Singapore Med J 2011; 52(1) : 24
O r i g i n a l A r t i c l e
Services Institute of
Rahim Yar Khan,
A/Prof Abdul Mannan
Tel: (92) 42 7655680
Fax: (92) 42 37723334
Foreign bodies in the urinary bladder and
their management: a Pakistani experience
Mannan A, Anwar S, Qayyum A, Tasneem R A
Introduction: This was a retrospective study
conducted to assess the nature, presentation,
mode of insertion, diagnosis and management of
foreign bodies in the urinary bladder.
Methods: Between January 1998 and December
2007, 20 patients with foreign bodies in their
urinary bladder were treated at our centre. The
records of these patients were reviewed and
analysed for their symptoms, mode of insertion,
diagnosis, management and complications.
Results: A total of 20 foreign bodies were recovered
from the urinary bladders during the study period.
These included JJ stents with calculi, intrauterine
contraceptive devices with stones, a rubber
stick, ribbon gauze, encrusted pieces of Foley
catheter, proline thread with calculus, a suture
needle, broken cold knives, the ceramic beak of
a paediatric resectoscope, a knotted suprapubic
tube, a hair clip, a nail, an electrical wire and a
hairpin. The common presenting features were
dysuria and haematuria. The diagnosis was
established radiologically in most of the cases.
The circumstances of insertion were variable;
iatrogenic in 16 (80.0 percent) cases, sexual
stimulation in two (10.0 percent), accidental
insertion by a child in one (5.0 percent) and physical
torture in one (5.0 percent). 17 (85.0 percent)
foreign bodies were recovered endoscopically,
and cystolithotomy was required in three (15.0
Conclusion: The instances of foreign bodies in
the urinary bladder are uncommon. A diagnosis
is usually made radiologically. Iatrogenic foreign
bodies were found to be the most frequent type
of insertion encountered. Endoscopic retrieval is
usually successful, with minimal morbidity.
Keywords: endoscopic management, foreign
bodies, iatrogenic, urinary bladder
Singapore Med J 2011; 52(1): 24-28
The presence of foreign bodies in the urinary bladder
has always been an interesting topic. Every urologist
occasionally comes across such patients in his practice.
A large number of cases have been reported in the
literature, and they have now become an important
part of the study of urological diseases. Objects that
have been reported in the urinary bladder include
electrical wires,(1) chicken bones,(2) wooden sticks,(3)
thermometers,(4) bullets,(5) intrauterine contraceptive
devices (IUCDs),(6-8) encrusted sutures,(9) surgical
staples with stones,(10) ribbon gauze,(11) pieces of Foley
catheter,(12) broken pieces of endoscopic instruments,(13)
knotted suprapubic catheter(14) and many other items.
Not all patients volunteer their history of insertion,
especially those who have inserted the objects for
Fig. 1 (a) Plain radiograph shows a JJ stent with a calculus.
(b) Photograph shows the JJ stent with a calculus after removal.