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In vitro anti-inflamatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb

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To determine anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa in cell lines (in vitro). Anti-inflammatory activity of the water extract was analysed in vitro using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory reactions in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The expression of COX-2 and TNF-α genes involved in inflammation was analysed by SQ RT-PCR. EMSA was conducted to analyse the influence of the extract on NF-κB signalling. Anti-cancer activity was analysed on Hep3B cells by MTT assay, DAPI staining, annexin V staining and SQ-RT PCR analysis of BAX, Bcl-2, p53 and survivin. The extract down regulated LPS induced over expression of TNF-α and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells; blocked NF-κB binding to its motifs and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells as evidenced from MTT, DAPI staining and annexin V staining assays. The extract up regulated pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53, and down regulated anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin. The study showed that Cuscuta reflexa inhibits LPS induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells through interplay of TNF-α, COX-2 and NF-κB signalling. It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the up regulation of p53, BAX and down regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin.

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... The medium and high doses of AESCR and AQESCR (200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups showed better hepatoprotective activity when compared to standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg). [32] Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities Suresh V et al (2011) reported that water extract of Cuscuta reflexa exhibit ani-inflammatory and anticancer activities, after down regulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced over expression of TNF-α and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells; blocked NF-κB binding to its motifs and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells as evidenced from MTT, DAPI staining and annexin V staining assays. The extract up regulated pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53, and down regulated anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and surviving and researcher concluded that Cuscuta reflexa inhibits LPS induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells through interplay of TNF-α, COX-2 and NF-κB signalling. ...
... It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the up regulation of p53, BAX and down regulation of Bcl-2 and surviving. [33] Antitumor Activity Chatterjee D et al (2011) documented that, the chloroform and ethanol extracts of Cuscuta reflexa was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor in mice at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally, respectively, while acute oral toxicity studies were performed to determine the safety of the extracts. Briefly, the EAC cells were injected (i.p.) into ninty six mice (divided into 6 numerically equal groups), and after a one-day incubation period, the extracts were administered to the mice daily for 16 days. ...
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ABSTRACT Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a twining parasite and makes a tangled mass covering on the host plants. It is commonly known as dodder plant, amarbel, akashabela. Traditionally it is called as miracle plant. Medicinal properties of the plant are used to cure various diseases. These medicinal properties of the plant are due to the active phytoconstituents of the plants. Parasitic weed plant Cuscuta reflexa has been studied for the identification of its pharmacological activities. Various chemicals have been isolated from this miracle plant having therapeutic potential possessing ethnomedical and pharmacological activities. It contains important chemicals like cuscutin, cuscutalin, bergenin, kaempferol, amarbelin and sterol glycosides etc. Diverse pharmacological studies of Aftimoon have been reported such as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, anticonvulsant, nematicide, anti-androgenic, hypocholestrolemic, antiandrogenic, hemolytic, diuretic, dermatigenic, immunostimulant, antiarthritic, antiasthma and anticancer activities. In this paper, an attempt has been made to summarize the information described in classical Unani text and scientific research conducted on different parts of Cuscuta reflexa plant. KEYWORDS: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., Ethnomedicine, Unani, medicinal herb.
... Water extract Anti-cancer activity was analysed on Hep3B cells by MTT assay, DAPI staining, annexin V staining and SQ-RT PCR analysis of BAX, Bcl-2, p53 and survivin. The extract induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the up regulation of p53, BAX and down regulation of Bcl-2 and surviving [17]. ...
... Aqueous extract A study is reported in which the water extract of Cuscuta reflexa was analysed in vitro The study showed that Cuscuta reflexa inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) through interplay of TNF-α, COX-2 and NF-κB signalling [17]. ...
... Inflammation was induced by various chemicals like histamine and lipopolysaccharide. It was observed that extracts inhibited inflammatory responses that can be related to the presence of flavonoids, phenols, and polyphenols in this plant (43)(44)253). C. reflexa significantly suppressed inflammation by reducing edema volume up to 80 % in rats as compared to standard 96.36 % (254). C. campestris markedly inhibited carrageenaninduced edema in rats by oral pretreatment with 100 mg/kg extract (47). ...
... Similarly, chloroform part of extract of alcohol showed considerable tumor growth inhibition, which reveals that these extracts interfere in cell proliferation to inhibit cancer (15). It can induce apoptosis in Hep3B cells (253). Phenolic components isolated from C. reflexa were also assessed in HCT116 colorectal cells amongst which 1-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylglucose could show considerable anticancer activity (10). ...
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Cuscuta, commonly known as dodder, is a genus of family convolvolaceace. Approximately 170 species of Cuscuta are extensively distributed in temperate and subtropical areas of the world. Species of this genus are widely used as essential constituents in functional foods and traditional medicinal systems. Various parts of many members of Cuscuta have been found efficacious against a variety of diseases. Phytochemical investigations have confirmed presence of biologically active moieties such as flavonoids, alkaloids, lignans, saponines, phenolics, tannins, and fatty acids. Pharmacological studies and traditional uses of these plants have proved that they are effective antibacterial, antioxidant, antiostioporotic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antipyretic, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti hair fall, and antisteriogenic agents.
... [21] The recent studies in the field of herbal cancer therapy indirectly support and validate the Unani theory of humors particularly Sauda (black bile). Many single drugs, used in Unani system for the disease, have been evaluated for anticancer activity [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] and found to be very effective. However, no attention has been paid to elucidate the efficacy of compound formulations. ...
... Halela Siyah (Terminalia chebula fruit), Aftimoon (Cuscuta reflexa plant), Bisfaij (Polypodium vulgare roots), Ustukhuddus (Lavandula stoechas flower and leaves), Milh-e-Nafti (Black salt), KharbaqSiyah (Picrorhizakurroaroot) and Ghariqoon (Polyporousofficinalis). [13]All ingredients of the formulation, viz. Halela Siyah, [22,23]Aftimoon, [24,25]Ustokhuddus, [26]KharbaqSiyah, [27][28][29]Milh-e-Nafti [30][31] and Ghariqoon [32]except Bisfaij have been reported to have significant anticancer and cytotoxic effects by various in-vivo and in-vitro studies. ...
... The collected plants were air dried under shade and ground into powder. 500g of the powder was extracted with 2000 ml of solvents (Suresh et al, 2011). The solvents include Water, Ethanol, Methanol and Hexane. ...
... There are many reports that support the use of antioxidant supplementation in reducing the level of oxidative stress and in slowing or preventing the development of complications associated with diseases (Vasthi and Devarajan 2012 (Vasthi and Devarajan, 2012). Free radicals are also involved in many degenerative disorders and cancer, while antioxidants due to their scavenging activity are useful in the management of those diseases (Koleva et al.,2002;Suresh et al., 2011).The potential of local medicinal plants in reducing such free radical suggests that many plants possess antioxidant activities that can be of significant therapeutic use (Kanatt et al.,2007). Furthermore, total plant phenolics constitute one of the main groups of compounds acting as primary antioxidants or free radical scavengers (Cook and Samman, 1996), therefore it is important to determine the total amount of phenols in the selected plant extracts as this can correlate to the antioxidant activity and this study showed that the test plant extracts vary significantly in their percentage ferric reducing antioxidant potentials expressed in gallic acid equivalents(GAE) ranging from 63.624 ± 0.14 to 165.076± 0.24 mg/100g and all the sample extracts exhibited moderate to significant percentage inhibition of DPPH activity expressed in trolox equivalent (TAEC) ranging from1.306±0.20 to 6.764±0.23mg/100g. ...
... Besides, many important medicinal herbs such as Aftimoon botanically called as Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. [103] is a purgative plant and has also therapeutic action in the treatment of different diseases [104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113]. The plant is parasitic as it draws nutrition from the host after fixing on other plants body. ...
... reflexa) is one of them (Joshi 2015;Rath et al. 2017), commonly known in Bangladesh as amarbel or dodder or algushi or swarna latha. The stem of this plant has been used traditionally as an antibacterial (Pal et al. 2006) agent and externally to treat itchy skin and internally as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory (Suresh et al. 2011), diuretic, anti-cancer and anti-viral (Riaz et al. 2017). C. reflexa have high level of phenolic and flavonoid contents which exhibited antioxidant and a-glucosidase inhibition activities (Tanruean et al. 2017). ...
