Article

The Role of Automatic Obesity Stereotypes in Real Hiring Discrimination

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Abstract

This study examined whether automatic stereotypes captured by the implicit association test (IAT) can predict real hiring discrimination against the obese. In an unobtrusive field experiment, job applications were sent to a large number of real job vacancies. The applications were matched on credentials but differed with respect to the applicant's weight. Discriminatory behavior was quantified by the extent to which the hiring managers invited normal-weight versus obese applicants to a job interview. Several months after the behavioral data were obtained, the hiring managers completed an obesity IAT and explicit hiring preference measures. Only the IAT scores reliably predicted interview decisions. More specifically, hiring managers holding more negative automatic stereotypes about the obese were less likely to invite an obese applicant for an interview. The present research is the first to show that automatic bias predicts labor market discrimination against obese individuals. Practical implications are discussed.

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... Such categorization processes are likely to activate stereotypes (e.g., or come along with an inherent uncertainty about applicants in this category (e.g., . Thus, we develop theory-induced mechanisms which are relevant prehire employability factors (e.g., Agerström & Rooth, 2011;Hendricks et al., 2003;Uhlmann & Cohen, 2007). This way, categorization theories help to research how stakeholders in the recruitment and selection process perceive the employability of former entrepreneurs. ...
... Accordingly, the entrepreneurship category should be relevant for grouping applicants as a prior occupation (Smith et al., 1996) and job type (Koenig & Eagly, 2014;Macrae et al., 1994) were essential categories for recruitment and selection-related decisions. As employers categorize applicants, they draw on category-based stereotypes for their evaluations (Agerström & Rooth, 2011) to process the incoming information easier and faster . Alternatively, the categorization induces uncertainty when established schemas are incompatible with the situation and when future outcomes are difficult to predict (van den Bos & Lind, 2002). ...
... Stereotypical beliefs are meaningful in organizational hiring situations (e.g., Agerström & Rooth, 2011;Uhlmann & Cohen, 2007), especially when the applicant is a former entrepreneur . They can be eminent over objective criteria (Gilmore & Ferris, 1989;Kinicki et al., 1990) and can influence perceptions directly (Macrae et al., 1994) unconsciously and automatically Greenwald & Banaji, 1995), even if other relevant information is available (Bodenhausen & Wyer, 1985). ...
Thesis
Entrepreneurship is not a final career destination. Accordingly, there is an emerging debate in the entrepreneurial careers literature about the employability of former entrepreneurs in subsequent paid employment. By investigating income distributions, current research proposes both earning premiums and wage penalties for former entrepreneurs. Despite the meaningful contributions of this research, the literature occurs predominantly on the macro-economic level with large-scale administrative data, concentrates on post-hire performance measures for such individuals with a “successful” transition into paid employment, and is far away from a consistent picture on the employability of former entrepreneurs. Research on the pre-hire employability of former entrepreneurs is scattered, and it is not intuitively clear if former entrepreneurs are preferred job candidates in the eyes of future employers. Therefore, this dissertation addresses this void by zooming into employers’ subjective perceptions of former entrepreneurs’ employability. By that, this dissertation establishes a pre-hire and cognitive-based perspective grounded in categorization and attribution theories to contribute to the employability debate about former entrepreneurs. To achieve this, Chapter 1 describes the scientific relevance, the goals, and the intended contributions of this dissertation. Chapter 2 develops and tests a novel theory about the employability of former entrepreneurs by accounting for the heterogeneity in employers’ perceptions and the underlying mechanisms in two studies. Overall, employability perceptions are mediated by the positive and negative stereotypes and the inherent uncertainty employers possess about former entrepreneurs resulting in an overall negative perception of former entrepreneurs. Moreover, there is evidence that the entrepreneurship category has “neutral” employment implications if the job opening comes with personnel responsibility, if the entrepreneur has failure in the vita, or if employers are more similar to the entrepreneur. Chapter 3 addresses the stereotypes about former entrepreneurs more directly. Results from a priming experiment indicate that six negative stereotype factors (e.g., difficulties in following instructions) explain the negative employability perceptions and four stereotype factors that compensate for the general negative effect (e.g., good people management). Chapter 4 targets employers’ perceptions of former entrepreneurs’ failure attributions. The results from a metric conjoint experiment indicate that person-centered failure attributions (e.g., lack of skill or lack of effort) outweigh the distancing attributions in the employment interview, especially when the former entrepreneur is female. Chapter 5 has a methodological focus and illustrates the concerns with the current use of test-retest reliabilities in metric conjoint experiments (a recurring issue of the previous chapters). Two simulation studies indicate that the current reliability threshold of r = 0.70 is superficial as regression outcomes are relatively stable across several test-retest reliabilities. The last chapter summarizes the previous chapters and discusses the overall scientific contributions. Overall, this dissertation helps to understand the employment implications for former entrepreneurs by zooming into employers’ subjective evaluations of former entrepreneurs’ employability.
... Anti-fat bias is the variable that measures such attitude and cognition. Schwartz et al. (2006) defined anti-fat bias as the negative attitude or stereotype one holds for overweight persons, such as considering them lazy, unmotivated, and less preferable (see also, Agerström and Rooth, 2011;Fontana et al., 2017). Research has consistently demonstrated that anti-fat bias can vary widely among individuals (Devine, 1989;Newheiser and Dovidio, 2012), such that people with a lower level of weight bias should be less negative against overweight persons and give them a less negative evaluation (Merritt et al., 2018). ...
... Devine (1989) found that participants with a strong anti-fat bias provide lower evaluations of targets with a characteristic that matches the bias, whereas participants who do not have such a bias do not provide biased evaluations of the same targets. Similarly, Agerström and Rooth (2011) demonstrated that only managers with anti-fat bias are less likely to invite an overweight job applicant for an interview; however, the case differs for a normal-weight counterpart. In terms of performance evaluation, Rudolph et al. (2012) experimentally confirmed that observers without anti-fat bias do not give lower performance evaluations to overweight ratees. ...
... We base our logic on the speculation that supervisor anti-fat bias can shape their reactions to employee weight change. When individuals hold strong anti-fat bias, they are more likely to assign negative attributes (e.g., incompetence, emotionality, and self-indulgence) to overweight employees (Silverstein et al., 1986;Agerström and Rooth, 2011). Naturally, when perceiving employee weight change, these supervisors with strong anti-fat bias may be more likely to react to weight change, thereby resulting in performance-evaluation alteration from Time 1 to Time 2. By contrast, supervisors with low anti-fat bias can consider employee weight change as less relevant when perceiving such change, because they do not believe weight is related to one's characteristics (Rudolph et al., 2012), thereby resulting in no additional performance-evaluation alteration from Time 1 to Time 2. In other words, the perception of employee weight change may be more influential for employee performance-evaluation change when their supervisors have strong anti-fat bias. ...
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Article
Overweight employees are viewed as lazy, slow, inactive, and even incapable. Even if such attributes are false, this perspective can seriously undermine others' evaluation of their work performance. The current study explores a broader phenomenon of weight bias that has an effect on weight change. In a longitudinal study with a time lag of 6 months, we surveyed 226 supervisor-employee dyads. We found supervisor perceptions of employee weight change notably altered their evaluation of the employee performance from Time 1, especially following low vs. high Time-1 performance evaluation. Meanwhile, the moderating effects among different levels of supervisor anti-fat bias functioned as boundary conditions for such performance evaluation alteration. In particular, the interaction between the Time-1 performance evaluation and the impact of supervisor perception of employee weight change on the Time-2 performance evaluation was significant only if supervisors held a stronger anti-fat bias.
... Thus, according to international studies, weight-based discrimination would be a relevant topic, strongly affecting every aspect of obese people's everyday life including labour market outcomes (see, e.g., [18] and [65]). However, since obesity denotes a major issue in every developed country, the existing literature has devoted much less attention to the weight bias in the job market compared to race and gender discrimination (see, for instance, [2]). ...
... Thus, I run the last stage involved in TROB procedure to obtain the final model solution better performing the data with higher log Bayes Factor. It consists of 16 final best covariates with lBF = 17.41 and so split: predictors (1,2,3,5,6,8,9,11) for z h � i,t−1 ; predictors (13,14,15,17) for z e � i,t−l ; and predictors (18,19,20,21) for y c � i,t−1 . All their lags are then involved as instruments in the estimating procedure to deal with endogeneity issues and functional forms of misspecification, with particular emphasis on the lagged outcomes ( y o � i,t−1 ) and predictors 1, 2, 5, 11 addressing (potential) causal effects and spatial dependence, respectively ( Table 2). ...
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This paper investigates the effects of obesity, socio-economic variables, and individual-specific factors on work productivity across Italian regions. A dynamic panel data with correlated random effects is used to jointly deal with incidental parameters, endogeneity issues, and functional forms of misspecification. Methodologically, a hierarchical semiparametric Bayesian approach is involved in shrinking high dimensional model classes, and then obtaining a subset of potential predictors affecting outcomes. Monte Carlo designs are addressed to construct exact posterior distributions and then perform accurate forecasts. Cross-sectional Heterogeneity is modelled nonparametrically allowing for correlation between heterogeneous parameters and initial conditions as well as individual-specific regressors. Prevention policies and strategies to handle health and labour market prospects are also discussed.
