The Madison Avenue effect: How drug presentation style influences adherence and outcome in patients with asthma

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 02/2011; 127(2):406-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.038
Source: PubMed


Little is known about how drug presentation influences medication adherence.
To examine the effect of an educational program aimed at increasing expectations of treatment benefit on medication adherence.
Data are analyzed from 99 participants who underwent electronic drug monitoring during the Trial of Asthma Patient Education, a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Participants with suboptimally controlled asthma were randomized to placebo or montelukast in conjunction with a presentation mode that was either neutral or designed to increase outcome expectancy. Adherence was monitored electronically over 4 weeks and was defined as ≥ 80% use of prescribed doses. Outcome expectancy, peak expiratory flow, prebronchodilator FEV₁, asthma control (Juniper asthma control questionnaire), and asthma-related quality of life were assessed at baseline and at the 4-week follow-up.
Average electronic medication adherence was 69.9%. There was a significant interaction between presentation mode and drug assignment, with participants in the enhanced/montelukast group having a higher change in outcome expectancy (Δ 2.1 points; P < .001) and better medication adherence (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.3) compared with those in the neutral/placebo group. There was no difference in asthma symptoms, quality of life, or clinical outcomes on the basis of presentation mode. Rather, increased outcome expectancy was associated with modest improvements in asthma symptoms after adjusting for presentation mode, drug assignment, and medication adherence.
The use of an enhanced presentation aimed at increasing outcome expectancy may lead to improved medication adherence.

Download full-text


Available from: Susan J Bartlett
  • Source
    • "All four studies addressing medication beliefs reported that their approaches had a positive impact on medication barriers and adherence behaviour. In three studies, telephone calls were used as method to carry out the interventions whereas Clerisme-Beaty and colleagues [26] used quite a different method to address adherence and medication beliefs by using a specific drug presentation style. The presentation about the drug was aimed at increasing patients' expectancy that the asthma medication could control the asthma symptoms adequately. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Poor adherence to asthma medication treatment is a dilemma as it decreases the chance of achieving and maintaining a proper asthma control. Another dilemma is that there seems to be a small range of functional interventions that enhance adherence to long-term medication treatments. The aim was to review the last five years of published educational interventions for improving adherence to asthma medication. Through systematic database searches 20 articles were identified, which matched the inclusion criteria and described educational interventions to improve asthma self-management including adherence. The current review showed that addressing unintentional non-adherence in terms of incorrect inhaler technique by recurrent education improved the technique among many patients, but not among all. Phoning patients, as a means to remove medication beliefs as adherence barriers, seemed to be an effective educational strategy, shown as increased adherence. Involving patients in treatment decisions and individualising or tailoring educational support also seemed to have favourable effect on adherence. To conclude, addressing specific adherence barriers such as poor inhaler technique or medication beliefs could favour adherence. To change adherence behavior, the current review proposes that educational adherence support should be a collaborative effort between the patient and the health-care professional based on each individual patient's needs and patient factors, including elements such as personality traits.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Non-adherence to medications is prevalent across all medical conditions that include ambulatory pharmacotherapy and is thus a major barrier to achieving the benefits of otherwise effective medicines. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to identify and to compare the efficacy of strategies and components thereof that improve implementation of the prescribed drug dosing regimen and maintain long-term persistence, based on quantitative evaluation of effect sizes across the aggregated trials. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials that tested the efficacy of adherence-enhancing strategies with self-administered medications. The searches were limited to papers in the English language and were included from database inception to 31 December 2011. Study selection Our review included randomized controlled trials in which adherence was assessed by electronically compiled drug dosing histories. Five thousand four hundred studies were screened. Eligibility assessment was performed independently by two reviewers. A structured data collection sheet was developed to extract data from each study. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The adherence-enhancing components were classified in eight categories. Quality of the papers was assessed using the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions guidelines to assess potential bias. A combined adherence outcome was derived from the different adherence variables available in the studies by extracting from each paper the available adherence summary variables in a pre-defined order (correct dosing, taking adherence, timing adherence, percentage of adherent patients). To study the association between the adherence-enhancing components and their effect on adherence, a linear meta-regression model, based on mean adherence point estimates, and a meta-analysis were conducted. Results Seventy-nine clinical trials published between 1995 and December 2011 were included in the review. Patients randomized to an intervention group had an average combined adherence outcome of 74.3 %, which was 14.1 % higher than in patients randomized to the control group (60.2 %). The linear meta-regression analysis with stepwise variable selection estimated an 8.8 % increase in adherence when the intervention included feedback to the patients of their recent dosing history (EM-feedback) (p < 0.01) and a 5.0 % increase in adherence when the intervention included a cognitive-educational component (p = 0.02). In addition, the effect of interventions on adherence decreased by 1.1 % each month. Sensitivity analysis by selecting only high-quality papers confirmed the robustness of the model. The random effects model in the meta-analysis, conducted on 48 studies, confirmed the above findings and showed that the improvement in adherence was 19.8 % (95 % CI 10.7–28.9 %) among patients receiving EM-feedback, almost double the improvement in adherence for studies that did not include this type of feedback [10.3 % (95 % CI 7.5–13.1 %)] (p < 0.01). The improvement in adherence was 16.1 % (95 % CI 10.7–21.6 %) in studies that tested cognitive-educational components versus 10.1 % (95 % CI 6.6–13.6 %) in studies that did not include this type of intervention (p = 0.04). Among 57 studies measuring clinical outcomes, only 8 reported a significant improvement in clinical outcome. Limitations Despite a common measurement, the meta-analysis was limited by the heterogeneity of the pooled data and the different measures of medication adherence. The funnel plot showed a possible publication bias in studies with high variability of the intervention effect. Conclusions Notwithstanding the statistical heterogeneity among the studies identified, and potential publication bias, the evidence from our meta-analysis suggests that EM-feedback and cognitive-educational interventions are potentially effective approaches to enhance patient adherence to medications. The limitations of this research highlight the urgent need to define guidelines and study characteristics for research protocols that can guide researchers in designing studies to assess the effects of adherence-enhancing interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Drugs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Last year's review of research advances in adults with asthma emphasized the linear trajectory of translation: the initial studies translating bench findings to the first patients (T1) are connected to larger efficacy studies, including clinical trials studying subjects under tightly controlled conditions (T2), and these in turn are connected to research, including comparative effectiveness research, that tests how the efficacy findings of T2 research fare in the real world, diverse populations, and varied practice settings (T3). This year what was observed was a more interwoven relationship (rather than a linear one), in which each translational level informs the others and new approaches to answering old questions have led to new discoveries. Within this framework, the present review summarizes clinical research on asthma in adults that was reported in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in 2011, with emphasis on health outcomes, education, delivery, and quality in terms of discoveries related to mechanisms of disease, environmental exposures, and management.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
Show more