Altered AIB1 or AIB1 Delta 3 Expression Impacts ER alpha Effects on Mammary Gland Stromal and Epithelial Content

Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
Molecular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.02). 02/2011; 25(4):549-63. DOI: 10.1210/me.2010-0114
Source: PubMed


Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) (also known as steroid receptor coactivator-3) is a nuclear receptor coactivator enhancing estrogen receptor (ER)α and progesterone receptor (PR)-dependent transcription in breast cancer. The splice variant AIB1Δ3 demonstrates increased ability to promote ERα and PR-dependent transcription. Both are implicated in breast cancer risk and antihormone resistance. Conditional transgenic mice tested the in vivo impact of AIB1Δ3 overexpression compared with AIB1 on histological features of increased breast cancer risk and growth response to estrogen and progesterone in the mammary gland. Combining expression of either AIB1 or AIB1Δ3 with ERα overexpression, we investigated in vivo cooperativity. AIB1 and AIB1Δ3 overexpression equivalently increased the prevalence of hyperplastic alveolar nodules but not ductal hyperplasia or collagen content. When AIB1 or AIB1Δ3 overexpression was combined with ERα, both stromal collagen content and ductal hyperplasia prevalence were significantly increased and adenocarcinomas appeared. Overexpression of AIB1Δ3, especially combined with overexpressed ERα, led to an abnormal response to estrogen and progesterone with significant increases in stromal collagen content and development of a multilayered mammary epithelium. AIB1Δ3 overexpression was associated with a significant increase in PR expression and PR downstream signaling genes. AIB1 overexpression produced less marked growth abnormalities and no significant change in PR expression. In summary, AIB1Δ3 overexpression was more potent than AIB1 overexpression in increasing stromal collagen content, inducing abnormal mammary epithelial growth, altering PR expression levels, and mediating the response to estrogen and progesterone. Combining ERα overexpression with either AIB1 or AIB1Δ3 overexpression augmented abnormal growth responses in both epithelial and stromal compartments.

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    • "Given the aforementioned, there are surprisingly few mouse models that have been engineered to overexpress a SRC. To date, these models have been designed to target the overexpression of just one SRC member (SRC-3 (NCOA-3; AIB-1) or its variant) to one target tissue: the mammary gland, using the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter [22]–[25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: As pleiotropic coregulators, members of the p160/steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family control a broad spectrum of transcriptional responses that underpin a diverse array of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Because of their potent coregulator properties, strict controls on SRC expression levels are required to maintain normal tissue functionality. Accordingly, an unwarranted increase in the cellular levels of SRC members has been causally linked to the initiation and/or progression of a number of clinical disorders. Although knockout mouse models have underscored the critical non-redundant roles for each SRC member in vivo, there are surprisingly few mouse models that have been engineered to overexpress SRCs. This deficiency is significant since SRC involvement in many of these disorders is based on unscheduled increases in the levels (rather than the absence) of SRC expression. To address this deficiency, we used recent mouse technology that allows for the targeted expression of human SRC-2 in cells which express the progesterone receptor. Through cre-loxP recombination driven by the endogenous progesterone receptor promoter, a marked elevation in expression levels of human SRC-2 was achieved in endometrial cells that are positive for the progesterone receptor. As a result of this increase in coregulator expression, female mice are severely subfertile due to a dysfunctional uterus, which exhibits a hypersensitivity to estrogen exposure. Our findings strongly support the proposal from clinical observations that increased levels of SRC-2 are causal for a number of endometrial disorders which compromise fertility. Future studies will use this mouse model to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underpin the endometrial defect. We believe such mechanistic insight may provide new molecular descriptors for diagnosis, prognosis, and/or therapy in the clinical management of female infertility.
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    ABSTRACT: The oncogene amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a nuclear receptor coactivator that plays a major role in the progression of various cancers. We previously identified a splice variant of AIB1 called AIB1-Δ4 that is overexpressed in breast cancer. Using mass spectrometry, we define the translation initiation of AIB1-Δ4 at Met(224) of the full-length AIB1 sequence and have raised an antibody to a peptide representing the acetylated N terminus. We show that AIB1-Δ4 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, although leptomycin B nuclear export inhibition demonstrates that AIB1-Δ4 can enter and traffic through the nucleus. Our data indicate an import mechanism enhanced by other coactivators such as p300/CBP. We report that the endogenously and exogenously expressed AIB1-Δ4 is recruited as efficiently as full-length AIB1 to estrogen-response elements of genes, and it enhances estrogen-dependent transcription more effectively than AIB1. Expression of an N-terminal AIB1 protein fragment, which is lost in the AIB1-Δ4 isoform, potentiates AIB1 as a coactivator. This suggests a model whereby the transcriptional activity of AIB1 is squelched by a repressive mechanism utilizing the N-terminal domain and that the increased coactivator function of AIB1-Δ4 is due to the loss of this inhibitory domain. Finally, we show, using Scorpion primer technology, that AIB1-Δ4 expression is correlated with metastatic capability of human cancer cell lines.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrations in estrogen signaling increase breast cancer risk. Molecular mechanisms that impact breast cancer initiation, promotion, and progression can be investigated using genetically engineered mouse models. Increasing estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression levels twofold is sufficient to initiate and promote breast cancer progression. Initiation and promotion can be increased by p53 haploinsufficiency and by coexpressing the nuclear coactivators amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) or the splice variant AIB1Δ3. Progression to invasive cancer is found with coexpression of these nuclear coactivators as well as following a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Loss of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a reduces the prevalence of initiation and promotion but does not protect from invasive cancer development. Cyclin D1 loss completely interrupts mammary epithelial proliferation and survival when ERα is overexpressed. Loss of breast cancer gene 1 increases estrogen signaling and cooperates with ERα overexpression in initiation, promotion, and progression of mammary cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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