... Obesity is a complex social issue as it objectively affects people with obesity and social attitudes toward them. Previous research evidence various negative physical [2,3], psychological [4,5], and social [6] consequences of obesity as well as adverse consequences for organizations they work for [7][8][9][10][11]. Moreover, whereas some people and organizations advocate the necessity to prevent overweight and obesity by promoting healthy lifestyle and diets [12,13], others argue that organizations should limit obesity discrimination [14]. ...
... There is vast evidence that physical attributes influence hiring decisions. Several studies show that applicants with obesity are less likely than normal-weight applicants to receive job offers [7,75,76]. A recruiter might (un)consciously expect applicants with obesity to perform worse because of their physical condition. ...
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Article
Background/Objectives The study considers the problem of the inclusion of people with obesity in the context of the growing role of computer-based work. Negative stereotypes about people with obesity still hold even when they are irrelevant in tasks that require little physical activity. Subjects/Methods Using data from the realm of competitive video gaming (eSports) and image recognition-based metric of body mass index metric derived from artificial intelligence, we examine the individual performance depending on weight. The sample includes 821 players and 127,533 player performance observations. Results For shorter tasks, individuals with normal weight performed better than individuals with obesity. For longer tasks, however, people with Class III (severe) obesity outperformed all others, and their advantage increased with task duration. Conclusions Our findings shed light on an understanding of how actually body features are related to objective individual performance in a competitive context.
... Both the behavior of the applicant and discrimination by the employer may contribute to health-related selection. Studies have demonstrated that employers view signs of poor health, such as visible symptoms or gaps in employment history, to imply risk (e.g., sickness absences, poor productivity) [21,22], or associate them with other unwanted applicant characteristics (e.g., poor emotional or social skills) [16,17,[23][24][25]. However, employers are unlikely to possess full knowledge of an applicant's health. ...
... Certain cues may also be more associated with unwanted characteristics than others. Studies report examples of such prejudices towards the obese [23,25] and those with mental health problems [25]. Although little is known about the relative importance of physical and psychiatric health, some evidence suggests that those with alcohol-related and psychiatric problems may be more discriminated against in comparison to those with physical conditions [25,26]. ...
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Article
Background Successful transitions from unemployment to employment are an important concern, yet little is known about health-related selection into employment. We assessed the association of various physical and psychiatric conditions with finding employment, and employment stability. Methods Using total population register data, we followed Finnish residents aged 30–60 with an unemployment spell during 2009–2018 ( n = 814,085) for two years from the onset of unemployment. We predicted any, stable, and unstable employment by health status using Cox proportional hazards models. The data on specialized health care and prescription reimbursement were used to identify any alcohol-related conditions and poisonings, psychiatric conditions and self-harm, injuries, and physical conditions. We further separated physical conditions into cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological conditions, and psychiatric conditions into depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Results The likelihood of any employment was lower among those who had any of the assessed health conditions. It was lowest among those with alcohol-related or psychiatric conditions with an age-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.44, 0.46) among men and 0.39 (0.38, 0.41) among women for alcohol-related and 0.64 (0.63, 0.65) and 0.66 (0.65, 0.67) for psychiatric conditions, respectively. These results were not driven by differences in socioeconomic characteristics or comorbidities. All the included conditions were detrimental to both stable and unstable employment, however alcohol-related and psychiatric conditions were more harmful for stable than for unstable employment. Conclusions The prospects of the unemployed finding employment are reduced by poor health, particularly alcohol-related and psychiatric conditions. These two conditions may also lead to unstable career trajectories. The selection process contributes to the health differentials between employed and unemployed people. Unemployed people with health problems may therefore need additional support to improve their chances of employment.
... There is evidence that newborns can quickly form a composite face even from limited exposure, less than one minute in some cases (Walton & Bower, 1993). The infant then uses this composite as a template, albeit 1 Dr. James Calvert is a Senior Lecturer in SMU's Psychology Department. ...
... Qualifications are an important part of the employment process, but biases regarding physical appearance may be more predictive of employment and job success. A study examining Implicit Association Test (IAT) scores of hiring mangers toward obese individuals and their relationship to actual hiring outcomes found that the greater a hiring manager's negative implicit associations were against obese individuals, the greater the predictive power the researchers had that the managers would not invite these applicants for an interview, opting instead for a thinner individual (Agerström & Rooth, 2011). While in-person interviews can be especially potent in activating these negative associations, a headshot can be sufficient to trigger these stereotypes. ...
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Article
This study’s purpose was to assess the prevalence of weight bias in the hiring of female applicants among students attending Southern Methodist University. Weight bias in hiring for a CEO position was assessed in 87 total male and female participants by viewing one of two possible applicants’ resumés – one slim and one overweight female. Experience and qualifications for each resumé were identical, only the headshots differed. Participants saw either the overweight applicant or the slim applicant, after which they filled out a questionnaire that asked them to indicate whether they would hire the individual and state the reason for their decision. We found no significant difference between which applicant participants chose to hire. Gender did not predict which applicant participants were more likely to hire or reject. These findings contradicted our hypotheses. We had predicted that the overweight female applicant would have been hired less by participants, relative to the slim applicant. Additionally, we had predicted that this weight bias against the overweight female applicant would have a higher incidence in males. Similar studies going forward should focus on providing a truly random sample of participants and use clearer instructions to read to the participant. Experimenters should also consider using in-person interviews instead of resumés, and perhaps a larger sample size to determine if in fact there was a detectable effect present. Remaining limitations and explanations for the results will be presented in the discussion.
... The correspondence test method (that we will present in this thesis) is the most used method for assessing discrimination. It has been used to determine the magnitude of the stigma effect in the labor market of different forms of disability, such as motor disability (Ravaud et al., 1992;Mbaye, 2018;Stone & Wright, 2013;Ameri et al., 2018;Bellemare et al., 2019Bellemare et al., , 2020Bjørnshagen & Ugreninov, 2021); unspecified physical disability (Capéau et al., 2012); depression ; obesity (Rooth, 2009;Agerström & Rooth, 2011;Busetta et al., 2020;Campos-Vazquez & Gonzalez, 2020); HIV (Drydakis, 2010); Asperger's syndrome (Ameri et al., 2018); mental disability (Hipes et al., 2016;Bjørnshagen, 2021); and deafness, hearing impairment, blindness and autism (Baert, 2016). The meta-analysis by Lippens et al. (2021) highlighted an overall result: candidates to employment with disabilities have 44% lower chance of receiving a positive callback from the employer. ...
Thesis
By promoting social interaction and economic independence (or quasi-independence), employment is a lever in the fight against the exclusion and poverty to which persons with disabilities are overexposed. However, they remain very far from employment, despite significant public action to stimulate the supply and demand of disabled workers.The objective of this thesis, composed of three empirical studies, is to analyze some obstacles in the access to employment of persons with disabilities, both on the labor supply and labor demand sides, and to discuss the effectiveness of some financial incentives implemented to overcome them. While the international literature on the subject is growing but still weak, quantitative studies in France remain very few. Similarly, there is little data on disability. We therefore focused on the case of France, using experimental data in addition to national survey data.The first chapter highlights the existence of discrimination in access to employment because of a visible disability (motor disability). It is particularly pronounced in the private sector, in establishments not subject to the employment quota of disabled workers and against women. The second chapter shows that this discrimination also exists towards persons with invisible disabilities (hearing disabilities), while comparing it to three other potential discrimination criteria (origin, gender and place of residence). These first two chapters provide evidence that the employment quota is insufficient to stimulate labor demand and eliminate such discrimination. The last chapter focuses on a labor supply side barrier to employment: the potential inactivity trap created by the receipt of disability benefits (the Allocation aux Adultes Handicapés, AAH). We also discuss the effectiveness of a labor supply activation measure: the possibility to cumulate this benefit with a job, so that it should always be financially advantageous to work. We show that despite its design, the AAH reduces the probability of employment for its beneficiaries, with a greater disincentive to employment for women and people declaring a low activity limitation. Moreover, the AAH would also increase part-time employment of women
... 4 It also bears emphasis, that these situations often feature prejudice, as is demonstrated particularly vividly by so-called CV-studies (See e.g. Steinpreis et al., 1999;Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2004;Correll et al., 2007;Moss-Racusin et al. 2012;Döbrich et al., 2014;Agerström & Rooth, 2011;Rooth, 2010) which demonstrate that identical, or comparable, CVs give rise to different evaluations when they signal membership in different irrelevant social groups (e.g. male/female or Black/White). ...
