Preventing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Sexual Assault Survivors in Cape Town, South Africa: An Observational Study

Positive Health Program at San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, 94110, USA.
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 02/2011; 16(4):990-8. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-011-9892-3
Source: PubMed


We describe 131 South African sexual assault survivors offered HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). While the median days completed was 27 (IQR 27, 28), 34% stopped PEP or missed doses. Controlling for baseline symptoms, PEP was not associated with symptoms (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.66, 2.64). Factors associated with unprotected sex included prior unprotected sex (OR = 6.46, 95% CI = 3.04, 13.74), time since the assault (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.57) and age (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.57). Trauma counseling was protective (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Four instances of seroconversion were observed by 6 months (risk = 3.7%, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.1). Proactive follow-up is necessary to increase the likelihood of PEP completion and address the mental health and HIV risk needs of survivors. Adherence interventions and targeted risk reduction counseling should be provided to minimize HIV acquisition.

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Available from: Lorna J Martin, Feb 26, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: To assess adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for the prevention of HIV infection in victims of sexual assault. The authors carried out a systematic review, random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression of studies reporting adherence to PEP among victims of sexual violence. Seven electronic databases were searched. Our primary outcome was adherence; secondary outcomes included defaulting, refusal and side effects. 2159 titles were screened, and 24 studies matching the inclusion criteria were taken through to analysis. The overall proportion of patients adhering to PEP (23 cohort studies, 2166 patients) was 40.3% (95% CI 32.5% to 48.1%), and the overall proportion of patients defaulting from care (18 cohorts, 1972 patients) was 41.2% (95% CI 31.1% to 51.4%). Adherence appeared to be higher in developing countries compared with developed countries. Adherence to PEP is poor in all settings. Interventions are needed to support adherence.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Sexually transmitted infections
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    ABSTRACT: South African sexual assault survivors face the risk of potential HIV exposure, but relatively little is known about their experiences of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and post-sexual assault care. Researchers conducted 10 semistructured interviews with sexual assault survivors who had participated in an initial quantitative study of a post-sexual assault intervention that administered PEP and provided proactive individualized follow-up care. The qualitative study examined survivors' experiences of PEP and their participation in the initial observational study itself. Participants demonstrated a range of emotional reactions to PEP, while almost all equated their study experiences to positive interactions with the study nurses who administered PEP and provided informal psychosocial support. The results highlight important opportunities for nurses to enhance the quality of post-sexual assault care in order to improve patients' emotional and psychosocial outcomes and potentially increase the likelihood of survivor PEP adherence.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
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    ABSTRACT: The choice of preferred regimens for human immunodeficiency virus postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has evolved over the last 2 decades as more data have become available regarding the safety and tolerability of newer antiretroviral drugs. We undertook a systematic review to assess the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral options for PEP to inform the World Health Organization guideline revision process. Four databases were searched up to 1 June 2014 for studies reporting outcomes associated with specific PEP regimens. Data on PEP completion and discontinuation due to adverse events was extracted and pooled estimates were obtained using random-effects meta-analyses. Fifteen studies (1830 PEP initiations) provided evaluable information on 2-drug regimens (zidovudine [ZDV]- or tenofovir [TDF]-based regimens), and 10 studies (1755 initiations) provided evaluable information on the third drug, which was usually a protease inhibitor. The overall quality of the evidence was rated as very low. For the 2-drug regimen, PEP completion rates were 78.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.1%-90.7%) for people receiving a TDF-based regimen and 58.8% (95% CI, 47.2%-70.4%) for a ZDV-based regimen; the rate of PEP discontinuation due to an adverse event was lower among people taking TDF-based PEP (0.3%; 95% CI, 0%-1.1%) vs a ZDV-based regimen (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.5%-4.9%). For the 3-drug comparison, PEP completion rates were highest for the TDF-based regimens (TDF+emtricitabine [FTC]+lopinavir/ritonavir [LPV/r], 71.1%; 95% CI, 43.6%-98.6%; TDF+FTC+raltegravir [RAL], 74.7%; 95% CI, 41.4%-100%; TDF+FTC+ boosted darunavir [DRV/r], 93.9%; 95% CI, 90.2%-97.7%) and lowest for ZDV+ lamivudine [3TC]+LPV/r (59.1%; 95% CI, 36.2%-82.0%). Discontinuations due to adverse drug reactions were lowest for TDF+FTC+RAL (1.9%; 95% CI, 0%-3.8%) and highest for ZDV+3TC+boosted atazanavir (21.2%; 95% CI, 13.5%-30.0%). The findings of this review provide evidence supporting the use of coformulated TDF and 3TC/FTC as preferred backbone drugs for PEP. Choice of third drug will depend on setting; for resource-limited settings, LPV/r is a reasonable choice, pending the improved availability of better-tolerated drugs with less potential for drug-drug interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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