet [25]. Significantly less weight gain was also observed in rats fed 10% honey diet compared to 8% sucrose and a mixed sugars diet [26]. ...
Article
Consumption of added sugars in the US is estimated to be approximately 1.5 times recommended levels and has been linked to increased risk for developing chronic diseases. We hypothesized that relative to sugar, honey would reduce energy intake and improve serum lipid profiles. To test this, we assessed the short-term (1-week) and relatively long-term (1-month) effects of honey versus sucrose on changes in dietary intake and serum lipid concentrations. Thirty-seven apparently healthy subjects (21 males; 16 females) aged 24-57 years (BMI = 17.6-37.2 kg/m2) completed two 4-week trials in a randomized, cross-over design separated by ≥4-week washout. During each trial, subjects consumed either clover honey or sucrose providing 1.2 g/kg/day of carbohydrate under free-living conditions with instructions to avoid changing their habitual food intake. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were elevated (P < .05) after 1 week for both trials but only remained elevated (P < .05) at the 4-week time-point during sucrose consumption. The elevation after 1 week during the honey trial was concurrent with a transient increase (P < .05) in body weight. No effects on serum concentrations of insulin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, or high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were detected for either trial. Subjects consumed significantly less energy (P < .05), carbohydrate (P < .005), sugars (P < .05), and saturated fat (P < .05) during the honey trial. These data suggest that honey may serve as a favorable substitute for sucrose with regard to reduced energy intake, carbohydrate and sugars, without negatively influencing serum lipid concentrations.
... Additionally, the adiposity index and ROW of the liver were significantly reduced in all SBH-treated groups compared to control obese rats. These findings reinforce previous data that indicates that the consumption of honey can reduce the adiposity index [19,20]. A reduction in total body fat was evident in humans who were given honey compared to those given sucrose [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Heterotrigona itama is a common stingless bee species found in Southeast Asia. Studies on the health benefits of its honey are limited in comparison with other stingless bee species. This study examines the antiobesity benefits found in stingless bee honey (SBH) from H. itama . The parameters used to measure the benefits were weight change, morphological structures, and biochemical characteristics. The research was conducted by using rats that were given a high-fat diet (HFD). In total 48 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were given a formulated HFD to increase the levels of obesity, the HFD was administered with a value of 0.68 g/cm ² . The duration of the treatment was six weeks, and the results show that the induction obesity using the HFD was successful. Following this, the rats were then treated with SBH (at dosages of 1000 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg), with orlistat or with a placebo. Compared with typical obesity treatment methods, the one that used the three dosages of SBH showed a higher reduction in body mass index (BMI), percentage of body weight gain, adiposity index, and relative organ weight (ROW). The levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) were also significantly lower in SBH-treated groups. The levels of triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower, while the level of HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher in comparison with the control obese group. In terms of morphological structures, the number of adipocyte cells was reduced, and the hepatocytes found in the liver were less prone to rupturing when treated with SBH. In conclusion, the administration of SBH led to an improvement in indicators associated with obesity reduction. SBH also possesses a hepatoprotective potential which can reduce the health risks related to obesity.
Article
Latar belakang: Kefir merupakan produk fermentasi susu yang memiliki cita rasa asam yang kurang disukai. Cita rasa kefir tersebut perlu diperbaiki dengan penambahan madu. Selain memperbaiki cita rasa, madu memiliki aktifitas antioksidan tinggi yang bermanfaat untuk kesehatan.Tujuan: Meningkatkan kualitas organoleptik dan aktifitas antioksidan kefir dengan penambahan madu bunga randu.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimental dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) yang menggunakan 5 perlakuan dan 3 kali ulangan. Perbedaan perlakuan pada pemberian konsentrasi madu sebelum proses fermentasi yaitu P0 (penambahan madu 0% dari volume kefir susu kambing), P1 (madu 5%), P2 (madu 10%), P3 (madu 15%) dan P4 (madu 20%). Uji organoleptik hedonik dilakukan oleh panelis tidak terlatih untuk melihat tingkat kesukaan responden terhadap kefir dengan penambahan madu yang berbeda. Uji aktifitas antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode DPPH.Hasil: Tidak terdapat perbedaan kesukaan panelis terhadap warna, aroma, dan tekstrur dari kefir susu kambing sebelum dan setelah penambahan madu, tetapi terdapat perbedaan dalam atribut organoleptik rasa. Rasa kefir yang paling disukai adalah perlakuan P3 (madu 15%). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan aktivitas antioksidan kefir susu kambing sebelum dan setelah penambahan madu. Aktifitas antioksidan berturut-turut dari P0, P1, P2, P3, dan P4 adalah 3.24 ± 0.15; 4.92 ± 0.15; 6.69 ± 0.15; 7.31 ± 0.14; 8.26± 0.15.Simpulan: Penambahan madu mampu memperbaiki kualitas rasa dan meningkatkan aktifitas antioksidan kefir susu kambing.Kata kunci: Aktifitas antioksidan; Kefir; Madu; Susu kambing.