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Article
In recruitment, promotion, admission, and other forms of wealth and power apportion, an evaluator typically ranks a set of candidates in terms of their competence. If the evaluator is prejudiced, the resulting ranking will misrepresent the candidates’ actual rankings. This constitutes not only a moral and a practical problem, but also an epistemological one, which begs the question of what we should do—epistemologically—to mitigate it. In a recent paper, Jönsson and Sjödahl in [Episteme 14(4):499–517, 2017], argue that the epistemic problem can be fruitfully addressed by way of a novel statistical method that changes the products of biased behaviour, i.e. the rankings themselves, rather than the biased persons. Jönsson and Sjödahl’s pioneering proposal is a both a welcome addition to the literature on implicit bias, due the problems with existing implicit bias interventions [see e.g. Lai et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 143:1765–1785; J Exp Psychol Gen 145(8):1001–1016, 2014; 2016; Forscher et al. in J Person Soc Psychol 117(3):522–559, 2019] but also to the literature on prejudice more generally, where many proposed prejudice-reduction strategies enjoy less than adequate empirical support [Paluck and Green in Ann Rev Psychol 60(1):339–367, 2009]. Their proposal, however, needs supplementation in two ways: the circumstances that must hold in order for it to work needs to be refined, and their claim that it works as intended in these circumstances needs to be validated. We argue that four of Jönsson and Sjödahl’s method’s presumed presuppositions can be weakened, but needs to be supplemented by two additional assumptions, overlooked by Jönsson and Sjödahl. Moreover, we demonstrate that the method does work as intended by way of a statistical simulation.
... Recent research has demonstrated that implicit bias does have real, salient implications for employees at work, such as an impact on interview decisions (Agerström & Rooth, 2011) and performance ratings (Anderson et al., 2015). Bias does translate into discrimination, even if the effect sizes are small to medium in society (Oswald et al., 2013). ...
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Article
We explore whether abusive supervision may occur more in mixed-race supervisor-subordinate dyads. Specifically, our model tests whether, in mixed-race dyads, a manager’s implicit racial bias may be associated with racial microaggressions, and, subsequently, subordinates’ perceptions of the degree to which that manager is an abusive supervisor. Social identity theory supports the why of these predictions. We also test when it may be possible for some managers to overcome their racial biases—by engaging in behaviors reflective of viewing their subordinates as individuals, rather than members of another race, via individuation theory. In this vein, we investigate a way in which race-based mistreatment and abusive supervision may be mitigated. We tested our predictions in 137 manager-employee dyads in two chemical manufacturing firms in South Africa. We found a positive relationship between manager implicit racial bias and abusive supervision, and that this relationship is lessened by individualized consideration–a moderator of the mediated effect of manager racial microaggressions on bias and abuse. Thus, our hypotheses were supported. We conclude with implications for victimized employees, and possible strategies to combat race-based aggression for organizations.
... It also bears emphasis that evaluation situations are often characterized by prejudice, as is demonstrated particularly clearly by so-called CV-studies (See e.g. Steinpreis et al., 1999;Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2004;Correll et al., 2007;Moss-Racusin et al. 2012;Döbrich et al., 2014;Agerström & Rooth, 2011;Rooth, 2010) which demonstrate that identical, or comparable, CVs give rise to differential evaluation when they signal membership in different irrelevant social groups (e.g. male/female or Black/White). ...
Full-text available
Article
In recruitment, promotion, admission, and other forms of wealth and power apportion, an evaluator typically ranks a set of candidates in terms of their perceived competence. If the evaluator is prejudiced, the resulting ranking will misrepresent the candidates’ actual ranking. This constitutes not only a moral and a practical problem, but also an epistemological one, which begs the question of what we should do – epistemologically – to mitigate it. The article is an attempt to begin to answer this question. I first explore the presuppositions that must obtain for individual interventions to likely yield positive epistemological effects in ranking situations. I then compare these with the corresponding presuppositions of a novel, ‘post hoc’ approach to deprejudicing due to Jönsson and Sjödahl (Episteme 14(4):499–517, 2017), which does not attempt to change evaluators but attempts to increase the veracity of the rankings they produce after the fact (but before the rankings give rise to discriminatory effects) using statistical methods. With these two sets of presuppositions in place, I describe the limitations imposed by each presupposition on its intervention, compare presuppositions across the two kinds of interventions, and conclude that the two kinds of interventions importantly complement each other by having fairly disjoint, but non–conflicting, presuppositions. The post hoc intervention can thus complement an individual intervention (and vice versa) in situations where both are applicable (by adding further increases in veracity), but also by applying to situations where that intervention is not applicable (and thereby increase veracity in situations beyond the reach of that intervention).
... Other research has investigated the relationship between implicit measures and ecologically meaningful measures of intergroup behavior . For example, implicit mathgender stereotypes predict actual academic achievement among high school students (Steffens, Jelenec, & Noack, 2010); implicit weight stereotypes predict actual callbacks of job applicants among human resources professionals (Agerström & Rooth, 2011); managers' implicit competence stereotypes predict actual job performance of their minority employees ; and doctors' implicit evaluations predict actual rapport, satisfaction, and treatment adherence among Black patients Penner et al., 2016Penner et al., , 2010. ...
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Article
We endorse Cesario's call for more research into the complexities of “real-world” decisions and the comparative power of different causes of group disparities. Unfortunately, these reasonable suggestions are overshadowed by a barrage of non sequiturs, misdirected criticisms of methodology, and unsubstantiated claims about the assumptions and inferences of social psychologists.
... Other research has investigated the relationship between implicit measures and ecologically meaningful measures of intergroup behavior (Kurdi et al., 2019b). For example, implicit mathgender stereotypes predict actual academic achievement among high school students (Steffens, Jelenec, & Noack, 2010); implicit weight stereotypes predict actual callbacks of job applicants among human resources professionals (Agerström & Rooth, 2011); managers' implicit competence stereotypes predict actual job performance of their minority employees (Glover, Pallais, & Pariente, 2017); and doctors' implicit evaluations predict actual rapport, satisfaction, and treatment adherence among Black patients (Hagiwara et al., 2013;Penner et al., 2016Penner et al., , 2010. ...
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Article
We highlight several sets of findings from the past decade elucidating the relationship between implicit social cognition and real-world inequality: Studies focusing on practical ramifications of implicit social cognition in applied contexts, the relationship between implicit social cognition and consequential real-world outcomes at the level of individuals and geographic units, and convergence between individual-level and corpus-based measures of implicit bias.
... Other research has investigated the relationship between implicit measures and ecologically meaningful measures of intergroup behavior . For example, implicit mathgender stereotypes predict actual academic achievement among high school students (Steffens, Jelenec, & Noack, 2010); implicit weight stereotypes predict actual callbacks of job applicants among human resources professionals (Agerström & Rooth, 2011); managers' implicit competence stereotypes predict actual job performance of their minority employees ; and doctors' implicit evaluations predict actual rapport, satisfaction, and treatment adherence among Black patients Penner et al., 2016Penner et al., , 2010. ...
Article
In psychology, causal inference – both the transport from lab estimates to the real world and estimation on the basis of observational data – is often pursued in a casual manner. Underlying assumptions remain unarticulated; potential pitfalls are compiled in post-hoc lists of flaws. The field should move on to coherent frameworks of causal inference and generalizability that have been developed elsewhere.
... In work context, IAT established a link between implicit prejudice toward the unpopular group and negative outcomes. A link was found between negative implicit associations with Arab men and a lower callback rate among recruiters (Rooth, 2010) as well as implicit bias unreported in explicit measures and discrimination against obese candidates manifested by a lower chance of interview invitation (Agerström & Rooth, 2011). Moreover, as shown experimentally by Reuben, Sapienza, and Zingales (2014), women are less likely to be hired for mathematical tasks by both men and women who display implicit bias and the decision is unlikely to be reversed even when positive information about past performance is presented to those with high sex bias level which may explain underrepresentation of women in this field. ...
Article
Given inconsistent results of past studies on attitudes toward female managers in China, this study explored the topic using both implicit and explicit measures with a sample of 150 tourism and hospitality students from Macao and Greater China. Implicit and explicit attitudes were found to be positive regardless of place of origin. A close parallel relationship between implicit and explicit results points to low sensitivity of the topic, and the positive or neutral implicit scores indicate positive attitudes toward female managers in Macao in the sample employed. Moreover, although neutral implicit attitudes of males showed positive bias, they suggest a continued adherence to traditional social gender roles despite social progress when compared with female positive implicit attitudes. Overall, the results are encouraging for future employers in Macao as the egalitarianism of the upcoming professionals should reduce conflict and contribute to a harmonious work environment. The results suggest that the Implicit Association Test (IAT) alone can be used as an evaluation tool for bias detection.
... Studies using implicit measures of bias have started revealing the psychological underpinnings of group-based inequality by examining individual-level behavior, regional-level behavior, and even the content of the English corpus. To name just a few examples, relevant work at the individual level has shown that female high school students with higher levels of unintentional math-gender stereotyping do worse in math classes (Steffens et al., 2010), and HR managers with higher levels of unintentional anti-obese stereotyping are less likely to invite overweight applicants for an interview (Agerström & Rooth, 2011;Rooth, 2010). Although the overall meta-analytic effect of unintentional evaluation and stereotyping on downstream behavior is small, much is now understood about the variability of such influences, including conditions under which relatively large effects can emerge (Kurdi, Seitchik, et al., 2019). ...
