Booster seat legislation: Does it work for all children?
Department of Pediatrics and Injury Research Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233, USA. Injury Prevention
(Impact Factor: 1.89).
02/2011; 17(4):233-7. DOI: 10.1136/ip.2010.029835
To assess the impact of a booster seat law in Wisconsin on booster seat use in relation to race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
A longitudinal study in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, involving repeated direct observational assessments of booster seat use rates by child passengers aged 4-7 years over five time periods, before and after legislation mandating booster seat use.
Overall, booster seat use increased from 24% to 43%, whereas proper restraint use increased pre to post-legislation from 21% to 28%. Proper use increased after legislation in white, but not in black or Latino children. White individuals had a proper booster use increase from 48% to 68% over the time period of the study. Black children's proper use dropped from 18% to 7% over the study period and Latino children's proper use rates were stable at 10%. Driver-reported household income had a significant impact on overall use, but not on proper use.
Racial/ethnic minority groups and those of lower socioeconomic status have significantly lower use and proper use of booster seats. Legislation may increase the total use of booster seats but not necessarily the correct use of the restraint, particularly in racial/ethnic minorities.
Available from: Tonja Nansel
- "Reasons for misuse are multifactorial and continue to be explored (Bilston, Finch, Hatfield, & Brown, 2008; Brixey, Corden, Guse, & Layde, 2011; Winston, Chen, Smith, & Elliott, 2006). Racial and ethnic disparities persist and may be widening, thought to be related to lower child safety seat use by racial minorities (Durbin, 2011; Brixey et al., 2011). Proper installation, one aspect of misuse, requires the child safety seat to be secured appropriately to the vehicle. "
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ABSTRACT: Injuries involving motor vehicles continue to be the biggest threat to the safety of children. Although child safety seats (CSS) have been established as a central countermeasure in decreasing injury risk, the majority of parents do not use the correct car seat correctly. There are many challenges in promoting correct car seat use, which itself is a complex behavior. To advance this critical protective behavior, the public health community would benefit from clarifying CSS messaging, communicating clearly, and addressing the conflicting recommendations of product use. In this article, we present current challenges in promoting CSS use and draw on health communication and other fields to offer recommendations for future work in this area.
Available from: Michael D Cusimano
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to measure the incidence of concussion (scaled relative to number of athlete exposures) and recurrent concussion within 2 teams of fourth-tier junior ice hockey players (16-21 years old) during 1 regular season.
A prospective cohort study called the Hockey Concussion Education Project was conducted during 1 junior ice hockey regular season (2009-2010) involving 67 male fourth-tier ice hockey players (mean age 18.2 ± 1.2 years, range 16-21 years) from 2 teams. Prior to the start of the season, every player underwent baseline assessments using the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) and the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). The study protocol also required players who entered the study during the season to complete baseline SCAT2 and ImPACT testing. If the protocol was not followed, the postinjury test results of a player without true baseline test results would be compared against previously established age and gender group normative levels. Each regular season game was observed by a qualified physician and at least 1 other neutral nonphysician observer. Players who suffered a suspected concussion were evaluated at the game. If a concussion diagnosis was made, the player was subsequently examined in the physician's office for a full clinical evaluation and the SCAT2 and ImPACT were repeated. Based on these evaluations, players were counseled on the decision of when to return to play. Athlete exposure was defined as 1 game played by 1 athlete.
Twenty-one concussions occurred during the 52 physician-observed games (incidence 21.5 concussions per 1000 athlete exposures). Five players experienced repeat concussions. No concussions were reported during practice sessions. A concussion was diagnosed by the physician in 19 (36.5%) of the 52 observed games. One of the 5 individuals who suffered a repeat concussion sustained his initial concussion in a regular season game that was not observed by a physician, and as a result this single case was not included in the total of 21 total concussions. This initial concussion of the player was identified during baseline testing 2 days after the injury and was subsequently medically diagnosed and treated.
The incidence of game-related concussions (per 100 [corrected] athlete exposures) in these fourth-tier junior [corrected] ice hockey players was 7 [corrected] times higher than [corrected] previously reported in the literature. This difference may be the result of the use of standardized direct physician observation, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment. The results of this study demonstrate the need for follow-up studies involving larger and more diverse sample groups to reflect generalizability of the findings. These follow-up studies should involve other contact sports (for example football and rugby) and also include the full spectrum of gender, age, and skill levels.
Available from: Michelle L Macy
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ABSTRACT: Children are best protected in motor vehicle collisions when properly using the appropriate restraint and sitting in a rear row. Racial and ethnic disparities have been reported in injury statistics and use of any restraint; however, predictors of safety seat use, being unrestrained, and sitting in the front seat have not been explored previously.
To determine factors associated with child passenger safety practices by race/ethnicity in a national sample of child passengers aged <13 years.
Secondary analysis conducted in 2011 of the 2007, 2008, and 2009 National Survey of the Use of Booster Seats in which child passenger restraint use was observed directly. Age-stratified, survey-weighted chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted.
Restraint use was observed for 21,476 children aged <13 years. A decline in child safety seat use and increase in being unrestrained were observed with increasing child age. In multivariate analyses, race/ethnicity, unrestrained drivers, and sitting in the front seat were associated with lower odds of child safety seat use among children aged <8 years. Older child age was associated with sitting in the front seat and being unrestrained. The presence of multiple child passengers was associated with lower odds of sitting in the front but higher odds of being unrestrained.
Few children use the recommended child passenger restraints. Understanding the reasons for the suboptimal child passenger restraint practices identified in this study is essential for the development of effective programs to reduce or eliminate preventable motor vehicle collision-related injuries.
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