Article
Full-text available
Meal replacements and food supplements are now popular commercial weight loss and nutrition products. This review describes the efficacy, effectiveness, and therapeutic use of one such product - a soy-yoghurt-honey food formulation. The original formula of this product was created more than thirty years ago and since that time it has become well established as a food supplement supporting a healthy lifestyle. Therapeutic evidence for this product is based on numerous scientific studies and clinical trials, focusing particularly on weight management and associated metabolic risk factors and published as peer-reviewed articles. Given the availability of the product and the extent to which it has been experimentally evaluated, it is timely and important that the research is brought together under a single review to consolidate the understanding for the scientific and clinical communities. This review discusses the ingredients and the broad mechanisms of action, which are probably due to the biological properties of the three base components - soy, milk, and honey. It further summarizes and discusses the laboratory and clinical intervention studies, including the biochemical and metabolic mechanisms regarding the insulin- and lipid-lowering, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-microbial properties of the overall food and its base products.
Chapter
This chapter emphasizes the profile and characteristics of bee products relevant to diabetes mellitus (DM) and their use in DM management. The chapter summarizes and analyses recent scientific data from both preclinical and clinical trials indicating the bee products’ potential in treating DM. Bee products have hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory properties, which are favorable factors for diabetics and their control. Bee products reduce oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products (AGE) build-up and adipose tissue inflammation, all of which contribute to insulin resistance and secretion abnormalities, which ameliorate diabetic complications, including nephropathy, retinopathy foot ulcers and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aimed at investigating the effect of high sucrose diet on male reproductive function and if Nigerian honey could exert a protective role. Methods: Twenty-four (24) rats were randomly divided into four equal groups of six animals and given water (control); honey (H); high sucrose solution (30%w/v) (HSS); and both high sucrose solution (30%w/v) and honey (HSS+H). Each rat on honey received a daily dose of 10ml honey/kg/5ml of distilled water. Food intake, body weight, organ weight, fasting blood glucose, LH, FSH, testosterone and sperm functions were assessed. Results: This revealed that sperm motility (p<0.05) and count increased in the HSS+ H and H- fed rats compared with HSS fed and control rats. Head and tail abnormalities sperm were also significantly reduced in the H fed rats (p<0.05).MDA level in the liver and not in the testes was significantly increased in the HSS fed rats compared with control while SOD activity was significantly increased in HSS+H rats compared with the HSS fed rats. Conclusion: The results indicate that sucrose feeding impact negatively on sperm function while Nigerian honey supplementation confers protective function on male reproduction.
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to the simultaneous presence of hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and/or visceral obesity, which predisposes a person to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Evidence suggesting the presence of direct and indirect associations between MetS and osteoporosis is growing. Many studies have reported the beneficial effects of polyphenols in alleviating MetS in in vivo and in vitro models through their antioxidant and anti-inflammation actions. This review aims to summarize the effects of honey (based on unifloral and multi-floral nectar sources) on bone metabolism and each component of MetS. A literature search was performed using the PubMed and Scopus databases using specific search strings. Original studies related to components of MetS and bone, and the effects of honey on components of MetS and bone were included. Honey polyphenols could act synergistically in alleviating MetS by preventing oxidative damage and inflammation. Honey intake is shown to reduce blood glucose levels and prevent excessive weight gain. It also improves lipid metabolism by reducing total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein, as well as increasing high-density lipoprotein. Honey can prevent bone loss by reducing the adverse effects of MetS on bone homeostasis, apart from its direct action on the skeletal system. In conclusion, honey supplementation could be integrated into the management of MetS and MetS-induced bone loss as a preventive and adjunct therapeutic agent.
Chapter
Metabolic disorders occur when unusual chemical reactions take place in the body amend usual metabolic pathways. Diabetes mellitus a metabolic disorder is generally characterized by high glucose level in blood over longer period of time. In type 1 diabetes, pancreas fails to produce adequate insulin and the same effect is due to the loss of beta cells of pancreas. Type 2 diabetes begins with resistance to insulin and accordingly gives no response to insulin. Gestational diabetes mellitus is similar to type 2 diabetes in various aspects and is having combination of inadequate insulin and sensitivity to it. For many years, honey is being used as a substitute for sugar and for providing medicinal benefits. In animal as well as human studies, convincing evidence specifies that honey displays antidiabetic as well as hypoglycemic effects. Additionally, honey consumption improved other disorders related to metabolism and to diabetes such as reduced levels of HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) and hepatic transaminases and increased HDL cholesterol. The same was in addition to lowering hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Besides depicting hypoglycemic effect, research has indicated that honey improves lipid anomalies in rats and humans suffering from diabetes. The beneficial effects of honey could also be limiting other disorders of metabolism and lessening damaging effects on various organs of the body that ultimately result in diabetic complications. Although there are few studies in the literature which are contrary to the above-depicted discussions regarding the beneficial effects of honey and its use in diabetic disorder. Also the clinical trials or studies on humans (both diabetic and healthy) are rather very sparse. It is anticipated that this book chapter will encourage fundamental investigation intended at explicating the mode of actions by which oligosaccharides present in honey improves antidiabetic/hypoglycemic effects.
Article
Background Due to phenolic and fructose content, honey may be a suitable sweetener for patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on oxidative and inflammatory status of diabetes patients is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effect of natural honey on some of oxidative, inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory markers of patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 43 patients with type 2 diabetes were allocated to isocaloric conditions with either dietary recommendations (control) or natural honey (50 g/day) plus dietary recommendations (honey) for 8 weeks with one month washout period in between. Serum lipids, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and adiponectin levels were measured at baseline and the end of each sequence.ResultsMalondialdehyde (10.9%, P = 0.01), hs-C reactive protein (10.6%, P = 0.003), and adiponectin (7.1%, P < 0.001) concentrations significantly decreased in honey condition. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (16.8%, P < 0.001) significantly decreased in control and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased in both conditions. Between-group differences were only statistically significant for adiponectin (P = 0.005) and LDL-C (P = 0.005).Conclusions Consumption of 50 g/day honey had adverse effects on LDL-C and adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Honey may need to be consumed with caution in type 2 diabetes patients.