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Abstract The key purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the thrombolytic, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial potentials of crude ethanol extracts (CEE) of whole plant, organic and aqueous fractions (OF & AF). CEE showed the highest (44.63%) clot lysis activity compared to streptokinase (64.35%). In DPPH study, petroleum ether soluble fraction (PESF) has exhibited IC50 of 18.83 μg/mL while the standard ascorbic acid was 2.48 µg/mL. AF profoundly inhibited the lysis of erythrocytes (66.2%) which was insignificantly different (P>0.05) to acetylsalicylic acid (70.33%), the reference. However, AF showed a significantly stronger level of protection against heat-induced hemolysis (64.8%) as compared with the acetylsalicylic acid (78.09%). CEE, OF and AF have displayed reasonable growth of inhibition of tested bacteria compared to negative control and standard drug (77.50 mg of GAE/g). Keywords: Cuscuta reflexa;, Thrombolytic; Antioxidant; , Membrane stabilizing; Anti-microbial activity
... reflexa) is one of them (Joshi 2015;Rath et al. 2017), commonly known in Bangladesh as amarbel or dodder or algushi or swarna latha. The stem of this plant has been used traditionally as an antibacterial (Pal et al. 2006) agent and externally to treat itchy skin and internally as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory (Suresh et al. 2011), diuretic, anti-cancer and anti-viral (Riaz et al. 2017). C. reflexa have high level of phenolic and flavonoid contents which exhibited antioxidant and a-glucosidase inhibition activities (Tanruean et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The key purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the thrombolytic, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial potentials of crude ethanol extracts (CEE) of whole plant, organic and aqueous soluble fractions (OF & AQSF). CEE showed the highest (44.63%) clot lysis activity compared to streptokinase (64.35%). In DPPH study, petroleum ether soluble fraction (PSF) has exhibited IC50 of 18.83 μg/mL while the standard ascorbic acid was 2.48 µg/mL. AQSF profoundly inhibited the lysis of erythrocytes (66.20%) which was insignificantly different (p > 0.05) to acetylsalicylic acid (71.98%), the reference. However, AQSF showed a significantly stronger level of protection against heat-induced hemolysis (64.80%) as compared with the acetylsalicylic acid (78.90%). CEE, OF and AQSF have displayed reasonable growth of inhibition of tested bacteria compared to negative control and standard drug (77.50 mg of GAE/g).
... Cuscuta reflexa inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells (mouse macrophage cell) through interplay of tumour necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase 2 and nuclear factor κB signalling. It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells (human hepatoma cell) through the up-regulation of p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and down regulation of Bcl-2 and surviving [28] . The chloroform and ethanol extracts of Cuscuta reflexa exhibited a significant antitumor activity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice that is comparable to that of the reference standard, 5-fluorouracil [29] . ...
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Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a verity of diseases throughout the world. Bangladesh still depends on medicinal plants and most of them have general medicinal plants which are used for treating a verity of ailments. Cuscuta reflexa belongs to the family of Convolvulaceae. The aim of the resent study was to evaluate a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cuscuta reflexa. It has been investigated for hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antitumor, wound healing, hypoglycemic, anti-HIV, diuretic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from Cuscuta reflexa such as cuscutin, cuscutamine, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, amarbelin, β-sitosterol, ararbelin, luteolin, dulcitrol, cafferi acid.
... Cuscuta reflexa inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells (mouse macrophage cell) through interplay of tumour necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase 2 and nuclear factor κB signalling. It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells (human hepatoma cell) through the up-regulation of p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and down regulation of Bcl-2 and surviving [28] . The chloroform and ethanol extracts of Cuscuta reflexa exhibited a significant antitumor activity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice that is comparable to that of the reference standard, 5-fluorouracil [29] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a verity of diseases throughout the world. Bangladesh still depends on medicinal plants and most of them have general medicinal plants which are used for treating a verity of ailments. Cuscuta reflexa belongs to the family of Convolvulaceae. The aim of the resent study was to evaluate a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cuscuta reflexa. It has been investigated for hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antitumor, wound healing, hypoglycemic, anti-HIV, diuretic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from Cuscuta reflexa such as cuscutin, cuscutamine, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, amarbelin, β-sitosterol, ararbelin, luteolin, dulcitrol, cafferi acid.
... 78 It has also shown anticancer activity on Hep3B cells by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53and downregulation of anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and surviving. 79 Natural products isolated worked on HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line. 80 Methanolic extracthave shown cytotoxicity in Brine Shrimp lethality assay, may be due to the presence of phenols, polyphenols, and flavonoids. ...
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According to WHO, cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. More significant improvements have been made in the management and treatment of cancer, still there remains scope for the betterment of treatment procedures. Mostsynthetic anticancer drugs are known to develop resistance, show cytotoxicity against normal cells due to their non-selective nature, and cause tremendous side effects. Medicinal plants are significantly feasible sources of organic compounds, for their better availability, cheaper price, fewer side effects, and sometimes better therapeutic efficacy, which may benefit the world commercially or act as an important starting point for identifying lead compounds to develop modified derivatives. This article describes the ethnobotanical properties of 15 available medicinal plants of Bangladesh having anti-cancer properties.
... Ethanol, water, and methanol extract of other Cuscuta species were often studied and exhibited potential anticancer properties on some cancer cell lines. For instance, the study of Suresh et al. (2011) showed that the water extract of C. reflexa had dose dependently toxicity on the proliferation of Hep3B cells with no significant toxicity on the nontransformed cell line. Another study investigated the antiproliferative potential of 95% alcoholic, 50% hydroalcoholic, and water extracts along with n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and water fractions of 95% ethanolic extract of C. reflexa Roxb. ...
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Plant derived antioxidant compounds have the potential to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals. As a holoparasitic plant, Cuscuta campestris Yuncker is being valorized for treatment of liver injury and cancer prevention in traditional medicine. The main purpose of this present study is to elucidate the antioxidant and anti-cancer associated content of C. campestris by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, n-butanol and water were used as extraction solvents to reach a wide range of secondary metabolites synthesized by this plant. Antioxidant potential of these extracts were characterized by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. Their anticancer activities were evaluated on SNU-398 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and controlled on the normal adult human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) cells. Their phenolic compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) to illuminate the responsible anticancer agent(s). The ethyl acetate extract revealed the most significant antioxidant effect. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were found to be cytotoxic on the SNU-398 cell lines with CC50 values of 18.7 and 19.6 µg/mL, respectively, while these extracts were not cytotoxic to the adult human dermal fibroblasts cells. Due to their abundance in the extracts, isorhamnetin, kaempferol and quercetin may have caused this anticancer activity. Methanol extract has the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. Based on chromatographic analyzes, we propose that these anticancer effects were positively correlated with plant phenolic compounds. The results showed that this plant is worth further study for its therapeutic uses.
... It is widely found in temperate and tropical regions and commonly found throughout India. In Ayurvedic medicine, aftimoon has been used in various diseases such as diseases of eye, heart, digestive system, diaphoretic, protracted fever, purgative etc. [21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. The chemical examinations have been carried out along with pharmacological studies on this plant. ...
Article
All around the world, the percentage of deaths due to cancer is continuously increasing-the greatest devastation of deaths. Among all medications, Unani medicines are boon for human beings to treat cancer with no or least side effects. About 80% rural population use natural products for primary health care. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (family Cuscutaceae) is utilized in traditional medicines for curing cancer and other diseases, and it is considered as the most significant plant in the Unani medicinal system. The extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. were obtained to measure the anticancer activity with H-1299 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Soxhlet extraction was utilized for stem and seeds. The anticancer activity of fractions of each extract obtained by using Flash chromatography was also checked. Besides, the antioxidant activity of each fraction was also checked. DNA binding study supported the results obtained during whole process. The cellular death was detected utilizing ELISA. The results indicated that extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. exhibited strong anticancer activities as compared to the fractions of each extract. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. extracts indicated noteworthy cytotoxicity against human H-1299 and (lung cancer) MCF-7 cancer cells (breast cancer). The extract of this plant may be given to the patients having lung cancer and breast cancer.
