Global cancer statistics. CA. Cancer J Clin

Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.
CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians (Impact Factor: 115.84). 02/2011; 61(2):69-90. DOI: 10.3322/caac.20107
Source: PubMed


The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.

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    • "Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females worldwide, with an estimated 1.7 million cases and 521,900 deaths in 2012, It alone accounts for 25% of all cancer cases and 15% of all cancer deaths among females[1]. The incidence rates and mortality rates are stable or decreasing in more developed countries but increasing in less developed countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor progression and poor outcomes in different cancer patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and prognostic value of preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with operable breast cancer. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-three patients diagnosed with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated in this study. Plasma fibrinogen levels were examined before treatment and analyzed along with patient clinicopathological parameters, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival(OS). Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the clinicopathological parameters associated with DFS and OS. Results: Elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels were directly associated with age of diagnose (≤47 vs. >47, p<0.001), menopause (yes vs. no, p<0.001), tumor size (T1&T2 vs.T3&T4, p = 0.033), tumor stage (Ⅰvs.Ⅱvs.Ⅲ, p = 0.034) and lymph node involvement (N = 0 vs. 1≤N≤3 vs. N≥4, p<0.001), but not with histological grade, molecular type and other Immunohistochemical parameters(ER, PR, HER2 and Ki-67). In a univariate survival analysis, tumor stage, tumor size, lymph node involvement (p<0.001/ p<0.001)and plasma fibrinogen (p<0.001/ p<0.001) levels were associated with disease-free and overall survival, but just lymph nodes involvement (p<0.001, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-5.3/ p = 0.006, HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.3) and plasma fibrinogen levels (p = 0.006, HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-8.3/ p = 0.002, HR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.3-44.6) were associated with disease-free and overall survival in a multivariate survival analysis, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with breast cancer progression and are independently associated with a poor prognosis in patients with operable breast cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Cancer is a global health problem and a leading cause of death worldwide.[1,2]Chemotherapy has significantly improved during the last decade largely due to the introduction of effective drug combinations and treatment schemes.[3,4]Doxorubicin, "
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    ABSTRACT: The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump has an important role as a natural detoxification system in many types of normal and cancer cells. P-gp is implicated in multiple drug resistance (MDR) exhibited by several types of cancer against a multitude of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, and therefore, it is clinically validated target for cancer therapy. Accordingly, in this study we combined exhaustive pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis to explore the structural requirements for potent P-gp inhibitors employing 130 known P-gp ligands. Genetic function algorithm (GFA) coupled with k nearest neighbor (kNN) or multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were employed to build self-consistent and predictive QSAR models based on optimal combinations of pharmacophores and physicochemical descriptors. Successful pharmacophores were complemented with exclusion spheres to optimize their receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) profiles. Optimal QSAR models and their associated pharmacophore hypotheses were validated by identification and experimental evaluation of new promising P-gp inhibitory leads retrieved from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) structural database. Several potent hits were captured. The most potent hit decreased the IC50 of doxorubicin from 0.906 to 0.190 μM on doxorubicin resistant MCF7 cell-line.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    • "Cancer is considered one of the leading causes of death globally. [1] Jemal et al. [2] estimated that by the year 2030 there will be 21.4 million new patients diagnosed with cancer annually. "

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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