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study investigated long-term effect of the Obudu honey on selected biomarkers of energy storage regulation, compared to table sugar. Methods: Fifty Wistar rats assigned to 5 groups of 10 rats each, were fed rat chow only (NC), 8% table sugar (S8%), 16% table sugar (S16%), 10% honey (H10%) and 20% honey (H20%) diets respectively, for 29 weeks. On dry weight basis, the percentages of table sugar and honey for each level of incorporation were equivalent. Diet intake, body weights and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were measured fortnightly. At the end of the study, serum glucose, insulin, leptin and tissue necrosis factor - α (TNF-α), wet weight of white adipose tissues (WAT) were measured. Results: After an initial adjustment to the diets, there was no significant difference in diet consumed by female and male subgroups, except the female group fed H20% which was consistently lower than the NC and the corresponding S16% fed group (P < 0.05). Both honey and sugar incorporated diets caused significant body weight gain in the female animals compared to NC; an effect which was higher with the honey than sugar, and depended on the level of each sweetener used as well as feeding duration (P < 0.05). Furthermore, S8% and S16% diets increased leptin concentration in the female rats, by 35.8 and 45.3% respectively compared with NC and by 63.8 and 40.5% compared to H10% and H20% respectively (P < 0.05). Also, the S8% and S16% diets significantly increased serum insulin in the female subgroups compared to the corresponding honey-sweetened diets; and in both male and female rats when compared to NC (P < 0.05). Lastly, the S8% and S16% diets also caused a dose-dependent increase of TNF-α in both female and male rats compared to the H10% and H20% diets and the control (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Data obtained from the study associated table sugar with obesigenic and inflammatory mechanisms more than the Obudu honey, particularly in the females. However, the data did not exempt the honey from obesigenic effect. The effects were subtle and may require a longer time to precipitate obesity.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to establish a solid platform of analytical information for the definition/standardization of the antioxidant properties of honey. We investigated first the antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity of 14 commercial honeys of different floral and geographic origin, using a battery of spectrophotometric tests: Folin-Ciocalteu assay for phenol content (PC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay) for total antioxidant activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay for antiradical activity, absorbance:450 (ABS450) for color intensity and one fluorimetric method: ORAC, oxygen reactive antioxidant capacity for the antilipoperoxidant activity. Then the data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation, principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant correlations were obtained for all the antioxidant markers (r ranging from 0.933 to 0.716), with antioxidant properties strictly correlated to the phenolic content and honey color intensity. PCA found different clusters of honey based on the antioxidant power and very likely also on chemical composition. The results of this study demonstrated that only through a combination of antioxidant testings, comparative analyses, and chemometric evaluation we can achieve a strictly rigorous guideline for the characterization of the antioxidant activity of honey, an invaluable tool for the understanding/demonstration of its antioxidants linked therapeutic efficacy.
Article
Full-text available
Small studies have suggested that honey benefits patients with high cholesterol concentrations. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a larger group of subjects. Sixty volunteers with high cholesterol, stratified according to gender and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment (yes/no), were randomized to receive 75 g of honey solution or a honey-comparable sugar solution once daily over a period of 14 days. Baseline measurements, including body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile, were obtained, and subjects also completed dietary questionnaires and the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Bodily Affect-Trait form (INKA-h) questionnaire. Measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. BMI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were significantly correlated (r = -0.487; P < .001) as were BMI and a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.420; P < .001), meaning that subjects with a high BMI had a lower HDL cholesterol value. INKA-h scores and LDL cholesterol values were also significantly correlated (r = 0.273, P = .042). Neither solution influenced significantly cholesterol or triglyceride values in the total group; in women, however, the LDL cholesterol value increased in the sugar solution subgroup but not in the women taking honey. Although ingesting honey did not reduce LDL cholesterol values in general, women may benefit from substituting honey for sugar in their diet. Reducing the BMI lowers the LDL cholesterol value, and psychological interventions also seem important and merit further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
Due to the variation of botanical origin honey differs in appearance, sensory perception and composition. The main nutritional and health relevant components are carbohydrates, mainly fructose and glucose but also about 25 different oligosaccharides. Although honey is a high carbohydrate food, its glycemic index varies within a wide range from 32 to 85, depending on the botanical source. It contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins, aroma compounds and polyphenols. The review covers the composition, the nutritional contribution of its components, its physiological and nutritional effects. It shows that honey has a variety of positive nutritional and health effects, if consumed at higher doses of 50 to 80 g per intake.