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Preprint
In this commentary we review how implicit measures of bias have been and continue to be critical for addressing two related questions: (i) what is the nature of unintentional bias? and (ii) what is the cognitive architecture of bias? We show how implicit measures fuel progress on both of these issues while, crucially, also advancing the translational goal of revealing the nature of, and reducing, group-based inequality.
... In the workplace, employees hire people based on physical appearances, resulting in unfair employment conditions. This practice manifests itself in various aspects of employment when an employer hires applicants based on physical appearance (Agerström & Rooth, 2011). For example, the act of hiring employees based on weight, height, and beauty may be classified as discrimination. ...
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Article
The 21st century has seen organizations promoting the use of fair methods to recruit workers. This exploratory study aims to understand conscious and unconscious biases during the acquisition of new talent. Conscious bias usually occurs through intentional means, thus is usually aligned with explicit bias; subconscious bias explains the implicit biases that occur through invisible and unaware means. This study analyzes the influence of the polyvagal theory on recruitment and selection, including the mediating roles of stress and trauma. The introduction section of the study explains the purpose of investigating the root causes of recruitment and selection bias. The literature review explores insights into the origins, severity, and outcomes of bias in talent acquisition. The methodology section explains the process of analysis, and the findings section tabulates the insights elicited. The discussion section proposes effective strategies for dealing with the different forms of implicit and explicit bias. In conclusion, the study’s findings can be utilized by modern recruiters to reduce the impact of bias.
... Implicit attitudes measured by the IAT are believed to reflect automatic and often socially undesirable attitudes toward targets. Implicit attitudes regulate unfavorable behaviors through inhibition, disgust, or twinges of conscience (e.g., Lee, Ong, Parmar, & Amit, 2019;Ueda, Yanagisawa, Ashida, & Abe, 2017) and are often used to predict immoral judgments, such as managerial ethical decisions (Marquardt & Hoeger, 2009) and hiring discrimination (Agerström & Rooth, 2011). The implicit attitude toward dishonesty assessed by the IAT might reflect an individual's moral default that regulates self-serving dishonesty (Abe, 2020). ...
Article
Experiments assessing the prevalence and magnitude of dishonesty have provided a large body of empirical findings regarding the cognitive nature of honesty. However, the personal factors that regulate dishonest behavior have yet to be fully clarified. This study examined two factors that potentially inhibit dishonesty—implicit attitudes toward dishonesty and executive control. In Study 1, the participants completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT), which measured their implicit attitudes toward dishonesty, and a working memory (WM) task, which was used to index executive control. The participants subsequently completed an incentivized coin-flip prediction task wherein they were given real and repeated opportunities for dishonest reward acquisition and punishment avoidance. The results revealed that individuals showing stronger negative implicit attitudes toward dishonesty engaged in a lower frequency of dishonest behavior for punishment avoidance, although this effect was marginal. In contrast, WM capacity was not associated with variations in dishonest reward acquisition and punishment avoidance. A follow-up experiment on other-serving dishonesty, where dishonest reward acquisition and punishment avoidance were credited to two other anonymous participants, revealed that neither implicit attitudes toward dishonesty nor WM capacity was associated with dishonest behavior. An additional preregistered experiment in Study 2 demonstrated that the association between implicit attitudes toward dishonesty and self-serving dishonesty for punishment avoidance was again marginal. While it is tempting to conclude that implicit attitudes toward dishonesty are associated with self-serving dishonesty, the present study provides only weak evidence that should be interpreted with great caution. Implications for the reliability of the IAT are discussed.
... Only a handful studies have managed to make this individual-level combination of data. Noteworthy examples are the studies of Agerström and Rooth (2011) and Rooth (2010) which combined correspondence tests about hiring discrimination with implicit association tests (IATs) and explicit attitudes questions; the study of Zussman (2013) investigated discrimination on the automobile market by means of both correspondence tests and a telephone survey; and a few studies interviewed landlords and employers who have been tested through correspondence tests (e.g. Midtbøen 2015; Bonnet et al. 2016). ...
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Chapter
Correspondence tests are the golden standard to examine discriminatory behavior in the real world. This chapter starts with distinguishing correspondence tests from related methods, such as situation tests, mystery calls, and mystery visits on the basis of three criteria. Afterwards, it briefly discusses the history of correspondence tests and its main applications during the past decades on the labor, housing, and consumer markets. Next, it considers a few methodological issues that should be taken into account while conducting correspondence tests: matched versus randomly assigned testing; signaling the discrimination ground; getting ethical approval for testing; and the representativeness of the tested subjects. Finally, this chapter ends with recommendations. Future research should combine correspondence tests with other methods of data collection, expand the scope of contexts and groups, trade-off the advantages of situation tests against the advantages of correspondence tests, and apply correspondence tests for policy applications and evaluations.
... Future research might want to focus on different populations, situations, and potential moderators that might influence the results. For example, lost email studies may be combined with stereotype measures (both implicit and explicit ones) administered to the same participants later (see Agerström & Rooth, 2011). Also, the lost email technique may be employed in organizations whose employees may be more diverse regarding political orientation compared with university student samples that tend to have relatively liberal political attitudes (Zell & Bernstein, 2014). ...
Article
De-racialization research suggests that depicting members of ethnic minority groups as gay leads to less stereotypic perceptions of their ethnic group. However, whether the consequences of de-racialization translate into real-world behavior is unclear. In a large “lost letter” field experiment ( N = 6,654) where an email was ostensibly sent to the wrong recipient by mistake, we investigate whether the relative impact of signaling gayness (vs. heterosexuality) differs for Arab (minority) versus Swedish (majority) senders. The results show clear evidence of ethnic discrimination where Arab (minority) senders receive fewer replies (prosocial response) than Swedish (majority) senders. However, there is no evidence indicating that Arab senders would receive a lower penalty for revealing gayness. Implications for multiple categorization research are discussed.
... We captured the overall treatment effect (averaged across sub-groups at the experiment level) of the results in the original studies. We also recorded the classification of5 For example, DiStasio et al. (2021) considered hiring discrimination against Muslims in Germany, Norway, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. To allow for sub-group analyses on the basis of region (see section 2.4), this study was subdivided into multiple units of observation stemming from the same study.6 ...
Preprint
Notwithstanding the improved integration of various minority groups in the workforce, unequal treatment in hiring still hinders many individuals' access to the labour market. To tackle this inaccessibility, it is essential to know which and to what extent minority groups face hiring discrimination. This meta-analysis synthesises a quasi-exhaustive register of correspondence experiments on hiring discrimination published between 2005 and 2020. Using a random-effects model, we computed pooled discrimination ratios concerning ten discrimination grounds upon which unequal treatment in hiring is forbidden under United States federal or state law. Our meta-analysis shows that hiring discrimination against candidates with disabilities, older candidates, and less physically attractive candidates is at least equally severe as the unequal treatment of candidates with salient ethnic characteristics. Remarkably, hiring discrimination against older applicants is even more outspoken in Europe than in the United States. Furthermore, unequal treatment in hiring based on sexual orientation seems to be prompted mainly by signalling activism rather than same-sex orientation in itself. Last, aside from a significant decrease in ethnic hiring discrimination in Europe, we find no structural evidence of recent temporal changes in hiring discrimination based on the various other grounds within the scope of this review.
... When looking at previous studies related to various biases in hiring, field study is a common method when dealing with these topics. Besides, Carlsson and Eriksson (2019), Agerström and Rooth (2011), and Bertrand and Mullainathan (2004) all used the method of sending fictitious resumes to real job openings to look into the bias. Thus, this study adopted the method of field study. ...
... Moreover, candidates with larger bodies were less frequently hired and were less likely to be considered for the role of supervisor. Using field study methodology, Agerström and Rooth (2011) found that hiring managers who held more negative automatic stereotypes regarding obesity (as measured via the Implicit Association Test) offered fewer interview invitations to applicants with obesity versus healthy-weight applicants. A discrepancy in salary based on weight status (particularly for women) has also been documented. ...