... The total RNA was isolated from different treatment groups by TRIzol reagent and was quantified using a spectrophotometer. cDNA was synthesized and expression of COX1, COX2, TNF α, and β actin (internal control) were analyzed by SQRT-PCR using specific primers (Sheeba and Asha 2009;Suresh et al. 2011). Values were normalized by calculating the densitometry ratio with that of internal control as base line. ...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma or liver cancer is recognized as an intricate, multifactorial disease originates from hepatocytes so it is called hepatocellular cancer or carcinoma. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and alcoholism are the major factors contributing to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Glycopentalone is a novel anti-hepatocellular carcinoma compound isolated from Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa. The present work focused to identify the effect of glycopentalone on major hepatic residents like macrophages, stellate cells, and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, by in vitro methods and also to evaluate its kinase inhibitory effect by in silico approaches. IC50 concentration of glycopentalone and other standard chemotherapeutics were compared by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell cycle regulatory effect of sorafenib and glycopentalone was documented by fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic effect of glycopentalone was evaluated using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction by quantifying the mRNA level expression of selected gene associated with it. Kinase inhibitory effect of sorafenib and glycopentalone was confirmed using ArgusLab docking software. In vivo acute toxicity studies were done on Wistar rat animal models. The in vitro biological activity studies showed that glycopentalone has significant anti-inflammatory, anti-metastatic, and anti-fibrotic activities. In silico molecular docking of glycopentalone point out that it has potential anti-kinase activity, compared to the standard drug sorafenib. In vivo toxicity studies proved that glycopentalone did not cause significant toxicity associated morphological, biochemical, and histopathological changes on rat liver. Therefore, after the detailed in vivo case model studies, glycopentalone can be used for formulation of drugs or can be used as intermediates for new semi-synthetic drug for the preparation of standardized galenicals.
... It is confirmed that downregulation of the cytokines involved in inflammatory arthritis, COX-2 and TNF-a, by treatment of this natural agent is mediated via suppressing NF-jB expression. [55,56] Ferula asafoetida L. and F. persica L. (Apiaceae) ...
Article
Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease, which affects synovial tissue in multiple joints. Although conventional treatments of RA commonly alleviate the symptoms, high incidence of adverse reactions leads to research tendency towards complementary and alternative medicine. As various medicinal plants are traditionally used for the management of symptomatologies associated with RA in Persian medicine, we reviewed medicinal literature to confirm their efficacy in the management of RA. Key findings: Scientific evidence revealed that traditional medicaments exert beneficial effects on RA through several cellular mechanisms including downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB, suppression of oxidative stress, inhibition of cartilage degradation with destructive metalloproteinases and enhancement of antioxidant performance. Various active constituents from different chemical categories including flavonols, lignans, coumarins, terpenes, glycosylflavons, dihydroflavonols, phytoestrogens, sesquiterpene lactones, anthraquinones, alkaloids and thymoquinones have been isolated from the medicinal plants. Summary: The pharmacological mechanisms of the medicinal plants traditionally used for RA in Persian medicine are discussed in the current review. Further investigations are mandatory to focus on bioefficacy of these phytochemicals for finding novel natural drugs.
... Relationship of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of natural extracts were documented recently [21]. Suresh et al. evaluated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects of Cuscuta reflexa in vitro and suggested this extract suppressed COX-2 and TGF-β and had valuable anti-inflammatory activity that can be use in cancer therapy [22]. Tsai et al. offered wild Glossogyne tenuifolia extract indicated antioxidant, cytotoxic and TGF-B b2m con 50µg/ml 100µg/ml inflammation modulatory effects of natural extracts that provided high bioactivity in biomedicine [23]. ...
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Background: Recent investigations get focused on characterization and isolation of natural compounds with pharmaceutical applications from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Marine invertebrate natural products have been proposed due to various structural diversity. Ophiocoma eraniceus (O. erinaceus) is a brittle star species belonging to Echinodermata that distributed in Qeshm island in the Persian Gulf. Recent scientist researches have concentrated on discovery of natural resources with pharmacological and biomedical potential. Objectives: This experiment aimed to discover phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of O. erinaceus methanolic extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the phytochemical analysis were conducted to determine saponin, phenolic and flavonoid content of brittle star and the free radical scavenging activity with two in vitro assays. In addition, the effect of methanolic brittle star extract on TGF-β expression were analysed by RT-PCR. Results: The phytochemical studies established the presence of saponins, phenol, and flavonoids compounds in the brittle star extract and the antioxidant results from DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) revealed that O. erinaceus displayed antioxidant activity as dose dependent manner. On the other hand, O. erinaceus extract inhibited TGF-β expression which indicate anti-inflammatory properties of O. erinaceus. Conclusions: In conclusion, these results clearly exhibited that the O. erinaceus methanolic extract possess valuable constituents that may correspond as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent useful in biomedicine.
... The extract up regulated pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53, and down regulated anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and surviving. 45,46 ...
Article
Cancer is actually a group of many related diseases that all have to do with cells. Cancer cells are characterized by unregulated growth, as well as insufficient and inappropriate vascular supply. Moreover, a core of cells was subjected to micro environmental stress conditions, and has decreased apoptotic potential through genetic alterations, thereby resulting in resistance to apoptosis. Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide where the number of cancer patients is in continuous rise. Cancer is a major public problem whose estimated worldwide new incidence is about 6 million cases per year. It is the second major cause of deaths after cardiovascular diseases. Chemotherapy remains the principal mode of treatment for various cancers. A number of synthetic anticancer drugs are available in practice, but the side effects and the drug interactions are major drawbacks in its clinical utility. Most of the currently used chemotherapy drugs for cancers are known to develop resistance, exhibit non-selective toxicity against normal cells and restrict by dose-limiting side effects. Hence, cancer treatment and development of drugs for this disease remains a major clinical challenge. On the other hand, plants are an exceptionally viable source of biologically active natural products which may serve as commercially significant entities in themselves or which may provide lead structures for the development of modified derivatives possessing enhanced activity and/or reduced toxicity in traeatment of cancer. Herbal medicines are now attracting attention as potential sources of anticancer agents and are widely used due to availability of the materials, affordability, relatively cheap and little or no side effects, wide applicability and therapeutic efficacy which in turn has accelerated the scientific research. For these reasons, World Health Organization (WHO) supports the use of traditional medicines which are efficacious and non toxic. In this review we have summarized few plants having anticancer activity.
... Dodder species were reported to have several pharmacological activities regarding to lower blood pressure (Singh & Garg, 1973; Gilani & Aftab, 1992), anti-HIV activity (Mahmood et al., 1997), anti-oxidant activity (Srivastava et al., 2004), antibacterial activity (Pal et al., 2006; Uddin et al., 2007) , hepatoprotective activity (Balakrishnan et al., 2010), hypoglycaemic effect (Rahmatullah et al., 2009), diuretic activity (Sharma et al., 2009), anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity (Suresh et al., 2011; Chatterjee et al., 2011). Alcoholic extract of C. reflexa in his experiment on dog by Singh & Garg, 1973, showed that C. reflexa causes a fall in blood pressure and extract's action was not blocked by atropine, mepyramine or propranolol. ...
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Cuscuta (Dodder) a total stem parasite depends completely on their host for their life processes. It is treated as a noxious weed which causes loss of several major crops in the agricultural field by their root like haustorial adaptation. But apart from their weed nature, they have medicinal, pharmacological and industrial importance. They have been used for treatment of diseases like jaundice, headache, rheumatism, liver diseases. They were also found to possess antibacterial, antiviral, anti-HIV, anti-inflammator and anticancerous properties. This review deals with positive prospects and associated problems of Cuscuta which can be helpful in future exploration of their hidden aspects. Highlights Cuscuta a holoparasitic, annual flowering and herbaceous plant has made itself statically interesting in the medical science field due to its action against several human diseases.
... In MDA-MB-468 cell line (human breast carcinoma), HT29 cell line (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) and Hela cells (human uterine cervical carcinoma), aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum showed antineoplastic activity (Jafarian et al. 2014). C. reflexa aqueous extract showed proapoptotic properties in human hepatoma Hep3B cell cultures which were mediated by NF-ĸB, elevation of BAX and p53 as well as reduction of Bcl-2 and survivin (Suresh et al. 2011). Phenolic components isolated from C. reflexa was also assessed in HCT116 colorectal cells amongst which 1-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylglucose could show considerable anticancer activity (Riaz et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
Cancer has always been considered as a life-threatening disease with an etiology which is not yet completely understood. Currently, there are a wide variety of chemotherapeutic and biological agents in the market which are used for the treatment of different types of cancer under specific guidelines. A numerous number of these chemotherapeutic agents like taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and camptothecin derivatives have been isolated from natural sources; thus, nature provides an endless source of new phytochemicals as lead compounds for the generation of future anticancer agents. To find better candidates as anticancer agents, folklore and traditional medicine of countries all over the world can be a reliable guide. In addition to purification of anticancer compounds, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) can be considered as an adjuvant therapy in line with the standard chemotherapy protocols (Farzaei et al. in Curr Pharm Des 22:4201–4218, 2016a). To achieve this goal, enough evidence must be provided regarding the safety and efficacy of these natural agents. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is one of the most ancient categories of CAM which is globally well-known due to the unique medical texts like Canon of medicine by Avicenna written in 1025 A.D and Razi’s “continens” (Alhavi) written around 960 A.D and its specific doctrine based on temperaments and humors. This chapter aims to introduce the most important anticancer agents used in TPM and summarizing current evidence on the anticancer properties of these natural medicines.