Article
Full-text available
In search of an adequate model for the human metabolic syndrome, the metabolic characteristics of Wistar rats were analysed after being submitted to different protocols of high fructose ingestion. First, two adult rat groups (aged 90 d) were studied: a control group (C1; n 6) received regular rodent chow (Labina, Purina) and a fructose group (F1; n 6) was fed on regular rodent chow. Fructose was administered as a 10 % solution in drinking water. Second, two adult rat groups (aged 90 d) were evaluated: a control group (C2; n 6) was fed on a balanced diet (AIN-93G) and a fructose group (F2; n 6) was fed on a purified 60 % fructose diet. Finally, two young rat groups (aged 28 d) were analysed: a control group (C3; n 6) was fed on the AIN-93G diet and a fructose group (F3; n 6) was fed on a 60 % fructose diet. After 4-8 weeks, the animals were evaluated. Glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and body fat were analysed. In the fructose groups F2 and F3 glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were lower, while triacylglycerolaemia was higher than the respective controls C2 and C3 (P < 0.05). Blood total cholesterol, HDL and LDL as well as body fat showed change only in the second protocol. In conclusion, high fructose intake is more effective at producing the signs of the metabolic syndrome in adult than in young Wistar rats. Additionally, diet seems to be a more effective way of fructose administration than drinking water.
Article
Full-text available
The glycemic response to dietary fructose is low, which may improve concentrations of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c), a marker of dysglycemia). Meanwhile, adverse effects on plasma triacylglycerol (a marker of dyslipidemia) and body weight have been questioned. Such effects are reported inconsistently. We aimed to evaluate the effect of fructose on these health markers, particularly examining treatment dose and duration, and level of glycemic control. A literature search was conducted for relevant randomized and controlled intervention studies of crystalline or pure fructose (excluding high-fructose corn syrup), data extraction, meta-analyses, and modeling using meta-regression. Fructose intake < 90 g/d significantly improved HbA(1c) concentrations dependent on the dose, the duration of study, and the continuous severity of dysglycemia throughout the range of dysglycemia. There was no significant change in body weight at intakes <100 g fructose/d. Fructose intakes of <50 g/d had no postprandially significant effect on triacylglycerol and those of <or=100g/d had no significant effect when subjects were fasting. At >or=100 g fructose/d, the effect on fasting triacylglycerol depended on whether sucrose or starch was being exchanged with fructose, and the effect was dose-dependent but was less with increasing duration of treatment. Different health types and sources of bias were examined; they showed no significant departure from a general trend. The meta-analysis shows that fructose intakes from 0 to >or=90 g/d have a beneficial effect on HbA(1c). Significant effects on postprandial triacylglycerols are not evident unless >50 g fructose/d is consumed, and no significant effects are seen for fasting triacylglycerol or body weight with intakes of <or=100 g fructose/d in adults.
Article
Full-text available
The underlying mechanisms for the detrimental consequences of a high-fructose diet in animal models are not clear. However, the possibility exists that fructose feeding facilitates oxidative damage. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess, in weaning rats, the effect of a high-sucrose diet v. starch diet for 2 weeks on oxidative stress variables. Plasma lipid levels were measured and lipid peroxidation was evaluated by urine and plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The susceptibilities of several tissues to peroxidation were determined in tissue homogenates after in vitro lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant defence variables were evaluated by measuring plasma and heart vitamin E levels, and heart superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities. Higher plasma triacylglycerol (P<0.01) and TBARS (P<0.01) levels were found in rats fed the sucrose diet as compared with the starch-fed group, whereas plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly decreased in the sucrose-fed group compared with the starch-fed group (P<0.01). Higher urine TBARS (P<0.01) were found in the sucrose-fed group compared with the starch-fed group, suggesting increased production of these substances from lipid peroxidation in vivo. Higher susceptibility to peroxidation in heart, thymus and pancreas was also found in the sucrose-fed group v. the starch-fed group. No statistical differences were observed for liver TBARS level between the two groups. Heart SOD activity was significantly decreased (P<0.001) in the sucrose-fed group compared with the starch-fed group, whereas heart vitamin E level and GPX activity were not different between the groups. However, the in vitro generation of superoxide radical in heart homogenate, measured by electron spin resonance detection and spin trapping, was not increased in the sucrose-fed group compared with starch-fed rats. Altogether, the results indicate that a short-term consumption of a high-sucrose diet negatively affects the balance of free radical production and antioxidant defence in rats, leading to increased lipid susceptibility to peroxidation.
Article
Full-text available
This review explores whether fructose consumption might be a contributing factor to the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities observed in the insulin resistance syndrome. The per capita disappearance data for fructose from the combined consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup have increased by 26%, from 64 g/d in 1970 to 81 g/d in 1997. Both plasma insulin and leptin act in the central nervous system in the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. Because fructose does not stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, the consumption of foods and beverages containing fructose produces smaller postprandial insulin excursions than does consumption of glucose-containing carbohydrate. Because leptin production is regulated by insulin responses to meals, fructose consumption also reduces circulating leptin concentrations. The combined effects of lowered circulating leptin and insulin in individuals who consume diets that are high in dietary fructose could therefore increase the likelihood of weight gain and its associated metabolic sequelae. In addition, fructose, compared with glucose, is preferentially metabolized to lipid in the liver. Fructose consumption induces insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriacylglycerolemia, and hypertension in animal models. The data in humans are less clear. Although there are existing data on the metabolic and endocrine effects of dietary fructose that suggest that increased consumption of fructose may be detrimental in terms of body weight and adiposity and the metabolic indexes associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, much more research is needed to fully understand the metabolic effect of dietary fructose in humans.