Thesis
Selective attention to food and body stimuli have been proposed as vulnerability factors for weight gain leading to overweight and obesity, yet research on attentional biases in this population has produced mixed findings. To assist in clarifying the nature of these attentional biases as a function of weight category, the present research examined attentional subcomponents (i.e., speeded detection and increased distraction) using a novel paradigm in this context, namely, the visual-search task. The final sample included women in the healthy-weight (n = 50), overweight (n = 41), and obese (n = 46) weight ranges according to World Health Organization (2000) guidelines. Parts One and Two of this research assessed attentional biases for low- and high-calorie food stimuli in individuals with overweight and obesity. Part One of this research tested the hypothesis that the overweight and obese groups would display speeded detection for low- and high-calorie food versus non-food images (i.e., plants or animals) when compared with the healthy-weight group. When the target images were foods and plants, and the distractor images were animals, results indicated that all weight groups engaged in speeded detection for food versus non-food images. However, relative to the overweight group, the obese group unexpectedly displayed reduced speeded detection for food images, which could represent a degree of avoidance of food in early attentional processing among women with obesity. These findings were not replicated when the target images were foods and animals, and the distractor images were plants. This latter finding may have been due to the visual and/or thematic similarity between foods and plants, rendering it more difficult to discern food targets among plant distractors relative to food targets among animal distractors. Part Two investigated the hypothesis that the overweight and obese groups would display increased distraction by low- and high-calorie food versus non-food images (i.e., plants or animals) when compared with the healthy-weight group. When the distractor images were foods and plants, and the target images were animals, no weight group differences were observed in increased distraction. In contrast, when the distractor images were food and animals, and the target images were plants, the obese group showed increased distraction by low-calorie food images relative to the healthy-weight group. Moreover, all weight groups showed increased distraction by high-calorie food versus non-food images. However, relative to the healthy-weight group, the overweight group surprisingly displayed reduced distraction by high-calorie food images. Overall, the unexpected pattern of results observed across Parts One and Two raises questions about whether attention toward or away from food stimuli is adaptive or maladaptive. Parts Three and Four of this research assessed attentional biases for body shape and weight stimuli in individuals with overweight and obesity. Part Three examined the hypothesis that the overweight and obese groups would display speeded detection for low- and high-weight body versus non-body images (i.e., shoes and cars) when compared with the healthy-weight group. Regardless of whether the shoe or car images performed the role of the target or distractor, no weight group differences were observed in speeded detection. Finally, Part Four investigated the hypothesis that the overweight and obese groups would display increased distraction by low- and high-weight body versus non-body images (i.e., shoes and cars). Again, regardless of the role performed by the non-body images (i.e., target or distractor), no weight group differences were observed in level of distraction. While it is plausible that biased attention for body stimuli does not form part of the core difficulties that contribute to overweight and obesity, it is also possible that the visual-search tasks used in Parts Three and Four were subject to a floor effect.
... When looking at previous studies related to various bias in hiring, field study is a common method when deal with these topics. Besides, Carlsson & Eriksson, Agerström & Rooth, and Bertrand & Mullainathan all used the method of sending fictitious resumes to real job openings to look into the bias [8][9][10]. Thus, this study adopted the method of field study. ...
... Typically, weight stigma manifests as stereotypical beliefs (e.g., lacking willpower), negative attitudes (e.g., "I do not like people with overweight") or behaviours (e.g., social rejection, discrimination). Perceptions and experiences of weight stigma by people with overweight/obesity can range from seeing negative representations of individuals with higher weight in the media (e.g., "fat Monica" in the popular situation comedy Friends), to being called names, to being treated differently because of one's weight (e.g., less likely to be interviewed despite equal qualifications and experience compared to their non-overweight counterparts [5]). Research shows these experiences and perceptions of stigma are prevalent across settings, such as in the home, in the workplace, and in healthcare [4,6]. ...
Article
Objective: To systematically review studies that have assessed the mediating role of internalised weight stigma on the relationship between experienced/perceived weight stigma and any biopsychosocial outcomes. Methods: PsycINFO, PsycExtra, Web of Science, CINAHL, Medline and Embase were systematically searched. Identified studies were double screened (HB and XPG). Results: Seventeen studies (across 16 articles) met our inclusion criteria (N = 21,172), and almost all studies measured only psychological outcomes (n = 15). Eight studies found consistent evidence for internalised weight stigma as a mediator of the relationship between experienced/perceived weight stigma and disordered eating outcomes. Preliminary evidence was found for the mediating role of internalised weight stigma on the relationship between experienced/perceived weight stigma and body shame, body dissatisfaction, exercise behaviour, healthcare experiences and behaviours, bodily pain and parental weight talk. However, the findings were inconsistent for depression and anxiety, although only two studies reported these. Conclusion: This review provides preliminary evidence for internalised weight stigma as an intervening variable in the relationship between experienced/perceived weight stigma and adverse health outcomes. Results suggest that there are potential benefits of interventions addressing internalised weight stigma to improve health outcomes. However, these findings must be considered in the context of the psychometric limitations of the Weight Bias Internalisation Scale, which was used in all but one study.
... One of the reasons for this finding could be that managers had negative obesity stereotypes. As a result, obese applicants may be less likely to be invited for an interview and employed (Agerström & Rooth, 2011). Another potential explanation could be that obese people were perceived as less "successful" and judged as possessing lower leadership qualities than non-obese peers when reviewing applicants' suitability for employment (Flint et al., 2015;Flint & Snook, 2014;Roehling et al., 2007). ...
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Article
Background Health status is a crucial determinant of an individuals’ labour market outcomes. The present study investigates the association between obesity and disability with perceived employment discrimination within Australia. Methods A total of 17,174 person-year observations from the 11,079 respondents were analysed using four waves of data from the Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. The primary outcome examined was employment discrimination, using obesity and disability as the main exposure variables. The longitudinal random-effects regression technique was applied to investigate the between-person differences in employment discrimination associated with obesity and disability. Results The findings suggest that more than one in ten (12.68 %) Australians experienced employment discrimination. The odds of being discriminated against while applying for a job were 1.56 times (aOR: 1.56, 95 % CI: 1.15–2.11) higher for obese than their healthy weight counterparts in youngest women. Adults with a disability had 1.89 times (aOR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.65–2.17) higher odds of being discriminated against than peers without disability. Conclusion The results provide evidence that obesity and disability contribute to employment discrimination in Australia. The findings can assist government and related agencies to consider the adequacy of existing discrimination legislation and help organisations to develop appropriate policies to address discrimination against obese and disabled people in their workplaces.
... Furthermore, this population is also disadvantaged in important areas of life. A field experiment demonstrated that hiring managers were less likely to invite obese individuals than normal-weight individuals to a job interview, even when applicants' cover letters and curriculum vitae contained similar skills and qualifications [85]. Moreover, studies have shown that weight stigma has harmful consequences, e.g., depression, eating symptoms, [86][87][88]. ...
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Article
Research about stigmatization in eating disorders (EDs) has highlighted stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination against people with EDs, as well as their harmful effects on them, including self-stigma and a difficult recovery process. Whereas a recent review focused on the consequences of ED stigma, our work aimed to provide a broader synthesis of ED stigma, including its consequences, but also its content and distribution. More precisely, we focused on three EDs—namely, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Based on a systematic search of four major databases in psychology, the present scoping review includes 46 studies published between 2004 and 2021. We did not conduct any quality assessment of the studies included, because our aim was to provide a wide-ranging overview of these topics instead of an appraisal of evidence answering a precise research question. The review confirmed the existence of a common ED stigma: all individuals affected by EDs reviewed here were perceived as responsible for their situation, and elicited negative emotions and social distance. However, our review also depicted a specific stigma content associated with each ED. In addition, the demographic characteristics of the stigmatizing individuals had a notable influence on the extent of ED stigma: men, young adults, and low-income individuals appeared to be the most stigmatizing toward individuals with EDs. It is important to note that ED stigma had a negative effect on individuals’ eating disorders, psychological wellbeing, and treatment-seeking behavior. There is an urgent need for further research on the adverse effects of ED stigma and its prevention.
... Finally, a notable literature has used experimental designs. For examples, studies have sent out weight-manipulated photos or showed videos of applicants in different obesity categories, to study discrimination against the obese (Agerström & Rooth, 2011;Finkelstein et al., 2007;Pingitore et al., 1994;Popovich et al., 1997;Rooth, 2009). The applicants with obesity were less likely to be called for interviews and were perceived as being less capable for the job, than applicants with normal weight. ...
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Article
Several studies have estimated effects of body mass index (BMI) on labour market outcomes, and these studies have mixed findings. A significant challenge has been to adequately control for omitted variables, selection, reverse causality, and measurement error. We examine the impact of BMI on income using genetic variants as instrumental variables for BMI. Individual‐level pre‐tax income from tax records was merged with health survey data containing measured height and weight, and data on genetic variants. The analyses were stratified by sex and a variety of methods were used to explore the sensitivity and validity of the instrumental variable (IV) strategy. For females we found that BMI had a negative effect on the logarithm of income. The effect estimated from the IV models (−0.02) was larger than the effect estimated from naïve ordinary least squares regressions (−0.01). For males, the coefficients for the effect of BMI on income were imprecise, and both positive and negative coefficients were estimated depending on the estimation method. Our results suggest that females are susceptible to reduced income levels following increased BMI.
... Some studies suggest a bi-directional relationship between SES and weight. For instance, obesity might lower a person's chances of being hired for a job, or increase the risk of discrimination in the health care system, thereby leading to lower SES (Agerström & Rooth, 2011;Nobles, Weintraub, & Adler, 2013;Puhl & Heuer, 2009). Random assignment of participants to different SES conditions would be ideal but, although possible (Sim, Lim, Leow, & Cheon, 2018;Spears, 2011), is problematic for practical and ethical reasons. ...
