Genetic Analysis Implicates the Set3/Hos2 Histone Deacetylase in the Deposition and Remodeling of Nucleosomes Containing H2A.Z

Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.
Genetics (Impact Factor: 5.96). 02/2011; 187(4):1053-66. DOI: 10.1534/genetics.110.125419
Source: PubMed


Histone variants and histone modification complexes act to regulate the functions of chromatin. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the histone variant H2A.Z is encoded by HTZ1. Htz1 is dispensable for viability in budding yeast, but htz1Δ is synthetic sick or lethal with the null alleles of about 200 nonessential genes. One of the strongest of these interactions is with the deletion of SET3, which encodes a subunit of the Set3/Hos2 histone deacetylase complex. Little is known about the functions of Set3, and interpreting these genetic interactions remains a highly challenging task. Here we report the results of a forward genetic screen to identify bypass suppressors of the synthetic slow-growth phenotype of htz1Δ set3Δ. Among the identified loss-of-function suppressors are genes encoding subunits of the HDA1 deacetylase complex, the SWR1 complex, the H2B deubiquitination module of SAGA, the proteasome, Set1, and Sir3. This constellation of suppressor genes is uncommon among the global set of htz1Δ synthetic interactions. BDF1, AHC1, RMR1, and CYC8 were identified as high-copy suppressors. We also identified interactions with SLX5 and SLX8, encoding the sumoylation-targeted ubiquitin ligase complex. In the context of htz1Δ set3Δ, suppressors in the SWR1 and the H2B deubiquitination complexes show strong functional similarity, as do suppressors in the silencing genes and the proteasome. Surprisingly, while both htz1Δ set3Δ and swr1Δ set3Δ have severe slow-growth phenotypes, the htz1Δ swr1Δ set3Δ triple mutant grows relatively well. We propose that Set3 has previously unrecognized functions in the dynamic deposition and remodeling of nucleosomes containing H2A.Z.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    • "For all treatment concentrations relative to vector control, P , 0.01, except for raga-1. Silverstein and Ekwall 2005), and the Nto1 histone acetyltransferase complex member, respectively (Shi et al. 2007; Hang and Smith 2011). Given that about one-third of the identified lin-35; slr-2 suppressors were previously shown to suppress the lin-15ab synMuv phenotype, we tested the remaining lin-35; slr-2 suppressors by RNAi to see if they, too, could suppress syn- Muv. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Caenorhabditis elegans pRb ortholog, LIN-35, functions in a wide range of cellular and developmental processes. This includes a role of LIN-35 in nutrient utilization by the intestine, which it carries out redundantly with SLR-2, a zinc-finger protein. This and other redundant functions of LIN-35 were identified in genetic screens for mutations that display synthetic phenotypes in conjunction with loss of lin-35. To explore the intestinal role of LIN-35, we conducted a genome-wide RNA-interference-feeding screen for suppressors of lin-35; slr-2 early larval arrest. Of the 26 suppressors identified, 17 fall into three functional classes: (1) ribosome biogenesis genes, (2) mitochondrial prohibitins, and (3) chromatin regulators. Further characterization indicates that different categories of suppressors act through distinct molecular mechanisms. We also tested lin-35; slr-2 suppressors, as well as suppressors of the synthetic multivulval phenotype, to determine the spectrum of lin-35-synthetic phenotypes that could be suppressed following inhibition of these genes. We identified 19 genes, most of which are evolutionarily conserved, that can suppress multiple unrelated lin-35-synthetic phenotypes. Our study reveals a network of genes broadly antagonistic to LIN-35 as well as genes specific to the role of LIN-35 in intestinal and vulval development. Suppressors of multiple lin-35 phenotypes may be candidate targets for anticancer therapies. Moreover, screening for suppressors of phenotypically distinct synthetic interactions, which share a common altered gene, may prove to be a novel and effective approach for identifying genes whose activities are most directly relevant to the core functions of the shared gene.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Genetics
  • Source
    • "Furthermore, double mutation of sem1 and ubp6, a composition factor of the 19S RP and deubiquitinating protein, respectively, weakened the effect of Sir proteins at the telomere silencing domain (Qin et al., 2009). Similarly, a similar result was observed at the telomere domain following loss of rpn10 (Hang and Smith, 2011). These data also supported that the proteasome might affect the boundary function. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Silenced chromatin domains are restricted to specific regions. Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized into discrete domains delimited by domain boundaries. From approximately 6,000 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we previously isolated 55 boundary genes. In this study, we focus on the molecular function of one of boundary genes, YCR076C/FUB1 (function of boundary), whose function has not been clearly defined in vivo. Biochemical analysis of Fub1p revealed that it interacted with multiple subunits of the 20S proteasome core particle (20S CP). To further clarify the functional link between Fub1p and proteasome, several proteasome mutants were analyzed. Although only 20S CP subunits were isolated as Fub1p interactors, a genetic interaction was also observed for component of 19S regulatory particle (19S RP) suggesting involvement of Fub1p with the whole proteasome. We also analyzed the mechanism of boundary establishment by using proteasome composition factor-deficient strains. Deletion of pre9 and ump1, whose products have effects on the 20S CP, resulted in a decrease in boundary function. Domain analyses of Fub1p identified a minimum functional domain in the C terminus that was essential for boundary establishment and showed a limited sequence homology to the human PSMF1, which is known to inhibit proteasome activity. Finally, boundary assay showed that human PSMF1 also exhibited boundary establishment activity in yeast. Our results defined the functional correlation between Fub1p and PSMF1.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Genes & Genetic Systems
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To take full advantage of high-throughput genetic and physical interaction mapping projects, the raw interactions must first be assembled into models of cell structure and function. PanGIA (for physical and genetic interaction alignment) is a plug-in for the bioinformatics platform Cytoscape, designed to integrate physical and genetic interactions into hierarchical module maps. PanGIA identifies 'modules' as sets of proteins whose physical and genetic interaction data matches that of known protein complexes. Higher-order functional cooperativity and redundancy is identified by enrichment for genetic interactions across modules. This protocol begins with importing interaction networks into Cytoscape, followed by filtering and basic network visualization. Next, PanGIA is used to infer a set of modules and their functional inter-relationships. This module map is visualized in a number of intuitive ways, and modules are tested for functional enrichment and overlap with known complexes. The full protocol can be completed between 10 and 30 min, depending on the size of the data set being analyzed.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Nature Protocol
Show more