Article
Full-text available
Recent findings indicate that a high fructose diet has a prooxidant effect in rats compared with a starch diet. Because honey is rich in fructose, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of substituting honey for refined carbohydrates on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Rats were fed for 2 wk purified diets containing 65 g/100 g carbohydrates as wheat starch or a combination of fructose and glucose or a honey-based diet prepared by substituting honey for refined carbohydrates (n = 9/group). The same amount of fructose was provided by the honey and fructose diets. The hypertriglyceridemic effect of fructose was not observed when fructose was provided by honey. Compared with those fed starch, fructose-fed rats had a lower plasma alpha-tocopherol level, higher plasma nitrite and nitrate (NOx) levels and were less protected from lipid peroxidation as indicated by heart homogenate TBARS concentration. Compared with those fed fructose, honey-fed rats had a higher plasma alpha-tocopherol level, a higher alpha-tocopherol/triacylglycerol ratio, lower plasma NOx concentrations and a lower susceptibility of heart to lipid peroxidation. Further studies are required to identify the mechanism underlying the antioxidant effect of honey but the data suggest a potential nutritional benefit of substituting honey for fructose in the diet.
Article
Full-text available
Recent findings indicate that in addition to its hyperlipemic effect, a high fructose diet has a pro-oxidant effect in rats compared with a starch-based diet. Oligofructose (OFS) has already been shown to decrease plasma lipids in rats. We assessed the impact of fructose on oxidative stress by supplementing a high fructose diet with OFS. Rats were fed either a high fructose diet or a starch-based diet, with or without supplementation of 10 g/100 oligofructose for 4 wk. Regardless of the type of carbohydrate, OFS in the diet produced an enlargement of the cecum and led to a significant increase in the SCFA cecum pool. Fructose feeding was associated with significantly higher insulin plasma concentrations (+63%) in the control groups, whereas insulin plasma concentrations did not differ in rats fed the fructose diet supplemented with OFS. Plasma leptin concentration was significantly lower (≈50%) in the OFS-supplemented fructose group compared with the other three groups. Fructose feeding in rats also significantly increased plasma (P < 0.001) and liver (P < 0.001) triglyceride (TG) concentrations and the addition of OFS prevented the TG accumulation induced by fructose in the liver (P < 0.05) and hyperlipemia (P < 0.05), OFS consumption prevented (P < 0.05) the lower plasma vitamin E/TG ratio in rats fed the fructose diet. Control rats fed the fructose diet had high plasma TBARS values compared with rats fed the starch diet, whereas TBARS values remained unchanged when rats were supplemented with OFS. Control rats fed the fructose diet had higher TBARS urine values and higher heart tissue susceptibility to peroxidation compared with rats fed the starch diet, and this effect was significantly reduced by OFS consumption. Further studies are required to identify the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of OFS against the pro-oxidant effect of fructose. However, the potential nutritional benefits of OFS supplementation in fructose-rich diets are suggested.
Article
Full-text available
Currently, we are experiencing an epidemic of cardiorenal disease characterized by increasing rates of obesity, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and kidney disease. Whereas excessive caloric intake and physical inactivity are likely important factors driving the obesity epidemic, it is important to consider additional mechanisms. We revisit an old hypothesis that sugar, particularly excessive fructose intake, has a critical role in the epidemic of cardiorenal disease. We also present evidence that the unique ability of fructose to induce an increase in uric acid may be a major mechanism by which fructose can cause cardiorenal disease. Finally, we suggest that high intakes of fructose in African Americans may explain their greater predisposition to develop cardiorenal disease, and we provide a list of testable predictions to evaluate this hypothesis.
Article
Full-text available
It has been found that honey ameliorates cardiovascular risk factors in healthy individuals and in patients with elevated risk factors. The present study investigated the effect of natural honey on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerole, C-reactive protein (CRP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and body weight in overweight individuals. There were 55 patients, overweight or obese, who were randomly recruited into the study and assigned into two groups: control group (17 subjects) and experimental group (38 subjects). Patients in the control group received 70 g of sucrose daily for a maximum of 30 days and patients in the experimental group received 70 g of natural honey for the same period. In the control and experimental groups, body weight, body mass index, body fat weight, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triacylglycerole, FBG, and CRP were measured before treatment and at day 31 after the commencement of treatment. Results showed that honey caused a mild reduction in body weight (1.3%) and body fat (1.1%). Honey reduced total cholesterol (3%), LDL-C (5.8), triacylglycerole (11%), FBG (4.2%), and CRP (3.2%), and increased HDL-C (3.3%) in subjects with normal values, while in patients with elevated variables, honey caused reduction in total cholesterol by 3.3%, LDL-C by 4.3%, triacylglycerole by 19%, and CRP by 3.3% (p < 0.05). It is our conclusion that consumption of natural honey reduces cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in subjects with elevated risk factors, and it does not increase body weight in overweight or obese subjects.
Article
Surveys of floral honey composition have established that the three major components are fructose, glucose, and water, averaging 38.2, 31.3 and 17.2%, respectively. Glucose and fructose are the only monosaccharides in honey and it is these sugars, combined in various forms, that comprise the di- and trisaccharide fractions of floral honey. Several laboratories, utilising various chemical and physical methods, have been responsible for the isolation and characterisation of ten disaccharides, ten trisaccharides, and two higher sugars from floral honey. Several of these occur only rarely in nature, and the trisaccharide erlose, produced by the action of honeybee invertase on sucrose, was first discovered as a component of honey. Honeydew honey is produced by the honeybee from honeydew deposits left by various hemipterous insects on their host plant. Honeydew contains a more complex mixture of sugars than does nectar, and honeydew honey is appreciably higher in reducing disaccharides and higher sugars than is floral honey. The trisaccharide melizitose, not found in floral honey, is often present in levels exceeding 10% in honeydew honey. The precipitation of glucose from honey, termed granulation, is often technologically undesirable as it is sometimes followed by fermentation. Indices such as the glucose/water ratio have been used to predict granulation tendency. Small amounts of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) occur naturally in honey, resulting from the acid catalysed dehydration of the hexoses, particularly fructose. High levels of HMF suggest adulteration of honey with acid inverted invert syrup and several methods are available for its determination. The conversion of nectar and honeydew to the complex array of honey sugars by the honeybee involves a variety of chemical and biochemical processes, some of which are now understood, while others remain to be elucidated.
