Article

Recent progress and continuing challenges in bio-fuel cells. Part I: Enzymatic cells

School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, Hants, UK.
Biosensors & Bioelectronics (Impact Factor: 6.41). 03/2011; 26(7):3087-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2011.01.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent developments in bio-fuel cell technology are reviewed. A general introduction to bio-fuel cells, including their operating principles and applications, is provided. New materials and methods for the immobilisation of enzymes and mediators on electrodes, including the use of nanostructured electrodes are considered. Fuel, mediator and enzyme materials (anode and cathode), as well as cell configurations are discussed. A detailed summary of recently developed enzymatic fuel cell systems, including performance measurements, is conveniently provided in tabular form. The current scientific and engineering challenges involved in developing practical bio-fuel cell systems are described, with particular emphasis on a fundamental understanding of the reaction environment, the performance and stability requirements, modularity and scalability. In a companion review (Part II), new developments in microbial fuel cell technologies are reviewed in the context of fuel sources, electron transfer mechanisms, anode materials and enhanced O(2) reduction.

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    • "A redox mediator of appropriate redox potential is required to shuttle electrons between the enzyme and electrode surface, because direct electron transfer to buried redox sites within these enzymes is generally not possible given the distance of the active site from the electrode surface (Barriere et al. 2004). Different types of mediators, such as ferrocene and its derivatives, thionine, quinone, phenazines, Fe(III) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), methylene blue, and neutral red, have been used in enzymatic fuel cells (Osman et al. 2010). Among mediators, ferrocene and its derivatives have been popular, since they fulfill most of the requirements of ideal mediators in redox-enzyme catalysis (Palomera et al. 2011; Dursun et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the construction of an enzymatic fuel cell comprised of novel gold nanoparticles embedded poly(propylene-co-imidazole) coated anode and cathode. Working electrode fabrication steps and operational conditions for the fuel cell have been optimized to get enhanced power output. Electrical generation capacity of the optimized cell was tested by using the municipal wastewater sample. The enzymatic fuel cell system reached to maximum power density with 1 μg and 8 μg of polymer quantity and bilirubin oxidase on electrode surface, respectively. The maximum power output was calculated to be 5 μW cm− 2 at + 0.56 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 100 mM, 20 °C) by the addition of 15 mM of glucose as a fuel source. The optimized enzymatic fuel cell generated a power density of 0.46 μW cm− 2 for the municipal wastewater sample. Poly(propylene-co-imidazole) was easily used for a fuel cell system owing to its metallic nanoparticle content. The developed fuel cell will play a significant role for energy conversion by using glucose readily found in wastewater and in vivo mediums.
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    • "Stable in neutral pH, BOx enzyme is a multicopper oxidase utilizing four Cu ions, present in its active site, to reduce O 2 to H 2 O [13]. Mediated electroenzymatic reduction of oxygen has been already reported with BOx using ABTS freely diffusing in solution or immobilized in polymers [14] and in nanostructured sol-gel materials [15] [16]. The expected beneficial effect of immobilization must be, on one hand, to maintain the biological activity of the enzymes and, on the other hand, to improve the electron transfer. "
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    ABSTRACT: Co2Al-ABTS layered double hydroxides and associated Co2Al-ABTS@graphene composite were prepared in one pot technique by in situ coprecipitation. The as-obtained materials were then fully characterized by means of Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transformed InfraRed and Scanning Electron Microscopy confirming the intercalation of azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) between the LDH layers. Their electrochemical properties, according to Cyclic Voltammetry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy data, were improved compared to Zn2Al-ABTS reference material. Co2Al-ABTS hybrid LDH was found to combine both electronic transfers: interlayer provided by the presence of ABTS and intralayer due to the Co redox species. Moreover, an improvement of electronic transfer between the LDH particles was further achieved by addition of graphene. The resulting composite assemblies were tested for the first time as oxygen bioelectrode based on bilirubin oxidase. This original approach gives rise to enhanced electroenzymatic currents (�2.5) for oxygen reduction at 0 V and pH 7.0 as regard to that obtained for the reference laccase/LDH-ABTS based bioelectrode at pH 5.5.
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    • "They are considered as a promising way for alternative energy production systems (Paust et al. 2009;Gellett et al. 2010;Ren et al. 2012;Shaegh et al. 2011). In these systems, enzymes are used as catalysts to produce electricity under mild conditions through the oxidation of renewable energy sources (Davis and Higson 2007;Minteer et al. 2007, Osman et al. 2011Kendall 2002Abstract This work reports on a simple and original method for constructing a multi-level microfluidic biofuel cell (BFC) by using the xurography technique. Microfluidic BFCs have attractive properties for converting chemical energy into electrical energy via specific enzymes as catalysts and are now considered as microsources able to supply power for portable electronic systems. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work reports on a simple and original method for constructing a multi-level microfluidic biofuel cell (BFC) by using the xurography technique. Microfluidic BFCs have attractive properties for converting chemical energy into electrical energy via specific enzymes as catalysts and are now considered as microsources able to supply power for portable electronic systems. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we construct 2D and multi-level microfluidic BFCs that consist of an array of microchannels and gold electrodes designed in series or parallel configuration, and we demonstrate its operation from glucose and oxygen solutions. The fabrication process of the multi-level microfluidic device involves the stacking of alternating layers of double-sided adhesive tape and transparent sheets patterned with holes to provide connections between the channels. This process of stacking provides a reproducible method for building devices with a distribution of the fluids both vertically and laterally without mixing. The efficiency of the multi-level microfluidic device is confirmed in the presence of the enzymes laccase and glucose oxidase in solution. The proposed technique offers an alternative to construct microfluidic BFCs that deliver power output in a minimum volume, favorable to scale-up the manufacture of compact micropower sources.
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