Thesis
How can we reduce the social gradient in obesity if we do not know what causes it in the first place? This PhD thesis explores underlying explanations of the association between socioeconomic status and eating behaviors. Taking a social psychological approach, this thesis presents the results from a series of empirical studies that test how relative socioeconomic status affects decision-making. In particular, it examines how perceptions of one’s relative status affects impulsivity, and how someone else’s relative status influences beliefs about that person’s impulsivity. Together, these findings reveal both the existence and accuracy of impulsivity stereotypes. The findings suggest that (adherence to) these stereotypical behaviors are malleable and can be used in health interventions aimed at reducing health gradients.
Article
Master's degree enrollment and debt have increased substantially in recent years, raising important questions about the labor market value of these credentials. Using a field experiment featuring 9,480 job applications submitted during the early months of the COVID‐19 pandemic, I examine employers’ responses to job candidates with a Master of Business Administration (MBA), which represents one‐quarter of all master's degrees in the United States. I focus on MBAs from three types of less‐selective institutions that collectively enroll the vast majority of master's students: for‐profit, online, and regional universities. Despite the substantial time and expense required for these degrees, job candidates with MBAs from all three types of institutions received positive responses from employers at the same rate as candidates who only had a bachelor's degree—even for positions that listed a preference for a master's degree. Additionally, applicants with names suggesting they were Black men received 30 percent fewer positive responses than otherwise equivalent applicants whose names suggested they were White men or women, providing further evidence of racial discrimination in hiring practices.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Nutrition and Exercise for Wellness and Recovery (NEW-R) intervention for improving competency and behaviors related to diet, physical activity, and weight management. Methods: Participants with psychiatric disabilities were recruited from four community mental health agencies and a hospital-based psychiatric outpatient clinic and randomly assigned to the NEW-R intervention (N=55) or control condition (N=58). Outcome measures included the Perceived Competence Scale, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP), and weight change; random-effects regression models were used. A follow-up analysis examined the interactions of group, time, and site. Results: Fifty of the 55 intervention participants and 57 of the 58 control participants completed the study. The two groups did not differ significantly on any measured baseline characteristic. The intervention group had statistically significant improvements, compared with the control group, in perceived competence for exercise and healthy eating, total HPLP score, and scores on two HPLP subscales (nutrition and spiritual growth). No significant difference between groups was found for weight loss. A study condition × time × site effect was observed: at the three sites where mean weight loss occurred, NEW-R participants lost significantly more weight than did control participants. Conclusions: NEW-R offers promise as an intervention that can initiate the change to healthy lifestyle behaviors and boost perceived competence in a healthy lifestyle. It may also be effective for weight loss when administered in supportive settings.
Article
Prior research has found that various job candidate characteristics can influence hiring decisions. The current work used experimental methods to test how a novel, appearance‐based cue known as a facial width‐to‐height ratio (fWHR) can bias hiring preferences. A first study provides evidence for our initial hypothesis: people believed high fWHR candidates would be a better fit for blue‐collar jobs compared with low fWHR candidates, who were in turn favoured for white‐collar jobs. A second study replicates this initial finding and extends it by demonstrating that the effect of fWHR‐derived trait inferences of strength and intelligence on hireability predictably varies by job type. Finally, in a third study, we find that this bias reverses when traditional stereotypes of blue‐collar and white‐collar jobs requiring physicality and intellect are subverted, finding that perceptions of the fit between face type and presumed job requirements matter most for hiring preferences. Together, these findings demonstrate how a seemingly subtle appearance‐based cue can have robust implications for hiring.
Article
The use of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of individual differences is stymied by insufficient test-retest reliability for assessing trait-level constructs. We assess the degree to which the IAT measures individual differences and test a method to improve its validity as a "trait" measure: aggregating across IATs. Across three studies, participants (total n = 960) completed multiple IATs in the same session or across multiple sessions. Using latent-variable models, we found that half of the variance in IAT scores reflects individual differences. Aggregating across multiple IATs approximately doubled the variance explained with explicit measures compared with a single IAT D-score. These findings show that IAT scores contain considerable noise and that a single IAT is inadequate to estimate trait bias. However, aggregation across multiple administrations can correct this and better estimate individual differences in implicit attitudes.
Article
Are the landscapes of real-world decisions adequately represented in our laboratory tasks? Are the goals and expertise of experimental participants the same as real-world decision-makers? Are we neglecting crucial forces that lead to group outcomes? Are the contingencies necessary for producing experimental demonstrations of bias present in the real world? In the target article, I argued that the answers to these questions are needed to understand whether and how laboratory research can inform real-world group disparities. Most of the commentaries defending experimental social psychology neglected to directly address these main arguments. The commentaries defending implicit bias only revealed the inadequacy of this concept for explaining group disparities. The major conclusions from the target article remain intact, suggesting that experimental social psychology must undergo major changes to contribute to our understanding of group disparities.
Article
In this paper, we conduct a multi-criteria correspondence test to assess the extent of discrimination in access to employment against candidates with a hearing disability and compare it to three other potential grounds for discrimination: ethnicity, place of residence and gender. From October 2019 to February 2020, we sent 2315 applications to 463 job vacancies in the Paris region in France for two occupations, administrative managers and caregiver assistants, in both the private and public sectors. We find that discrimination on the grounds of disability is similar in scope to that found on the grounds of ethnicity in the profession of administrative manager, but discrimination against the disabled candidate is half that experienced by the North African candidate in the profession of caregiver assistant. Moreover, discrimination on the grounds of disability is twice as high in the profession of caregiver assistant, a role which requires more interaction with public, as in the profession of administrative manager. We do not find any evidence of a difference in callback rates based on place of residence or gender. Finally, we cannot conclude that hiring discrimination is systematically lower in the public sector than in the private sector, nor that being eligible for a public subsidy reduces hiring discrimination against the disabled candidate.
Article
Although White Americans increasingly express egalitarian views, how they express egalitarianism may reveal inegalitarian tendencies and sow mistrust with Black Americans. In the present experiments, Black perceivers inferred likability and trustworthiness and accurately inferred underlying racial attitudes and motivations from White writers' declarations that they are nonprejudiced and egalitarian (Experiments 1 and 2). White writers believed that their egalitarianism seemed more inoffensive and indicative of allyship than was perceived by Black Americans (Experiment 1a). Linguistic analysis revealed that, when inferring racial attitudes and motivations, Black perceivers accurately attended to language emphasizing humanization, support for equal opportunity, personal responsibility, and the idea that equality already exists (Experiment 1b). We found causal evidence that these linguistic cues informed Black Americans' perceptions of White egalitarians (Experiment 2). Suggesting societal costs of these perceptions, White egalitarians' underlying racial beliefs negatively predicted Black participants' actual trust and cooperation in an economic game (Experiment 3). Our experiments (N = 1,335 adults) showed that White Americans' insistence that they are egalitarian itself perpetuates mistrust with Black Americans.
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Article
The aim of this study was to understand how dietitians’ body size influences perceived competence and warmth, based on the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). Online data were collected from 1,039 Brazilians, who were either laypeople, registered dietitians, or nutrition students. Participants rated the competence and warmth dimensions of three dietitians who differed in sex, body weight, and age. Participants also indicated how likelythey would consult or recommend each dietitian for nutritional advice, and indicated their attitudes towards people with obesity [using The Antifat Attitudes Test (AFAT)]. Laypeople attributed less competence and warmth to all profiles compared to dietitians and students (p < 0.001). Three clusters occupied the SCM warmth-by-competence space. However, the clusters were different among groups (laypeople, dietitians, and students). For lay participants, the woman without overweight, the older woman, and the older man were located in the high competence/ medium warmth cluster. Meanwhile, the woman with obesity was located in the medium competence / high warmth cluster. The dietitians and students map found the woman with obesity and the older woman in a high competence and warmth cluster. In general, the woman with obesity, the man without obesity, and the older man can be classified as ambivalent stereotypes, the woman being perceived as more warm than competent and the men more competent than warm. Participants with high AFAT scores were less likely to consult or recommend to a family member a dietitian with obesity. This study contributes to identifying ambivalent stereotypes for dietitians. Dietitians with obesity can be seen as warm but less competent. Also, although less intense than laypeople, dietitians and students exhibited weight stigma. These findings can foster important discussions about weight stigma and emphasize the need to increase population awareness about the causes of obesity.
Article
We examined how individuals’ implicit biases and explicit attitudes toward the poor may be associated with the types of social programs people chose to give to. Participants included 112 students. When people believed that poverty is due to internal causes (e.g., people are lazy) or if they held implicit biases that the poor are irresponsible, they were more likely to avoid unconditional cash transfer (UCT) or in-kind donation (IKD) and choose conditional cash transfer. When people believed that poverty is due to external (e.g., poor economy) or cultural causes (e.g., born poor), they were more likely to choose UCT or IKD. People’s affective/positive feelings toward the poor using implicit and explicit measures were not associated with donation choice. Our study highlighted differences between affective feelings versus cognitive beliefs about the poor, and that both implicit and explicit forms of cognitive beliefs can be associated with one’s giving choices.