Article
Research has demonstrated that diets high in fructose (≥17% of energy) are potentially hyperlipidemic; however, few studies have addressed the hyperlipidemic potential of fructose when fed to healthy subjects at levels similar to those in the typical American diet (approximately 10% of energy). A total of 40 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed various levels of fructose (0%, 10%, 20%, and 45% of energy) for 28 days. Serum lipid profiles were analyzed after a 12-hour fast at the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were highest (P < 0.05) in the 20% and 45% fructose groups. Serum HDL cholesterol was higher (P < 0.05) for all fructose-fed groups and was highest in the 10% group. According to this animal model, the adverse effects on blood lipids detected in the rats fed 20% fructose or more (levels commonly consumed in the human diet) suggests a potential increased risk for atherosclerosis. However, less concern is warranted for an average diet containing 10% of energy from fructose.
Article
Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) are low molecular weight carbohydrates of intermediate in nature between simple sugars and polysaccharides. They can be obtained by direct extraction from natural sources, or produced by chemical processes hydrolyzing polysaccharides, or by enzymatic and chemical synthesis from disaccharides. The NDOs possess important physicochemical and physiological properties, and are claimed to behave as dietary fibers and prebiotics. Enrichment of diet with NDOs gives opportunity for improving of gut microecology including bacterial populations, biochemical profiles and physiological effects. Therefore, their industrial applications have rapidly increased in the last few years, both in prebiotic formulations and in symbiotic products (containing probiotic organism and prebiotic oligosaccharide).
Article
We investigated the effect of natural honey on body weight and some blood biochemical indices of diabetic subjects. Forty-eight diabetic type 2 patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the honey group received oral natural honey for 8 weeks, and the control group did not take honey. Before the onset of the study (week 0) and after 8 weeks, weight measurements were taken and fasting blood samples were drawn. After adjustment for the baseline values, there were no significant differences in the fasting blood sugars between the two groups. Body weight, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride decreased (P = 0.000), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased significantly (P < 0.01) in honey group. The levels of hemoglobin A(1C) increased significantly in this group (P < 0.01). The results of this study demonstrate that 8-week consumption of honey can provide beneficial effects on body weight and blood lipids of diabetic patients. However, since an increase in the hemoglobin A(1C) levels was observed, cautious consumption of this food by diabetic patients is recommended.
Article
Obesity is a resilient and complex chronic disease. One potential causative factor in the obesity syndrome is leptin resistance. Leptin behaves as a potent anorexic and energy-enhancing hormone in most young or lean animals, but its effects are diminished or lacking in the obese state associated with a normal genetic background. Emerging evidence suggests that leptin resistance predisposes the animal to exacerbated diet-induced obesity (DIO). Elevation of central leptin in young, lean rats induces a leptin resistance that precludes obesity on a chow diet but accelerates high-fat (HF)-induced obesity. Similarly, chronic dietary fructose consumption evokes a leptin resistance that causes obesity only upon HF exposure. Inherent central leptin insensitivity also contributes to dietary weight gain in certain obesity-prone rats. Conversely, aged, leptin-resistant animals are obese with continuous chow feeding and demonstrate aggravated obesity when challenged with an HF diet. Additionally, a submaximal central blockade with a leptin antagonist leads to obesity on both chow and HF diets, as is the case in rodents with leptin receptor deficiency of genetic origin. Despite the differences in the incidence of obesity on a chow diet, all of these forms of leptin resistance predispose rodents to aggravated HF-mediated obesity. Moreover, once leptin resistance takes hold, it aggravates DIO, and the leptin resistance and obesity compound one another, promoting a vicious cycle of escalating weight gain.
Article
The effects on glucose tolerance of prolonged fructose feeding, at a level approximating that currently in the American diet, were examined in weaning, male Wistar rate. Two groups of rats were fed ad libitum diets containing either 54% cooked cornstarch (w/w) [CS] or 39% cooked cornstarch plus 15% D-fructose (CSF) for 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 months. All rats were given an oral glucose tolerance test (250 mg glucose/100 g body weight) after each designated feeding period (hereafter referred to as age groups). Serum insulin and glucose were determined from blood obtained after fasting and 1/2 1, 2 and 3 hours following the glucose load. Neither body weight nor relative food intake (g/day/100 g body weight) differed significantly with diet. Fasting serum insulin increased linearly (r = 0.97) with age in both dietary groups, but was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in CSF- than in CS-fed rats. Fasting serum glucose levels were also higher (P less than 0.05) in CSF-than in CS-fed rats. The levels decreased with age (r = 0.61) in CS-fed rats, but increased linearly with age (r = 0.96) in CSF-fed rats. Serum insulin response to the oral glucose load was higher (P less than 0.03) in all CSF-fed than in CS-fed rats. The serum glucose response curve following the oral load was significantly higher (P less than 0.025) in CSF-fed than in CS-fed rats at 7 months but not at other ages. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, EC 4.1.1.32) activity, measured only in the 3-month group, was higher (P less than 0.05) in the CSF-fed rats, indicating higher gluconeogenic activity.
