A case report of myopathy from consumption of red yeast

ArticleinJournal of Clinical Lipidology 2(1):60-2 · February 2008with8 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.jacl.2007.12.005 · Source: PubMed
    • "In addition to cholesterol use, statins are exploited for their antiinflammatory and antimicrobial actions456. Lately, many studies have been made on red yeast rice that have the adverse effects of its constituent lovastatin, including an increased risk of myopathy789101112. Two of the statins, mevastatin and lovastatin, which are formed in specific biofermentation processes, are secondary metabolites of fungus and are formed via polyketide biosynthesis (PKBS). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins were separated and quantified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) using total ion monitoring (TIC) and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The MRM method in statins determination has a novelty value, since there are no previous studies on their simultaneous analysis in environmental or plant samples. The method development and optimization was challenging due to the physicochemical similarities of the silylated lovastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, and atorvastatin. The results showed that the use of MRM decreased their detection and quantification limits by factors of 2-10 compared to that obtained in TIC monitoring. The concentration calibration was made between 247.5ng/L and 9900ng/L. Limits of detection and quantification were between 50ng/L (lovastatin)-500ng/L (pravastatin) and 250ng/L (lovastatin)-1000ng/L (pravastatin), respectively. Based on the MRM results, the wood bark and phloem samples contained lovastatin, lovastatin-lactone, simvastatin, simvastatin-lactone, and pravastatin. Their concentrations were 250-3000μg/L, i.e. 4.2-50mg/kg in phloem and bark. However, they were not detected in fluids made with Pleurotus ostreatus fermentation of wood core.
    Article · Feb 2014
    • "In addition to cholesterol use, statins are exploited for their antiinflammatory and antimicrobial actions456. Lately, many studies have been made on red yeast rice that have the adverse effects of its constituent lovastatin, including an increased risk of myopathy789101112. Two of the statins, mevastatin and lovastatin, which are formed in specific biofermentation processes, are secondary metabolites of fungus and are formed via polyketide biosynthesis (PKBS). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins were separated and quantified with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–EI-MS/MS) using total ion monitoring (TIC) and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The MRM method in statins determination has a novelty value, since there are no previous studies on their simultaneous analysis in environmental or plant samples. The method development and optimization was challenging due to the physicochemical similarities of the silylated lovastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, and atorvastatin. The results showed that the use of MRM decreased their detection and quantification limits by factors of 2–10 compared to that obtained in TIC monitoring. The concentration calibration was made between 247.5 ng/L and 9900 ng/L. Limits of detection and quantification were between 50 ng/L (lovastatin)–500 ng/L (pravastatin) and 250 ng/L (lovastatin)–1000 ng/L (pravastatin), respectively. Based on the MRM results, the wood bark and phloem samples contained lovastatin, lovastatin–lactone, simvas-tatin, simvastatin–lactone, and pravastatin. Their concentrations were 250–3000 g/L, i.e. 4.2–50 mg/kg in phloem and bark. However, they were not detected in fluids made with Pleurotus ostreatus fermentation of wood core.
    Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
    • "A case of rhabdomyolysis in a patient treated with cyclosporin after kidney transplantation who concomitantly ingested a red mould rice-containing product was first noted in 2002 [104]. Since then, additional cases of myopathies following the consumption of red mould rice have been published105106107108. Furthermore, there are individual reports on allergic reactions after contact with red mould rice during the production of sausage products. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red mould rice is presently offered under various trade names primarily through the internet, mainly as a food supplement with a cholesterol-lowering effect, i.e. without legal approval as a drug. This development caused the DFG Senate Commission on Food Safety to evaluate red mould rice with respect to its effects on human health in a first opinion in 2004. The European Food Safety Authority published an assessment of the health claims regarding monacolin K from red mould rice. The SKLM updated its opinion on December 18th 2012. The English version was agreed on November 13th/14th 2013.
    Full-text · Technical Report · Nov 2013 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
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