... Thatch [51] 51 Mixed with the twigs of Vitex negundo L. applied as fomentation on the abdomen of kwarsiokor children, fever, itchy [139,140] Anti-viral [141,142], anti-HIV [169], analgesic, relaxant (ether extract) [170], antisteroidogenic activity (MeOH extract) [171], antibacterial activity [172], hair growth activity in androgeninduced alopecia [173], antiinflammatory (murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7), anti-cancer (Hep3B cells by MTT assay) [174], antioxidant (etOAc extract, DPPH), anti-obesity (EtOAc extract) [ Headache, expel afterbirth, cough [189] Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity (brine shrimp) [190], toxicity (Evan's rat) [191] 93 ...
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This is an extensive review on epiphytic plants that have been used traditionally as medicines. It provides information on 185 epiphytes and their traditional medicinal uses, regions where Indigenous people use the plants, parts of the plants used as medicines and their preparation, and their reported phytochemical properties and pharmacological properties aligned with their traditional uses. These epiphytic medicinal plants are able to produce a range of secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, and a total of 842 phytochemicals have been identified to date. As many as 71 epiphytic medicinal plants were studied for their biological activities, showing promising pharmacological activities, including as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer agents. There are several species that were not investigated for their activities and are worthy of exploration. These epipythes have the potential to furnish drug lead compounds, especially for treating cancers, and thus warrant indepth investigations.
... These pharmacological studies indicate the use of this plant as an antifungal [13], antibacterial, to lower blood pressure [14], anti-inflammatory [15], antioxidant [13], for the treatment of alopecia [16], anti-HIV [17], anthelmintic [18], antihistamine [19], anticholinergic, antidiabetic [20], anticonvulsant [21], CNS depression [22], muscle relaxant, analgesic, antitumor [23], and diuretic [24], among others. ...
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Cuscuta reflexa (dodder) of the family Convolvulaceae has many ethno-medicinal uses such as antidiarrheal and antiemetic. The antidiarrheal use of this plant is well established in different communities around the world without many scientific bases. One of the uses of this plant is the alleviation of diarrhea. The antibacterial, anthelmintic, anticholinergic, and antihistaminic effects of this parasitic vine are partly responsible for the folkloric antidiarrheal use of this plant. In the present study, the antidiarrheal activity of C. reflexa was evaluated in pigeons (Columba livia) using the juice (JCR), aqueous (CRAE), and methanol (CRME) extracts. Methods: The antidiarrheal effect of C. reflexa was evaluated using different reported research models, with few modifications. In pigeons, diarrhea was induced by administration of castor oil (6 mL/kg, PO), ampicillin (250 mg/kg, IP), magnesium sulphate (2 gm/kg, PO), and cisplatin (6 mg/kg, IV). Loperamide (2 mg/kg, IM) was used as a positive control, whereas JCR (1 mL/kg (1%) and 1 mL/kg (2%), CRAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and CRME (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered intramuscularly at different doses into each pigeon in the characterized groups. Results: In addition to cisplatin-induced diarrhea, all paradigms tested gave significant results (P < 0.01). The JCR, at different doses, exhibited a significant (p < 0.01) dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect on both the frequency and the onset of diarrhea. Similarly, CRAE and CRME, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, showed significant (p < 0.001) inhibition against the onset and frequency of diarrhea. On the other hand, JCR, CRAE, and CRME exerted significant effects (p < 0.001) on the percentage inhibition (PI) of diarrhea and gastrointestinal charcoal transit in a dose-dependent manner. In this respect, the maximum PI (p < 0.01) of JCR, CRAE, and CRME in different experimental paradigms was 43.13, 49.14, and 55.99%, respectively. Conclusions: Taken all together, results from this study show that the juice, aqueous, and methanol extract of C. reflexa exhibit significant anti-motility and anti-secretory potential. These findings may explain the medicinal use of C. reflexa as an antidiarrheal medicinal plant in folk medicine.
... Polyphenols (phenolics and flavonoids), are well-known phytochemicals in Cuscuta species, that have remarkable health promoting properties including immune-stimulatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic and anticancer effects. [29,32] Previously, it is reported that levels of extracted phenolic compounds depend on different parameters such as pH, solvent polarity, extraction temperature and time. [4] In the current work , we determined total phenolic and flavonoid contents of C. reflexa hosted on C. tomentosa. ...
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Present study reports metabolites profiling, antioxidant, and antidiabetic effects of Cuscuta reflexa grown on Casearia tomentosa. The UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method was used to characterize phytochemicals in most potent extract. Thirteen bioactive compounds/metabolites including (2S)-3-(β-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-2-(hexanoyloxy)propyl nonanoate, 4-O-β-D-glucosyl-4-coumaric acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, 7-(α-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyheptanoic acid, 13S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, astragaloside derivative, salicylic acid, oleanolic acid, citric acid, pinellic acid, quinic acid, caffeic acid derivative and caffeic acid-3-glucoside were detected in 80% hydroethanolic (HE) extract. Among different extracts (aqueous, 20–80% HE and pure ethanolic), 80% HE extract showed maximum TPC (186.19 ± 2.15 mg GAE/g DE) and TFC (106.50 ± 1.68 mg RE/g DE). A strong correlation was observed between TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 60.64 ± 1.74 µg/mL) and TAP activity (235.96 ± 1.33 mg AAE/g DE) of 80% HE extract among others. The same extract also depicted highest α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition with IC50 of 71.84 ± 1.06 and 57.25 ± 1.40 µg/mL, respectively. Molecular docking was performed to explore possible role of identified phytochemicals. Binding affinity data as well as interaction patterns have revealed possible interaction of the identified bioactives against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Moreover, intra-molecular charge transfer, energies of the FMOs, HOMO-LUMO-Egaps, MEP and IP were also explained. The present findings suggested that, C. reflexa is a promising natural antioxidant and antidiabetic agent, thus supporting the use of this plant for designing related functional foods and nutra-pharmaceuticals.
... One study carried out by Suresh V et al. reported that water extract of Cuscuta reflexa inhibits LPS induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells through an interplay of TNF-α, COX-2, and NF-κB signalling. It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the up-regulation of p53, BAX, and downregulation of Bcl-2 and surviving [19] . One another study documented that, chloroform and ethanol extracts of C. reflexa exhibit significant antitumor activity in EAC-bearing mice that is comparable to that of the reference standard, 5-fluorouracil [20] . ...
... Cuscuta reflexa (Giant dodder) in cell lines [5], Swiss albino mice [6], human red blood cells [7] and human cancer cell lines [8]. Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng Withania somnifera has immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects [9][10][11][12][13][14]. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) expresses promising antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-cancer effects [15,16]. ...
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UNANI MEDICINE AND CANCER Christer Sundqvist. Prepublished article, 2020 Petrafoundation, Helsinki, Finland https://www.petrafoundation.com/en/foundation Unani medicine is an alternative medical system originating in ancient Greece almost 2500 years back. It is now practiced primarily in India. Herbal remedies, dietary practices and alternative therapies characterize Unani medicine. Let us study what it can offer for a cancer patient.
... Out of total 145 species in present in Genus Cuscuta L., 14 species are available in Pakistan [6]. Various pharmacological studies have revealed the used of this herb as an antihistaminic, anticholinergic, anti-hypertensive [7], antibacterial, antioxidant [8], anthelmintic [9], and anti-inflammatory [10] agents for treatment of several maladies including alopecia [11], HIV [12], diabetes [13], epilepsy [14], CNS depression, pain [15], tumor [16] and urinary infections [17]. ...
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Cuscuta reflexa has been traditionally used as an antiemetic. Additionally, it has been used in various herbal formulations for the treatment of emesis. So far, there is no scientific evidence of the plant extract as antiemetic. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the antiemetic activity of Juice (JCR), aqueous (CRAE) and methanolic extract (CRME) of C. reflexa in pigeons. Emesis was induced through GIT irritants like ampicillin (300 mg/kg, IM), copper sulphate (100 mg/kg, PO), conc. sodium chloride solution (1600 mg/kg, PO) and cisplatin (5-HT3 receptor stimulator) (6 mg/kg, IM). Dimenhydrinate acted as a positive control (2 mg/kg; IM). JCR [(1 ml/kg (1%) and 1 ml/kg (2%)], CRAE, and CRME were administered intramuscularly at different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) to each pigeon (n=6). In each group, calculation of total number of jerks & vomiting episodes, and vomiting-weight was carried out to evaluate its antiemetic activity. The JCR exhibited a significant (p<0.05) antiemetic impact on both the frequency and onset of emesis at 1 ml/kg (2%) against various emesis mediator, except sodium chloride. Similarly, CRAE and CRME elicited marked dose dependent inhibition both on onset and frequency of emesis with highly significant (p<0.001) effect at 200 mg/kg. The study reflects that juice, aqueous and methanolic extract of C. reflexa have significant antiemetic potential and possess pharmacological active constituent(s) that interfered with the emetic mediators by acting through GIT irritation and 5-HT3 receptor stimulations. Results of this study provide a scientific background to its traditional antiemetic uses.
