Mesothelium of the Murine Allantois Exhibits Distinct Regional Properties

Department of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
Journal of Morphology (Impact Factor: 1.74). 05/2011; 272(5):536-56. DOI: 10.1002/jmor.10928
Source: PubMed


The rodent allantois is thought to be unique amongst mammals in not having an endodermal component. Here, we have investigated the mesothelium, or outer surface, of murine umbilical precursor tissue, the allantois (∼7.25-8.5 days postcoitum, dpc) to discover whether it exhibits the properties of an epithelium. A combination of morphology, challenge with biotinylated dextran amines (BDAs), and immunohistochemistry revealed that the mesothelium of the mouse allantois exhibits distinct regional properties. By headfold stages (∼7.75-8.0 dpc), distal mesothelium was generally squamous in shape, and highly permeable to BDA challenge, whereas ventral proximal mesothelium, referred to as "ventral cuboidal mesothelium" (VCM) for the characteristic cuboidal shape of its cells, was relatively impermeable. Although "dorsal cuboidal mesothelium" (DCM) resembled the VCM in cell shape, its permeability to BDA was intermediate between the other two regions. Results of immunostaining for Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin), together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggested that impermeability in the VCM may be due to greater cellular contact area between cells and close packing rather than to maturity of tight junctions, the latter of which, by comparison with the visceral yolk sac, appeared to be rare or absent from the allantoic surface. Both VCM and DCM exhibited an ultrastructure more favorable for protein synthesis than did the distal squamous mesothelium; however, at most stages, VCM exhibited robust afadin (AF-6), whereas the DCM uniquely contained alpha-4-integrin. These observations demonstrate that the allantoic mesothelium is not a conventional epithelium but possesses regional ultrastructural, functional and molecular differences that may play important roles in the correct deployment of the umbilical cord and its associated vascular, hematopoietic, and other cell types.

  • Source
    • "Whole-mount in situ hybridization and β-galactosidase staining were performed as described (Biechele et al., 2011; Cox et al., 2010). Integrin alpha 4 immunohistochemistry was performed as described (Daane et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In mice and humans the X-chromosomal porcupine homolog (Porcn) gene is required for the acylation and secretion of all 19 Wnt ligands and thus represents a bottleneck for all Wnt signaling. We have generated a mouse line carrying a floxed allele for Porcn and used zygotic, oocyte-specific and visceral endoderm-specific deletions to investigate embryonic and extra-embryonic requirements for Wnt ligand secretion. We show that there is no requirement for Porcn-dependent secretion of Wnt ligands during preimplantation development of the mouse embryo. Porcn-dependent Wnts are first required for the initiation of gastrulation, where Porcn function is required in the epiblast but not the visceral endoderm. Heterozygous female embryos, which are mutant in both trophoblast and visceral endoderm due to imprinted X chromosome inactivation, complete gastrulation but display chorio-allantoic fusion defects similar to Wnt7b mutants. Our studies highlight the importance of Wnt3 and Wnt7b for embryonic and placental development but suggest that endogenous Porcn-dependent Wnt secretion does not play an essential role in either implantation or blastocyst lineage specification.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Development
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although many fetal birth defects, particularly those of the body wall and gut, are associated with abnormalities of the umbilical cord, the developmental relationship between these structures is largely obscure. Recently, genetic analysis of mid-gestation mouse embryos revealed that defects in Hedgehog signaling led to omphalocoele, or failure of the body wall to close at the umbilical ring (Matsumaru et al. [ 2011] PLos One 6:e16260). However, systematic spatiotemporal localization of Hedgehog signaling in the allantois, or umbilical precursor tissue, and the surrounding regions has not been documented. Here, a combination of reagents, including the Ptc1:lacZ and Runx1:lacZ reporter mice, immunohistochemistry for Smoothened (Smo), Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), and detailed PECAM-1/Flk-1/Runx-1 analysis, revealed robust Hedgehog signaling in previously undocumented posterior sites over an extended period of time (∼7.0-9.75 dpc). These included the recently described proximal walls of the allantois (Ventral and Dorsal Cuboidal Mesothelia; VCM and DCM, respectively); the ventral embryonic surface continuous with them; hemogenic arterial endothelia; hematopoietic cells; the hindgut; ventral ectodermal ridge (VER); chorionic ectoderm; and the intraplacental yolk sac (IPY), which appeared to be a site of placental hematopoiesis. This map of Hedgehog signaling in the posterior region of the mouse conceptus will provide a valuable foundation upon which to elucidate the origin of many posterior midline abnormalities, especially those of the umbilical cord and associated fetal defects. Developmental Dynamics 240:2175-2193, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Developmental Dynamics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mouse posterior primitive streak at neural plate/headfold stages (NP/HF, ~7.5 dpc-8 dpc) represents an optimal window from which hemangioblasts can be isolated. We performed immunohistochemistry on this domain using established monoclonal antibodies for proteins that affect blood and endothelial fates. We demonstrate that HoxB4 and GATA1 are the first set of markers that segregate independently to endothelial or blood populations during NP/HF stages of mouse embryonic development. In a subset of cells, both proteins are co-expressed and immunoreactivities appear mutually excluded within nuclear spaces. We searched for this particular state at later sites of hematopoietic stem cell emergence, viz., the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) and the fetal liver at 10.5-11.5 dpc, and found that only a rare number of cells displayed this character. Based on this spatial-temporal argument, we propose that the earliest blood progenitors emerge either directly from the epiblast or through segregation within the allantoic core domain (ACD) through reduction of cell adhesion and pSmad1/5 nuclear signaling, followed by a stochastic decision toward a blood or endothelial fate that involves GATA1 and HoxB4, respectively. A third form in which binding distributions are balanced may represent a common condition shared by hemangioblasts and HSCs. We developed a heuristic model of hemangioblast maturation, in part, to be explicit about our assumptions.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Developmental Biology
Show more