Article
Caloric intakes, body weights, plasma glucose levels and glucose tolerance were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats given a single standard diet or the standard diet and one of four sources of sugar: 1) a 32% glucose solution, 2) a 32 % fructose solution, 3) a 32% sucrose solution or 4) granulated sucrose. After 50 days, blood was collected from fasted animals for analyses of serum glucose, triglycerides and insulin levels. Livers, kidneys, epididymal and retroperitoneal fat depots and intrascapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) were removed and weighed. Animals given sugar solutions and the standard diet consumed significantly more calories, gained more weight and had significantly more retroperitoneal fat than controls given only the standard diet. Although rats given granulated sucrose and the standard diet did not eat more, they did gain significantly more weight per kilocalorie consumed and had more retroperitoneal fat than controls. Rats given the sucrose solution had significantly more BAT than controls or rats given the fructose solution or granulated sucrose. Rats receiving glucose had significantly more BAT than controls. Access to the fructose or sucrose solutions led to a decreased ability to tolerate an oral glucose load. Animals given fructose had significantly greater serum triglyceride levels than controls or rats given the glucose or sucrose solutions.
Article
The present study was aimed at answering the question why feeding rats an oligofructose (OFS) supplemented diet could cause a significant reduction in plasma lipid levels. Daily administration of a 10% (w/w) OFS-containing diet to normolipidemic male rats resulted in a decrease in plasma triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The triglyceride-lowering effect was observed after one week and lasted for at least 16 wk and was associated with a reduction in plasma very low density lipoproteins, indicating that the hypolipidemic effect of OFS may be due to changes in liver lipid metabolism. We therefore tested whether OFS feeding modified the capacity of the liver to synthesize triglycerides from free fatty acids. Hepatocytes isolated from livers of control and OFS-fed rats were incubated in the presence of [1-14C]palmitate, and both intracellular and extracellular [14C]triglyceride formation were quantified. We found that chronic feeding of an OFS-supplemented diet to rats significantly reduced the capacity of isolated hepatocytes to synthesize triglycerides from palmitate. The results suggest that, like other soluble dietary fibers, OFS significantly alters liver lipid metabolism, resulting over time in a significant reduction in plasma triglyceride, phospholipid and cholesterol levels.
Article
In this chapter I have attempted to review the current literature drawing on those studies that I believe provide the best scientific evidence in regard to this issue. When those studies that provide the best scientific evidence are reviewed, there is evidence that increasing dietary fructose consumption can significantly increase fasting plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Specifically, these changes are associated with an increase in both VLDL and LDL particles, without any apparent change in HDL particle concentrations. It appears that the magnitude of the deleterious effects vary depending on such factors as age; sex, baseline glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations; the presence of insulin resistance; and the amount of dietary fructose consumed. Finally, not all studies are consistent in these findings, however, the positive data cannot easily be dismissed and may be of substantial clinical importance. This is particularly true given the fact that: 1) these deleterious changes occur in the absence of any beneficial effect on lipoprotein metabolism, and 2) these abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism appear to be greater in those individuals already at an increased risk for coronary artery disease.
Article
The aim of the present investigation was to study normal rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) for a prolonged period (up to 30 weeks) (1) to obtain additional data on the hormonal and metabolic patterns induced by this treatment and (2) to provide information on changes taking place in the pancreatic islet cell populations. We found that long-term feeding with a SRD resulted in a steady state of hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia in which insulin levels remained unchanged and unable to compensate for the increased demands of the developing metabolic changes. The endocrine pancreas showed a significant increase of both islet number and B-cell area, as well as changes in the profile of islet cell distribution. However, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in the pancreatic content of immunoreactive insulin (IRI). It may therefore be postulated that the newly emerged B-cell mass has some sort of derangement with the increased insulin demand resulting from insulin resistance induced by the long-term SRD feeding. Thus, feeding a SRD to normal rats may prove to be an attractive animal model for studying the role of environmental nutritional factors in the unsettled issue of the relationship between insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The model might provide key information for understanding the pathophysiology of human diseases such as type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and a number of entities included in so-called syndrome X.
Article
Oligofructose (OFS), a mixture of nondigestible/fermentable fructooligosaccharides, decreases serum triacylglycerol (TAG) when it is included in the standard, fiber-free or high fat diet of rats. This paper summarizes in vivo and in vitro data to establish a biochemical mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic effect of OFS. When OFS is added to the standard (carbohydrate-rich) diet of rats at the dose of 10 g/100 g, a TAG-lowering action occurs as a consequence of a reduction of de novo liver fatty acid synthesis. The depression in the activity of all lipogenic enzymes and fatty acid synthase mRNA suggests that OFS modifies the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes. Through its modulation of de novo lipogenesis, OFS can protect against liver lipid accumulation induced by providing 10% fructose-enriched water for 48 h. OFS also significantly decreases serum insulin and glucose, which are both known to participate in the nutritional regulation of lipogenesis. It also increases the intestinal production of incretins, namely, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and glucagon-like peptide 1. This latter phenomenon results mainly from promotion of intestinal tissue proliferation by oligofructose fermentation end-products. Collectively, a link likely exists between the modulation of hormone and incretin production by OFS, and its antilipogenic effect.