... C. reflexa is a valuable medicinal herb, which is useful in treatment of androgen induced alopecia (Pandit et al. 2008). The plant is also reported to have anti-inflammatory, anticancer (Suresh et al. 2011) and hepatoprotective activities (Balkrishnan et al. 2010). The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of C. reflexa has diuretic activity (Sharma et al. 2009). ...
Article
The present study was aimed to study the effect of fractionation of crude methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa stem on phytocompounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Bioassay guided method was used to prepare fractions of methanolic extract of C. reflexa stem. Spectrophotometric methods were used for quantification of total phenols and flavonoids; whereas antibacterial activity was analysed by using agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. DPPH radical scavenging method was used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions, ethyl acetate fraction showed enriched total phenolic content (46.272 ± 2.77 mg/g GAE) and total flavonoid content (32.970 ± 2.37 mg/g RE). Ethyl acetate fraction showed more inhibition to growth of Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi) as shown by zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration. Chloroform fraction did not show any inhibition against tested bacteria. Ethyl acetate fraction (15.70 ± 1.82 µg/ml) showed highest radical scavenging by DPPH method. Order of antioxidant activity in terms of IC50 was ethyl acetate fraction (15.70 ± 1.82 µg/ml) > crude methanolic extract (36.365 ± 1.234 µg/ml) > aqueous fraction (49.94 ± 2.30 µg/ml) > n-hexane fraction (51.384 ± 0.84 µg/ml) > chloroform fraction (55.082 ± 2.402 µg/ml). The results from the current study revealed the importance of C. reflexa as a source of bioactive molecules for antibacterial and antioxidant activity.
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Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. and C. campestris Yuncker are widely used as medicinal plants in different areas of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Keeping in view of their local uses, antibacterial, antioxidant and phytochemical investigations were carried out in the stem extracts. The antibacterial activities were carried out by Disc diffusion method against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) bacteria. Ampicillin was used as positive control. It was found that ethanol extract of both the plants were most active as compared to other extracts and S. aureus (Gram positive) was most sensitive bacterium compared to other tested Gram-negative bacteria. The antioxidant potential of the crude extracts of these plants was examined on the source of their scavenging activity of the stable 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrrazyl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and found to possess good antioxidant. Preliminary phytochemical screening has shown the presence of several phytochemicals.
Research
Cuscuta reflexa is a parasitic plant that has a place with the family Convolvulaceae. It is regularly known as dodder plant, amarbel, akashabela. Generally, it is called the marvel plant. It is a rootless, lasting, leafless climbing parasitic twining spice that takes food from have planted with the help of an extraordinary organ called a haustorium. This survey article will gather the definitive portrayal of compound constituent's pharmacological employments of Cuscuta reflexa from various old-style Ayurvedic writing Introduction Medicinal plants have been saviors for ages in traditional medications because of their helpful potential. The pursuit of medicinal plants has prompted the disclosure of novel medication up-and-comers used against different diseases. Cuscuta reflexa is usually called a dodder plant is known as demon's hair, witch's hair, love plant, amarbel or akashabela, etc. Cuscuta reflexa is a parasitic weed plant and a broad climber. It develops as homo-parasite. It is a rootless, leafless, perpetual parasitic twining spice. The plant has no chlorophyll and can't make its food by photosynthesis. The dodder plant has the capacity not exclusively to perceive its host plant yet to move towards its prey with critical accuracy and productivity. The plants can likewise pick a proper host between many plants based on unstable mixtures discharged by the host plant as their typical course of transpiration. It spreads starting with one host plant then onto the next, and on every casualty, they twin and stick firmly with exceptional fanning organs called a haustorium. Haustorium infiltrates the host and associate with the host xylem just as to the host phloem and retain from it both water and expounded foodstuff, for example, sugar and amino acids. It is accepted that the parasitic spices separate solid and likely sap from the host plant. If their host plants are rejuvenating plants, these parasitic species show numerous comparable properties to have plants. Conventional healers give Cuscuta species benefiting from usually utilized restorative spices special consideration. It can carry on for as long as it can remember without connection to the ground and develops with the assistance of seeds which are minute and created in enormous amounts. Seeds have a massive covering and make due in the dirt for 5-10 years. The stems are incredibly long, somewhat bold, intently twining, fanned, glabrous, pale greenish-yellow, once in a while speckled with red and blossoms lone or in umbellate bunches of 2-4 or in short. Racemes; pedicels short, glabrous, generally bent (seldom 0); bracts 1.5 mm. long, praise elongated, heartless plump. Calyx isolated nearly to the base; flaps 3 mm. long, marginally inconsistent, extensively praised, harsh, glabrous, and plump. Corolla white; tube 6-8 by 4 mm., practically round and hollow; flaps 2.5-3 mm. long, deltoid, intense, reflexed; scales nearly at the foundation of the corolla-tube, enormous, oval, subquadrate or to some degree obovate, fimbriate and incurved at the pinnacle. Stamens in the throat of the corolla-tube; fibers hardly any; anthers about ½-applied past the highest point of the corolla-tube. Ovary ovoid; style basic, concise and thick; marks of disgrace 2, particular, enormous wide and plump, 1.5 mm. long, oblong.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: This is the first study of the indigenous knowledge in regard to the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of oral diseases in the Central Punjab, Pakistan region. The study aimed to document indigenous knowledge about the treatments of oral diseases using quantitative ethnobotanical indices, as well as highlighting important medicinal plant species by comparing the data obtained with previously published ethnobotanical and pharmacological data. Methods: The ethnomedicinal data was collected from local informants and Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Diseases Consensus Index (DCI) were calculated to analyse the documented data. The results were compared with those of the nine ethnobotanical studies highlighted in our literature review relating to oral disease, as well as many pharmacological studies evaluating the reported plants. Results: In total, 72 medicinal plants belonging to 38 families were reported by the 180 local informants and 17 THPs interviewed. The most commonly used family, life form and plant part used was Asteraceae (6 species), herbs (30 reports) and leaves (22 reports) respectively. The RFC ranged from 7.61% (Berberis lycium, Dodonea viscosa) to 51.78% (Abutilon indicum, Accacia nilotica, Cuscuta reflex and Solanum nigrum), while the DCI varied from 0.062 to 0.78 with the highest value of DCI for Zizyphus oxyphylla and the lowest for Abutilon indicum. The most prominent species based on quantitative indices in the present study and comparison with previous published data were Zizyphus oxyphylla, Pongamia pinnata, Launea nudicaulis, Acacia nilotica, Abutilon indicum, Salvadora persica and S. oleoides. Conclusion: This study has identified a range of medicinal plants traditionally used in Central Punjab, Pakistan for the treatment of oral diseases. This data can usefully inform the direction of future research and it is suggested that further detailed phyto-pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies be conducted on the plant species documented in the study, especially those with the highest RFC and, DCI values.
Chapter
Parasitic life is an example of interaction between two species. The result is positive for one and negative for another. Parasitic plants are more evolved than other species in the same family. Cuscuta spp. or dodder is one of the medicinal herbs that belong to the Convolvulaceae plant family. They are annual parasitic plants that reproduce by seed. These parasitic plants do not have any roots, leaves or chlorophyll to produce their own food. Dodders live by attaching to a host plant with small appendages (called “haustoria”) and extract its necessary growth elements. The active compounds of Cuscuta species include flavonoids, lignans, quinic acid and poly-saccharides. Flavonoids are kinds of effective antioxidants, and polysaccharides are the effective constituents to improve the immune system. Cuscuta epithymum is an important herbal medicine that is effective in the treatment of liver and kidney failure, sexual impotence and vision weakness. It also prevents abortion senescence and aging. C epithymum possesses anticancer, immuno-stimulatory, anti-oxidant and anti-osteoporotic activities.
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The article provides a general outline on descriptions of various types of cancers and their management from medicinal and ethnobotanical perspective underlying its scientific principles involved in treating these conditions with the use of natural products. The article reviews the available literature regarding researches on anti-cancerous traditional and ayurvedic herbs and also includes how these plants are used to control and cure various types of cancers.