Article
Overweight people suffer from workplace discrimination, and they also tend to be perceived as less competent yet warmer than people with an average physical constitution. This study uses an experimental between-subjects design to investigate whether the greater warmth perceived in overweight people may become a beneficial factor (e.g., by receiving higher remuneration) when applying for certain jobs where warmth is an important dimension. The results indicated that for a job where likeability and warmth are important (party entertainer), the candidate received higher remuneration when they were presented as an overweight person than when they were presented as having an average physical constitution. Finally, we discuss the possible implications of this study for hiring departments, as well as possible strategies to lower workplace discrimination as a consequence of physical constitution.
Article
We offer a primer for researchers who seek to carry out studies that evaluate the lived experience of larger‐bodied workers. We use objectification theory to describe the process by which intraculturally‐determined body size preferences impact how observers think about and react to larger‐bodied colleagues, and how these larger‐bodied colleagues internalize and cope with these judgements. Arguing that exploration of the objectification of larger‐bodied professionals is incomplete without the use of multidisciplinary lenses, we describe mechanisms that reinforce weight stigma, including the role of healthism‐based value systems, intersectionality, and body image. We conclude the primer by outlining areas for new research that highlights burgeoning applied demand for more nuanced, evidence‐based discussions of weight at work. In professional spaces, many workers feel comfortable “objectifying” their colleagues who occupy larger (i.e., “overweight”/”obese”) bodies. This means that workers (a) constantly compare their colleagues’ bodies to a “thin” standard, (b) feel a certain comfort in remarking on their larger‐bodied colleagues’ size, and (c) this judgment feeds into a cycle of self‐consciousness and self‐dislike that many larger‐bodied workers feel about themselves. This objectification process can be doubly harmful to the well‐being of larger‐bodied workers when they, too, occupy a secondary marginalized identity/ies, such as being female or of a minority ethnicity. The motivation for objectification comes from broader Western culture, which views the pursuit of health as a value that all people should pursue. Workers often assume their larger‐bodied colleagues are not pursuing health simply because of their size and can feel punitive toward them as a result. Organizational remedies for this objectification process include educational programming and training to talk about the myriad ways “health” may be realized; more precise information about the complex origin’s of one’s body size; education around how marginalization of larger‐bodied colleagues does not stimulate effective action, but instead harms these colleague’s mental health (and beyond).
Article
Five experiments investigate the hypothesis that heavier weight individuals are denied mental agency (i.e., higher order cognitive and intentional capacities), but not experience (e.g., emotional and sensory capacities), relative to average weight individuals. Across studies, we find that as targets increase in weight, they are denied mental agency; however, target weight has no reliable influence on ascriptions of experience (Studies 1a–2b). Furthermore, the de-mentalization of heavier weight targets was associated with both disgust and beliefs about targets’ physical agency (Study 3). Finally, de-mentalization affected role assignments. Heavier weight targets were rated as helpful for roles requiring experiential but not mentally agentic faculties (Study 4). Heavier weight targets were also less likely than chance to be categorized into a career when it was described as requiring mental agency (versus experience; Study 5). These findings suggest novel insights into past work on weight stigma, wherein discrimination often occurs in domains requiring mental agency.
Chapter
Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der aktuellen Forschung zu ethnischer Diskriminierung auf dem Arbeitsmarkt. Dabei liegt der Fokus auf sozialpsychologischen und sozialwissenschaftlichen Erklärungsansätzen und auf den Ergebnissen sogenannter Korrespondenztests, die sich zunehmender Beliebtheit erfreuen und robuste Hinweise auf ethnische Diskriminierung bei der Auswahl von BewerberInnen geben.
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This paper aims to examine the influence of body shape on income, which varies with gender and occupational structure in China. The data were obtained from the CGSS (Chinese General Social Survey) 2010–2017 Survey. The overall finding in this paper is that women and men face different body shape–income effects. For females, the obesity penalty is significant and is reinforced with increasing occupational rank. For men, the thinness penalty (or weight premium) is enhanced as the occupational class decreases. Body shape–income gaps are mainly caused by the occupational structure. Twenty-nine percent of the income gap between overweight and average weight women can be explained by the obesity penalty, 37% of the income gap between overweight and average weight men can be interpreted by the weight premium, and 11% of the gap between underweight and normal weight men can be explained by the thinness penalty. The findings also suggest that the effect of body shape on income consists of two pathways: body shape affects health capital and socialization, and therefore income. Healthy lifestyles and scientific employment concepts should be promoted, and measures to close the gender gap should be implemented.
Article
Previous research has examined how job control impacts either health behaviors or outcomes. This study examines the interaction of job control and job demands on body mass index (BMI) as mediated by exercise to test the physical activity mediated Demand-Control model (pamDC). We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 315 participants within the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS 1) dataset to explore this relationship. As hypothesized, after controlling for age, sex, and work hours, job control is associated with more frequent exercise, which is linked to a lower BMI. However, this link was stable regardless of the level of demands. These findings provide a basis to understand the intertwined nature of one’s work and health. Future research may investigate this relationship from an experimental approach to better determine causality. Practically, these findings suggest that workplaces ought to provide employees with more job control which may enable them to engage in healthy behaviors (e.g., physical activity) that can impact key health outcomes such as BMI.
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Research
In this research scientific insights aboutstereotypes pertaining to different groups – mostly women and ethnic groups, people with disabilities and the elderly (55+) – are brought together here. The investigated mechanisms, which work the same for all groups, are illustrated with examples of the different groups. The insights about stereotyping are connected with concrete measures that organizations can take to promote a discrimination-free recruitment process. The aim of the research is therefore to bridge the gap between scientific insights and implementation of those insights by future professionals in the field of personnel policy and human resource management.
Article
The intention behind imposing quotas for women on corporate boards is to close the gender gap in economic participation and help women to be promoted within organizations. However, the broader social psychological literature lends support to ideas that affirmative action policies, such as quotas, may do more harm than good for the beneficiaries. We extend this idea beyond the affected beneficiaries and ask whether this unintended negative effect spills over to women who are not immediate targets of the quota, by signaling incompetence. We develop an experimental design to investigate whether the announcement (study 1) and the implementation (study 2) of a quota for women have a direct negative effect on performance evaluations and hence reinforce the existing gender bias in evaluation. We observed that the performance of women was evaluated significantly lower than that of men. However, this gender bias was limited to sequential (rating) evaluations and was not evident in joint (ranking) evaluations. The quota did not significantly influence the amount of this bias. In addition, we observed more pronounced sexism in males compared to females. Results of study 2 gave a hint to an association between higher sexism and lower evaluations of women’s performance. We also found some evidence for a stronger evaluation bias in females when controlling for sexist attitudes. Hence, our results imply that the bias, which is overall quite robust and strongly pronounced, is still affected by individual gender-related characteristics.
Article
In two studies, using a mix of samples, we examined the influence of weight bias on behaviors in competitive, potentially high stakes situations. As predicted, weight bias directed focal actors’ treatment of counterparts in a negotiation. Negotiators made lower value offers to overweight counterparts relative to average-weight counterparts. In addition, overweight counterparts also received more negative messages over the course of their negotiation and were evaluated less favorably after the negotiation than average-weight counterparts.
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Article
We investigated the relationship of implicit racial prejudice to discriminatory behavior. White university students chose the best of three applicants (two were White and one was Black) for a prestigious teaching fellowship. They then completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a measure of implicit racial bias. Three weeks later, participants completed a second implicit measure of racial bias by viewing photos of Whites and Blacks while facial electromyography (EMG) was recorded from sites corresponding to the muscles used in smiling and frowning. Analyses revealed that bias in cheek EMG activity was related to the race of the chosen applicant, whereas bias on the IAT was not. Motivations to control prejudiced reactions were not related to EMG activity or the race of the applicant chosen, but were related to IAT bias. The findings indicate that facial EMG can be used as an implicit measure of prejudice related to discrimination.
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Article
Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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Prejudice researchers have been criticized for failing to assess behaviors that reflect overtly hostile actions (i.e. racial animus; Arkes & Tetlock, 2004; Mackie & Smith, 1998). Two studies sought to begin to fill this gap in the implicit literature by showing that scores on the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) are linked to harmful intergroup behaviors. In Study 1, the IAT predicted self-reported racial discrimination, including verbal slurs, exclusion, and physical harm. In Study 2, the IAT predicted recommended budget cuts for Jewish, Asian, and Black student organizations (i.e. economic discrimination). In each study, evaluative stereotype (but not attitude) IATs predicted behaviors even after controlling for explicit attitudes. In concert, the findings suggest that implicit stereotypes are more predictive of overtly harmful actions than implicit attitudes in the intergroup relations domain.
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Measures of implicit prejudice are based on associations between race-related stimuli and valenced words. Reaction time (RT) data have been characterized as showing implicit prejudice when White names or faces are associated with positive concepts and African-American names or faces with negative concepts, compared to the reverse pairings. We offer three objections to the inferential leap from the comparative RT of different associations to the attribution of implicit prejudice: (a) The data may reflect shared cultural stereotypes rather than personal animus, (b) the affective negativity attributed to participants may be due to cognitions and emotions that are not necessarily prejudiced, and (c) the patterns of judgment deemed to be indicative of prejudice pass tests deemed to be diagnostic of rational behavior.