Article
Honeys from seven different floral sources were analyzed for in vitro antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and by monitoring the formation of conjugated dienes as an index of the inhibition of copper-catalyzed serum lipoprotein oxidation. ORAC values ranged from 3.1 to 16.3 micromol Trolox equivalent/g honey. The darkest colored honeys, such as buckwheat honey, had the highest ORAC values. A linear correlation was observed between phenolic content and ORAC activity of the investigated honeys (p < 0.0001, R (2) = 0.9497). The relationship between the ORAC activity and inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation by the honeys yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.6653 (p = 0.0136). This work shows that honey may be used as a healthy alternative to sugar in many products and thereby serve as a source of dietary antioxidants.
Article
This study included the following experiments: (1) effects of dextrose solution (250 mL of water containing 75 g of dextrose) or honey solution (250 mL of water containing 75 g of natural honey) on plasma glucose level (PGL), plasma insulin, and plasma C-peptide (eight subjects); (2) effects of dextrose, honey, or artificial honey (250 mL of water containing 35 g of dextrose and 40 g of fructose) on cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) (nine subjects); (3) effects of honey solution, administered for 15 days, on PGL, blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine (eight subjects); (4) effects of honey or artificial honey on cholesterol and TG in six patients with hypercholesterolemia and five patients with hypertriglyceridemia; (5) effects of honey for 15 days on blood lipid and CRP in five patients with elevated cholesterol and CRP; (6) effects of 70 g of dextrose or 90 g of honey on PGL in seven patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; and (7) effects of 30 g of sucrose or 30 g of honey on PGL, plasma insulin, and plasma C-peptide in five diabetic patients. In healthy subjects, dextrose elevated PGL at 1 (53%) and 2 (3%) hours, and decreased PGL after 3 hours (20%). Honey elevated PGL after 1 hour (14%) and decreased it after 3 hours (10%). Elevation of insulin and C-peptide was significantly higher after dextrose than after honey. Dextrose slightly reduced cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 1 hour and significantly after 2 hours, and increased TG after 1, 2, and 3 hours. Artificial honey slightly decreased cholesterol and LDL-C and elevated TG. Honey reduced cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG and slightly elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Honey consumed for 15 days decreased cholesterol (7%), LDL-C (1%), TG (2%), CRP (7%), homocysteine (6%), and PGL (6%), and increased HDL-C (2%). In patients with hypertriglyceridemia, artificial honey increased TG, while honey decreased TG. In patients with hyperlipidemia, artificial honey increased LDL-C, while honey decreased LDL-C. Honey decreased cholesterol (8%), LDL-C (11%), and CRP (75%) after 15 days. In diabetic patients, honey compared with dextrose caused a significantly lower rise of PGL. Elevation of PGL was greater after honey than after sucrose at 30 minutes, and was lower after honey than it was after sucrose at 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Honey caused greater elevation of insulin than sucrose did after 30, 120, and 180 minutes. Honey reduces blood lipids, homocysteine, and CRP in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Honey compared with dextrose and sucrose caused lower elevation of PGL in diabetics.
Article
Postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia are often present in obese subjects with glucose intolerance in whom insufficient early phase insulin secretion and subsequent delayed hyperinsulin response are observed. To address this problem, a novel palatinose-based enteral formula designated as MHN-01 was developed for the prevention of postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The effects of MHN-01 on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were compared with those of the standard balanced formula (SBF). After a bolus intragastric injection of each formula equivalent to 0.9 g/kg carbohydrate, the peak levels of plasma glucose (PG) and insulin (IRI) in peripheral and portal veins of the MHN-01 group were significantly lower than those of the SBF group. The areas under the curve of PG and IRI in the MHN-01 group were 58.0% and 43.1% of those in the SBF group in the femoral vein and 65.0% and 69.3% in the portal vein, respectively. In the 2-month study, serum levels of IRI and triglyceride in peripheral blood in the MHN-01 group decreased and those in the SBF group increased compared with initial levels. Consequently, both levels in the MHN-01 group were significantly lower than those in the SBF group. In addition, the amount of accumulated fat in abdominal adipose tissue and liver tissue of the MHN-01 group was markedly reduced in comparison to that of the SBF group. Insulin sensitivity, evaluated as glucose infusion rate using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique, in the MHN-01 group was higher than that in the SBF group. Thus, in comparison to SBF, MHN-01 suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, reduced visceral fat accumulation, and improved insulin sensitivity. Therefore, human study on the effects of MHN-01 on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism will be recommended to confirm whether MHN-01 may be a useful functional food for the treatment and prevention of insulin resistance.
Article
The key role played by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) is well accepted, as is the benefit of lowering LDL in high-risk patients. What remains controversial is whether we are using the best measure(s) of LDL to identify all individuals who would benefit from therapy. Many studies have shown that, at a given level of LDL cholesterol, individuals with predominantly small LDL particles (pattern B) experience greater CHD risk than those with larger-size LDL. However, it is not clear from this observation that small LDL particles are inherently more atherogenic than large ones because, at a given level of LDL cholesterol, individuals with small LDL have more LDL particles in total. The phenotype of small LDL particle size co-segregates with a cluster of metabolic factors, including elevated triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol, and in multivariate analyses has generally been found not to be independently associated with CHD risk. In contrast, LDL particle number measured by nuclear magnetic resonance has consistently been shown to be a strong, independent predictor of CHD.