Article
Cuscuta reflexa (Roxb.) belonging to the family Convolvulaceae and popularly known as dodder, is a parasitic plant with claims of antibacterial, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in literature. HPTLCanalysis and investigation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Cuscuta reflexa extracts, petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, and aqueous extract of Cuscuta reflexa (PECR, MECR, and AECR respectively) at three dose levels of 50, 200 & 300 mg/kg body weight of an animal by oral route were used for biological activities. The analgesic activity of was determined using hot plate analgesia, acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using models like carrageenan, serotonin and histamine-induced paw edema models along with cotton pellet induced granuloma. Probable mechanism involved in the antiinflammatory effect of methanol and aqueous extracts was evaluated with various tests like ulcerogenicity test; acetic acid induced vascular permeability test and leukocyte migration test using a single dose of 300 mg/kg orally. Acute oral toxicity test revealed the LD50 of >2 g/kg. PECR, MECR and AECR (200 and 300 mg/kg p.o.) significantly (P< 0.05) increased latency against thermal stimulus, decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and licking times of the second phase in the formalin test. Moreover, MECR and AECR (200 and 300 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited significant (P<0.01) antiinflammatory effect against carrageenan and mediator-induced paw edema. The most promising fraction of methanol extract was found to be quercetin, which could be responsible for the biological activity. Results suggest significant analgesic and antiinflammatory effects produced by MECR and AECR.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: This is the first study of the indigenous knowledge in regard to the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of oral diseases in the Central Punjab, Pakistan region. The study aimed to document indigenous knowledge about the treatments of oral diseases using quantitative ethnobotanical indices, as well as highlighting important medicinal plant species by comparing the data obtained with previously published ethnobotanical and pharmacological data. Methods: The ethnomedicinal data was collected from local informants and Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs). The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Diseases Consensus Index (DCI) were calculated to analyse the documented data. The results were compared with those of the nine ethnobotanical studies highlighted in our literature review relating to oral disease, as well as many pharmacological studies evaluating the reported plants. Results: In total, 72 medicinal plants belonging to 38 families were reported by the 180 local informants and 17 THPs interviewed. The most commonly used family, life form and plant part used was Asteraceae (6 species), herbs (30 reports) and leaves (22 reports) respectively. The RFC ranged from 7.61% (Berberis lycium, Dodonea viscosa) to 51.78% (Abutilon indicum, Accacia nilotica, Cuscuta reflex and Solanum nigrum), while the DCI varied from 0.062 to 0.78 with the highest value of DCI for Zizyphus oxyphylla and the lowest for Abutilon indicum. The most prominent species based on quantitative indices in the present study and comparison with previous published data were Zizyphus oxyphylla, Pongamia pinnata, Launea nudicaulis, Acacia nilotica, Abutilon indicum, Salvadora persica and S. oleoides. Conclusion: This study has identified a range of medicinal plants traditionally used in Central Punjab, Pakistan for the treatment of oral diseases. This data can usefully inform the direction of future research and it is suggested that further detailed phyto-pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies be conducted on the plant species documented in the study, especially those with the highest RFC and, DCI values.
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Bioassay guided fractionation of the cytotoxic extract of the plant Cuscuta reflexa, employing cytotoxic assay against a panel of 60 cell lines, led to the isolation of 13 compounds identified as odoroside H (1), 21-hydroxyodoroside H (2), neritaloside (3), strospeside (4), 16-β-hydroxydigitoxin (5), N-trans and cis feruloyl tyramines (6 and 7), ethyl caffeate (8), coumarins (9 and 10), ursolic acid (11), β-sitosterol glucoside (12), and 4-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucoside (13). Compound 2 was found to be a new natural product while 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 11 are known compounds isolated from this source for the first time. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 possessed very good cytotoxic activity against renal and prostate cancer cell lines. Of these compounds, 1 showed a positive hollow fiber test and was selected for in vivo xenograft testing. The structures of compounds 1–5 have been established through chemical and spectral studies including UV, IR, mass, NMR (¹H and ¹³C), and 2D NMR (COSY-45°, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC, and J-resolved) experiments.
Chapter
The Himalayan region harbors a rich diversity of medicinal plants and fruits which are used as traditional medicines for a variety of diseases and complications. The Himalayas has rich biodiversity of plants and the majority of these plants have medicinal properties, especially anticancer potential, that have been used in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. These have been used since the ancient past in traditional health care systems and diverse cultures around the world still depend on medicinal plants for their primary health care. With the recent advancements and technological developments in plant sciences, the people of the Himalayan region have learned and practiced the medicinal use of plants for centuries. Through the ages, this ancient prized wisdom has been transmitted from generation to generation as part of oral traditions. So the current study throws light on medicinal plant diversity and the plant parts used, and an emphasis was laid preferably on the anticancer potential of different medicinal plants, fruits, and vegetables that are found in the Himalayan regions.
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About the Book The book “Advances in Ethnobotany” is an attempt to integrate research work of different practicing ethnobotanist across India from laboratories of repute. This book is divided into three sections. In first section ethnobotanical works of Veligonda, Shivalik hills, and some other research works of North eastern states are described. A chapter is dedicated on research methodology in ethnobotany. Another chapter describes ethnobotany of orchidaceae. The second section deals with Pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus, bioactive metabolites from plant associated endophytic fungi, berries: source of natural antioxidant, phytochemistry of Murraya Koenigii and several other herbal drugs are explained in very lucid manner. The third section focuses on utilization and conservation of plants in which medicinal and economic importance of Rhododendron in Sikkim Himalaya, an efficient micropropagation protocol for Melissa officinalis, utilization of plant biodiversity for treatment and cure of diseases and many other relevant topics are discussed in length.This book will be very much helpful for Post Graduate students, researchers, scientists and doctors working in the field of Indian System of Medicine and academicians working in the field of Medical Botany, Herbal technology and Ethnobotany as well as other branches of Life sciences. This book will be equally helpful for students of pharmacognosy, pharmacology as well as environmentalist and conservationist. The editor has attempted to organise the book in such a way that it will be useful to everyone interested in the field of medicinal botany, pharmacy, ethno-medicine, ethnobotany, herbal therapy, naturopathy and green health therapy. This book will be equally helpful for students of pharmacognosy, pharmacology as well as environmentalist and conservationist .
Article
Objectives Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers is an inevitable ingredient of Ayurvedic rasayanas for the treatment of disorders with unregulated inflammation. However, studies regarding the mechanism of anti‐inflammatory potential of this plant at the molecular level are lacking. Methods In vitro evaluations were conducted in RAW264.7 macrophages which were preincubated with chloroform extract of T. cordifolia (CETC) and subsequently stimulated with LPS. The expressions of COX‐2, TNF‐α and iNOS genes were analysed by SQRT‐PCR and Western blot, cytokines (IL‐6, IL‐1β and PGE2) levels by ELISA, NF‐κB activation and p38 MAPK phosphorylation by Immunoblot and confocal imaging. Anti‐inflammatory potential of CETC was validated further in a rat model of carrageenan‐induced hind paw edema. Phytochemical characterisation was carried out using the HPLC technique. Key findings The LPS‐induced upregulation of proinflammatory biomarkers was significantly prevented by CETC, without inhibiting COX‐1. CETC‐ and LPS‐incubated cells showed reduced phosphorylated p38 MAPK levels, and higher levels NF‐κB were retained in cytoplasm. Rats pretreated with CETC showed a statistically significant decrease in paw oedema (P ≤ 0.05), and HPLC characterisation detected stigmasterol and β‐sitosterol. The LD50 of CETC lies above 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Conclusions These findings encourage us strongly to focus on CETC to develop anti‐inflammatory drugs with lower degree of inhibition to the constitutively expressing COX‐1.
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Objective Cuscuta campestris or common dodder is a holoparasitic plant that has been valorized for treatment of liver injury and cancer prevention in traditional medicine. Recently, extract of C. campestris had shown moderate antimicrobial properties and cytotoxic effects. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and differentiation induced by hydroalcoholic extract of C. campestris (CCE) (12.5-200 µg/ml), as well as arsenic trioxide (As2O3, 50 µM), in human leukemic (HL60 and NB4) and normal polymorph nuclear cells after 72 hr treatment. Materials and Methods Resazurin assay was used to determine cell viability following treatment with C. campestris. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cells were measured by fluorimetry using carboxy 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide (PI), as staining reagents, respectively. The differentiation of leukemic cells was evaluated by Giemsa staining and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. Results C. campestris inhibited cell viability with IC50 values of 23.9 µg/ml for HL60 and 60.3 µg/ml for NB4 cells after 72 hr treatment. ROS formation was also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with C. campestris. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased to 88.4% and 62.3% in CCE (200 µg/ml)-treated HL60 and NB4 cells, respectively, which was higher than that of As2O3 (50 µM)-treated leukemic cells (p<0.001). Nonetheless, C. campestris did not induce differentiation of leukemic cells towards granulocytic pattern. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that C. campestris induced apoptosis through ROS production without having differential effect on leukemic cells, in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Understanding of precise signaling pathway by which C. campestris induce apoptosis, needs further research.
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Cancer is one of the most dreadful diseases worldwide. The incidence of cancer has drastically increased in low- and middle-income countries and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Use of alternative medicines along with conventional ones against cancer managed the symptoms, control side effects, and improve the quality of life and mental state. Indian systems of medicine (ISM) including Unani (Greco-Arab medicine) have been used for healing and preventative health care all over the world since decades. Cancer (Arabic-Sartan) has been well described in Unani classical texts as a hard inflammation (Warm-e-Salabat) with lesion. The cancer management in Unani system includes regimenal therapy (Ilaj bi’l-Tadbir), dietotherapy (Ilaj bi’l-Ghidhā), pharmacotherapy (Ilāj bi’l-Dawā), and surgery (Ilāj bi’l-Yad). In pharmacotherapy, many Unani drugs have been evaluated preclinically (in vitro and in vivo studies) for its anticancer activities and found to be very effective, but unfortunately, no attention has been paid to explicate the efficacy of compound formulations of these Unani medicines in cancer management, till date. The aim of this chapter is to exploit and bring together the Unani system of medicine with conventional cancer therapies at interdisciplinary and integrative levels and also to discuss the future strategies for the prevention and management of cancer.
Article
Background Cancer is a havoc and killer disease. Several ways including allopathic chemotherapy have been used in the cancer treatment. Allopathic chemotherapy has several limitations and side effects. Unani medicine is also one of the therapies to cure cancer. Objective In this type of treatment, herbal drugs are used for the treatment and prevention of cancer. The main attractive thing about herbal drug is no side effect as compared to allopathic chemotherapy. Methods Actually, herbal drugs are the extracts of medicinal plants. The plant extracts are obtained by crushing and heating the main part of the plants; showing anticancer activity. The main plants used in the treatment of cancer are oroxylum indicum, dillenia indica, terminalia arjuna etc. Results Mainly the cancers treated are of digestive system, breast, cervical, brain, blood, bone, lungs, thyroid, uterine, bladder, throat etc. Conclusion The present review article discusses the importance of Unani system of medicine for the treatment of cancer. Besides, the future perspectives of Unani medicine in cancer treatment are also highlighted.
Chapter
Arthritis is an inflammatory, chronic, autoimmune disorder identified by swelling, stiffness, and pain. It covers 0.5% of population of the world and leads to disability in joint. Synthetic drugs are used to treat these abnormal conditions but are associated with side effects like osteoporosis and gastric bleeding. Herbal drugs are becoming popular due to their less toxicity in comparison to synthetic drugs. Many therapeutic agents are developed from herbal drugs. Scientific reports explored the beneficial effects of herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis by various basic mechanisms like downregulation of inflammatory cytokines such as NF-jB, IL-6, TNF-a, and oxidative stress suppression; cartilage degradation inhibition; and increase of antioxidant potential. Medicinal plants contain various bioactive compounds like alkaloids, flavonols, dihydroflavonols, coumarins, glycosylflavons, terpenes, phytoestrogens, anthraquinones, sesquiterpene lactones, thymoquinones, and lignans which play a significant role in ameliorating the effects of arthritis. In this chapter, we summarize updated information on RA including epidemiology, etiology, role of phytoconstituents in the treatment of arthritis, available treatments, and side effects of synthetic medicine in comparison to herbal medicine and individual herbal drugs.
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Cancer is one of the fastest growing diseases, with an estimated worldwide incidence of 10 million new cases per year. Mortality is high, with >7 million deaths per year. In the last two decades, great advances have been made in cancer therapy; however, the success rates still remain unsatisfactory. Current conventional anticancer therapies are associated with adverse effects, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. In Unani system of medicine, Cancer is known as Sartān, an Arabic word which means "crab". In the classical Unani literature, Sartān (Cancer) has been mentioned with great description, causes, origin, expansion, metastasis and all of clinical presentations. Renowned physicians like Buqrat, Jalinoos, Razi, Ibn Sina, Tabri and Jurjani gave the details of Sartān and its management. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the strength of Unani medicine in Sartān.
Chapter
Aromatic flavoring plants are important ingredients of the Mediterranean diet, one of the healthiest and most sustainable dietary forms, often associated with greater longevity as well as contributing to the reduction of some chronic pathologies with high mortality and morbidity. Their essential oils (EOs) are increasingly used as therapeutic agents and food supplements, due to their antioxidants, anti-inflammatory or anti-tumoral properties. The Health benefits of essential oils are closely related with their chemical constituents. The 1,8-cineole, a naturally cyclic oxygenated monoterpene, has been attributed several biological properties such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory or antitumoral. Nevertheless, the EO properties are attributed not only to their main components but also to the synergistic effect of minor components. This review chapter focused on the chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of EOs of flavoring Lamiaceae plants, with high content in 1,8-cineole, including chemotypes of genera Lavandula, Calamintha, Rosmarinus, and Thymus, often used in the Mediterranean diet.
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The physiological function of the liver--such as removal of pathogens and antigens from the blood, protein synthesis and metabolism--requires an immune response that is adapted to these tasks and is locally regulated. Pathogenic microorganisms must be efficiently eliminated while the large number of antigens derived from the gastrointestinal tract must be tolerized. From experimental observations it is evident that the liver favours the induction of tolerance rather than the induction of immunity. The liver probably not only is involved in transplantation tolerance but contributes as well to tolerance to orally ingested antigens (entering the liver with portal-venous blood) and to containment of systemic immune responses (antigen from the systemic circulation entering the liver with arterial blood). This review summarizes the experimental data that shed light on the molecular mechanisms and the cell populations of the liver involved in local immune regulation in the liver. Although hepatocytes constitute the major cell population of the liver, direct interaction of hepatocytes with leukocytes in the blood is unlikely. Sinusoidal endothelial cells, which line the hepatic sinusoids and separate hepatocytes from leukocytes in the sinusoidal lumen, and Kupffer cells, the resident macrophage population of the liver, can directly interact with passenger leukocytes. In the liver, clearance of antigen from the blood occurs mainly by sinusoidal endothelial cells through very efficient receptor-mediated endocytosis. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells constitutively express all molecules necessary for antigen presentation (CD54, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and class II and CD40) and can function as antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, these cells probably contribute to hepatic immune surveillance by activation of effector T cells. Antigen-specific T-cell activation is influenced by the local microenvironment. This microenvironment is characterized by the physiological presence of bacterial constituents such as endotoxin and by the local release of immunosuppressive mediators such as interleukin-10, prostaglandin E2 and transforming growth factor-beta. Different hepatic cell populations may contribute in different ways to tolerance induction in the liver. In vitro experiments revealed that naive T cells are activated by resident sinusoidal endothelial cells but do not differentiate into effector T cells. These T cells show a cytokine profile and a functional phenotype that is compatible with the induction of tolerance. Besides sinusoidal endothelial cells, other cell populations of the liver, such as dendritic cells, Kupffer cells and perhaps also hepatocytes, may contribute to tolerance induction by deletion of T cells through induction of apoptosis.
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Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a potent hepatocarcinogen, enhances ROS formation and causes oxidative DNA damage, which may play a role in its carcinogenicity. We have demonstrated recently that ebselen, an organic selenium compound, protects against the cytotoxicity of AFB(1) through its antioxidant capability. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ebselen on AFB(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in an animal model. Fischer 344 rats were first treated with either deionized water or ebselen (5 mg/kg, 5 days/week) via gavage for 4 weeks, then given AFB(1) (0.4 mg/kg, gavage, once a week) or AFB(1) plus ebselen (5 mg/kg, 5 days/week) for another 24 weeks. The results showed that the hepatocarcinogenicity of AFB(1) in rats was significantly reduced by ebselen treatment as indicated by a decrease in: (i) serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity; (ii) expression of mRNAs of liver alpha-fetoprotein and the placental form of glutathione S-transferase (GST-P); and (iii) the area and mean density of staining of liver GST-P foci. Ebselen treatment significantly reduced the formation of hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adducts and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine caused by AFB(1) exposure. These findings suggest that ebselen can inhibit the carcinogenicity of AFB(1). In addition to the reduction of AFB(1)-DNA adduct formation, the protective effect of ebselen against AFB(1)-induced oxidative DNA damage may also, at least in part, contribute to its anticarcinogenic property.
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Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression is elevated in some malignancies; however, information is scarce regarding COX-2 contributions to the development of prostate cancer and its regulation by inflammatory cytokines. The present study compared and contrasted the expression levels and subcellular distribution patterns of COX-1 and COX-2 in normal prostate [prostate epithelial cell (PrEC), prostate smooth muscle (PrSM), and prostate stromal (PrSt)] primary cell cultures and prostatic carcinoma cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145). The basal COX-2 mRNA and protein levels were high in normal PrEC and low in tumor cells, unlike many other normal cells and tumor cells. Because COX-2 levels were low in prostate smooth muscle cells, prostate stromal cells, and tumor cells, we also examined whether COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression was elevated in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a strong inducer of COX-2 expression. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated different patterns and kinetics of expression for COX-1 and COX-2 among normal cells and tumor cells in response to TNF-alpha. In particular, COX-2 protein levels increased, and the subcellular distribution formed a distinct perinuclear ring in the normal cells at 4 h after TNF-alpha exposure. The COX-2 protein levels also increased in cancer cells, but the subcellular distribution was less organized; COX-2 protein appeared diffuse in some cells and accumulated as focal deposits in the cytoplasm of other cells. TNF-alpha induction of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 correlated inversely with induction of apoptosis. We conclude that COX-2 expression may be important to PrEC cell function. Although it is low in stromal and tumor cells, COX-2 expression is induced by TNF-alpha in these cells, and this responsiveness may play an important role in prostate cancer progression.
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The action of TNF in cancer is paradoxical. Endogenous TNF chronically produced in the tumor microenvironment undoubtedly enhances tumor development and spread. This tumor TNF may contribute to the development of tissue architecture necesary for growth and metastasis, may induce other cytokines, angiogenic factors and MMPs, contribute to DNA damage and enhance growth/survival of tumor cells. But TNF is also a crucial effector molecule in CD8 and NK-cell-mediated killing of some tumor cells and therapeutic administration of high doses of TNF can destroy tumor vasculature, inducing apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells. Given the success and low toxicity of TNF antagonists in inflammatory disease and the well-documented associations between inflammation and increased cancer risk [7], it would seem reasonable to investigate TNF antagonists in cancer prevention and treatment. However, at supra-physiologic levels, this cytokine has impressive tumor destructive properties. If these can be controlled and directed, there is still a possibility that this may become a powerful anti-cancer agent. Only time will tell us the most appropriate name for this cytokine, at least in terms of this relationship to malignant disease.
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Nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB, initially discovered as a factor in the nucleus of B cells that binds to the enhancer of the kappa light chain of immunoglobulin, has since been shown to be expressed ubiquitously in the cytoplasm of all cell types, conserved from Drosophila to man. It translocates to the nucleus only when activated, where it regulates the expression of over 200 genes that control the immune system, growth, and inflammation. The dysregulation of NF-kappaB can mediate a wide variety of diseases including cancer. Whether NF-kappaB activation is beneficial or harmful for cancer is controversial. The development of novel therapeutics targeting NF-kappaB requires full understanding of its role in pathology and physiology. The current review is an attempt to describe two sides of the NF-kappaB coin; viz, as a friend and as a foe.
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The present study evaluated the anticancer potential of 11 plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity using the brine shrimp lethality assay, sea urchin eggs assay, hemolysis assay and MTT assay using tumor cell lines. The extract of Oroxylum indicum showed the highest toxicity on all tumor cell lines tested, with an IC(50) of 19.6 microg/ml for CEM, 14.2 microg/ml for HL-60, 17.2 microg/ml for B-16 and 32.5 microg/ml for HCT-8. On the sea urchin eggs, it inhibited the progression of cell cycle since the frist cleavage (IC(50)=13.5 microg/ml). The extract of Aegle marmelos exhibited toxicity on all used assays, but in a lower potency than Oroxylum indicum. In conclusion, among all tested extracts, only the extracts of Oroxylum indicum, Moringa oleifera and Aegles marmelos could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for chemical characterization of the active principles and more extensive biological evaluations.
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Smouldering beneath many latent tumours is a chronic inflammation that goads pre-malignant cells into becoming full-blown cancer. The spark that kindles these flames comes from an unexpected source.
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Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that interferes with post-mitochondrial events including activation of caspases. Survivin regulates cell cycle also. It is expressed in most of the human tumors, but it is barely detectable in the terminally differentiated normal cells/tissues. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of survivin in cancer are not clearly understood. Nevertheless, the functional loss of wild type p53 is often associated with upregulation of survivin. Tumors that over-express survivin generally bear a poor prognosis and are associated with resistance to therapy. The differential expression of survivin in cancer versus normal tissues makes it a useful tool in cancer diagnosis and a promising therapeutic target. A growing body of literature suggests nuclear expression of survivin as a good prognostic marker. Disruption of the survivin induction pathway has resulted in an increase in apoptosis and inhibition of tumor growth. Regular therapies, such as, radiotherapy in combination with anticancer drugs in clinical practice may yield promising results.
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Although inflammation has long been known as a localized protective reaction of tissue to irritation, injury, or infection, characterized by pain, redness, swelling, and sometimes loss of function, there has been a new realization about its role in a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. While acute inflammation is a part of the defense response, chronic inflammation can lead to cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurological diseases. Several pro-inflammatory gene products have been identified that mediate a critical role in suppression of apoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Among these gene products are TNF and members of its superfamily, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, chemokines, MMP-9, VEGF, COX-2, and 5-LOX. The expression of all these genes are mainly regulated by the transcription factor NF-kappaB, which is constitutively active in most tumors and is induced by carcinogens (such as cigarette smoke), tumor promoters, carcinogenic viral proteins (HIV-tat, HIV-nef, HIV-vpr, KHSV, EBV-LMP1, HTLV1-tax, HPV, HCV, and HBV), chemotherapeutic agents, and gamma-irradiation. These observations imply that anti-inflammatory agents that suppress NF-kappaB or NF-kappaB-regulated products should have a potential in both the prevention and treatment of cancer. The current review describes in detail the critical link between inflammation and cancer.
Article
Phyllanthus rheedii Wight. (Euphorbiaceae) has been used by Muthuvan tribes of Kerala for curing liver diseases. The present study was conducted to assess the hepatoprotective activity of this plant. The ethanol extract of Phyllanthus rheedii was pharmacologically analysed for its preventive effect in d-galactosamine (d-GalN) induced liver damage in rats. The levels of hepatotoxicity in various groups were quantified by different parameters of liver damage viz. serum levels of ALT, AST, LDH, GGT, ALP and total bilirubin. The effect of extract on the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta were analysed by RT-PCR. Histological changes in the liver were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining of paraffin processed liver sections. The antioxidant and choleretic activity of the extract were also analysed. Comparison of serum values of control and extract treated groups have revealed that the d-GalN induced alterations in the serum and liver markers were normalized in extract treatment groups showing hepatoprotective activity of the extract. The extract also prevented the toxin induced histological changes in liver. The mRNA levels of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in the liver were up regulated by the hepatotoxin. The extract treatment has normalized this change, giving light to the probable mechanism of action of the extract. It has showed marked antioxidant and choleretic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening has revealed the presence of tannins, flavanoids and phenolics as major components. This study concluded the ethanol extract of P. rheedii could be a promissory candidate for drug development and validated the tribal claim.
Article
The variety of animal models used in the study of alcoholic liver disease reflects the formidable task of developing a model that replicates the human disease. We show that oral feeding of fatty acids derived from fish oil and ethanol induces fatty liver, necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Together with the study of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, cytokines, proteasome function, and protein studies, this model has provided an inexpensive and technically simple method of establishing pathological alcoholic liver injury.
A voluntary oral-feeding rat model for pathological alcoholic liver injury Tumor necrosis factor: a pleiotropic cytokine and ther-apuetic target
  • G Tipoe
  • E Liong
  • T Leung
  • A Nanji
Tipoe, G., Liong, E., Leung, T., Nanji, A., 2008. A voluntary oral-feeding rat model for pathological alcoholic liver injury. Methods in Molecular Biology 447, 11. Tracey, K., Cerami, A., 1994. Tumor necrosis factor: a pleiotropic cytokine and ther-apuetic target. Annual Review of Medicine 45, 491–503.
Cytotoxicity assay The cytotoxicity of the extract to RAW264.7 cells was analysed by MTT assay
  • Liu
  • Schubert
Cytotoxicity assay The cytotoxicity of the extract to RAW264.7 cells was analysed by MTT assay (Liu and Schubert, 1998; Sheeba and Asha, 2009).