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The research examines an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes based on the evaluations that are automatically activated from memory on the presentation of Black versus White faces. Study 1, which concerned the technique's validity, obtained different attitude estimates for Black and White participants and also revealed that the variability among White participants was predictive of other race-related judgments and behavior. Study 2 concerned the lack of correspondence between the unobtrusive estimates and Modern Racism Scale (MRS) scores. The reactivity of the MRS was demonstrated in Study 3. Study 4 observed an interaction between the unobtrusive estimates and an individual difference in motivation to control prejudiced reactions when predicting MRS scores. The theoretical implications of the findings for consideration of automatic and controlled components of racial prejudice are discussed, as is the status of the MRS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In the present research, the authors examined contextual variations in automatic attitudes. Using 2 measures of automatic attitudes, the authors demonstrated that evaluative responses differ qualitatively as perceivers focus on different aspects of a target's social group membership (e.g., race or gender). Contextual variations in automatic attitudes were obtained when the manipulation involved overt categorization (Experiments 1-3) as well as more subtle contextual cues, such as category distinctiveness (Experiments 4-5). Furthermore, participants were shown to be unable to predict such contextual influences on automatic attitudes (Experiment 3). Taken together, these experiments support the idea of automatic attitudes being continuous, online constructions that are inherently flexible and contextually appropriate, despite being outside conscious control.
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The present work examined the detection of racial bias through thin slices of nonverbal behavior. Thirty Black and 30 White American judges rated the nonverbal behavior displayed by White individuals from 20-seconds of silent videotape of an interaction with either a Black or a White confederate. Correlations between judges nonverbal ratings and targets scores on a response latency measure of racial bias (i.e., Implicit Association Test, IAT) as well as on a self-report racial bias measure (i.e., Affective Prejudice Scale) were obtained. Results revealed that relative to White judges, Black judges nonverbal behavioral ratings were better predictors of both White individuals IAT and explicit racial bias scores, but only if those targets were engaged in an interracial dyad. The results are consistent with recent research finding that subtle forms of racial bias leak through nonverbal behavior, as well as with work noting the predictive accuracy of judgments made from thin-slices of nonverbal behavior.
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http://implicit.harvard.edu/ was created to provide experience with the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a procedure designed to measure social knowledge that may operate outside awareness or control. Significant by-products of the website's existence are large datasets contributed to by the site's many visitors. This article summarises data from more than 2.5 million completed IATs and self-reports across 17 topics obtained between July 2000 and May 2006. In addition to reinforcing several published findings with a heterogeneous sample, the data help to establish that: (a) implicit preferences and stereotypes are pervasive across demographic groups and topics, (b) as with self-report, there is substantial inter-individual variability in implicit attitudes and stereotypes, (c) variations in gender, ethnicity, age, and political orientation predict variation in implicit and explicit measures, and (d) implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes are related, but distinct. Psychology Accepted Manuscript
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This review of 122 research reports (184 independent samples, 14,900 subjects) found average r = .274 for prediction of behavioral, judgment, and physiological measures by Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures. Parallel explicit (i.e., self-report) measures, available in 156 of these samples (13,068 subjects), also predicted effectively (average r = .361), but with much greater variability of effect size. Predictive validity of self-report was impaired for socially sensitive topics, for which impression management may distort self-report responses. For 32 samples with criterion measures involving Black-White interracial behavior, predictive validity of IAT measures significantly exceeded that of self-report measures. Both IAT and self-report measures displayed incremental validity, with each measure predicting criterion variance beyond that predicted by the other. The more highly IAT and self-report measures were intercorrelated, the greater was the predictive validity of each.
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The authors reanalyzed data from 2 influential studies-A. R. McConnell and J. M. Leibold and J. C. Ziegert and P. J. Hanges-that explore links between implicit bias and discriminatory behavior and that have been invoked to support strong claims about the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test. In both of these studies, the inclusion of race Implicit Association Test scores in regression models reduced prediction errors by only tiny amounts, and Implicit Association Test scores did not permit prediction of individual-level behaviors. Furthermore, the results were not robust when the impact of rater reliability, statistical specifications, and/or outliers were taken into account, and reanalysis of A. R. McConnell & J. M. Leibold (2001) revealed a pattern of behavior consistent with a pro-Black behavioral bias, rather than the anti-Black bias suggested in the original study.
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Historical developments regarding the attitude concept are reviewed, and set the stage for consideration of a theoretical perspective that views attitude, not as a hypothetical construct, but as evaluative knowledge. A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model's contention that at least some attitudes are represented in memory and activated automatically upon the individual's encountering the attitude object. The implications of the theoretical perspective for a number of recent discussions related to the attitude concept are elaborated. Among these issues are the notion of attitudes as "constructions," the presumed malleability of automatically-activated attitudes, correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and postulated dual or multiple attitudes.
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This article reports a longitudinal study of relative weight, smoking, and mental health as predictors of medically certified sickness and unauthorized absence from work among student nurses (N = 185). Information about smoking, relative weight, and self-reports of somatic complaints and social dysfunction was obtained prior to the 33-month period over which sickness and absence were recorded. Multiple regression was used to test a predictive model relating absence to linear and quadratic components of relative weight, smoking, and symptom measures. A significant curvilinear relation between relative weight and absence was found, the form of which closely resembled the relation between relative weight and mortality; smoking showed an additive effect. A linear interaction between social dysfunction and relative weight was also found; particularly high levels of absence occurred among those of high relative weight who also reported high levels of social dysfunction. Analysis of sickness episodes confirmed the adverse effects of overweight and, to a lesser extent, of underweight and smoking. The findings are discussed in terms of medical, psychological, and psychosocial influences on sickness and absenteeism.
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When an attitude changes from A1 to A2, what happens to A1? Most theories assume, at least implicitly, that the new attitude replaces the former one. The authors argue that a new attitude can override, but not replace, the old one, resulting in dual attitudes. Dual attitudes are defined as different evaluations of the same attitude object: an automatic, implicit attitude and an explicit attitude. The attitude that people endorse depends on whether they have the cognitive capacity to retrieve the explicit attitude and whether this overrides their implicit attitude. A number of literatures consistent with these hypotheses are reviewed, and the implications of the dual-attitude model for attitude theory and measurement are discussed. For example, by including only explicit measures, previous studies may have exaggerated the ease with which people change their attitudes. Even if an explicit attitude changes, an implicit attitude can remain the same.
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Three studies examined the moderating role of motivations to respond without prejudice (e.g., internal and external) in expressions of explicit and implicit race bias. In all studies, participants reported their explicit attitudes toward Blacks. Implicit measures consisted of a sequential priming task (Study 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 used a cognitive busyness manipulation to preclude effects of controlled processing on implicit responses. In each study, explicit race bias was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice, whereas implicit race bias was moderated by the interaction of internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Specifically, high internal, low external participants exhibited lower levels of implicit race bias than did all other participants. Implications for the development of effective self-regulation of race bias are discussed.
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College students, especially women, demonstrated negativity toward math and science relative to arts and language on implicit measures. Group membership (being female), group identity (self = female), and gender stereotypes (math = male) were related to attitudes and identification with mathematics. Stronger implicit math = male stereotypes corresponded with more negative implicit and explicit math attitudes for women but more positive attitudes for men. Associating the self with female and math with male made it difficult for women, even women who had selected math-intensive majors, to associate math with the self. These results point to the opportunities and constraints on personal preferences that derive from membership in social groups.
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Using the trait of shyness as an example, the authors showed that (a) it is possible to reliably assess individual differences in the implicitly measured self-concept of personality that (b) are not accessible through traditional explicit self-ratings and (c) increase significantly the prediction of spontaneous behavior in realistic social situations. A total of 139 participants were observed in a shyness-inducing laboratory situation, and they completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit self-ratings of shyness. The IAT correlated moderately with the explicit self-ratings and uniquely predicted spontaneous (but not controlled) shy behavior, whereas the explicit ratings uniquely predicted controlled (but not spontaneous) shy behavior (double dissociation). The distinction between spontaneous and controlled behavior was validated in a 2nd study.
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Behavioral scientists have long sought measures of important psychological constructs that avoid response biases and other problems associated with direct reports. Recently, a large number of such indirect, or "implicit," measures have emerged. We review research that has utilized these measures across several domains, including attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes, and discuss their predictive validity, their interrelations, and the mechanisms presumably underlying their operation. Special attention is devoted to various priming measures and the Implicit Association Test, largely due to their prevalence in the literature. We also attempt to clarify several unresolved theoretical and empirical issues concerning implicit measures, including the nature of the underlying constructs they purport to measure, the conditions under which they are most likely to relate to explicit measures, the kinds of behavior each measure is likely to predict, their sensitivity to context, and the construct's potential for change.
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The current work tested and expanded on Plant and Devine's (2003) model of the antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety by examining people's experiences with interracial interactions at two time points. Study 1 explored non-Black people's responses to interactions with Black people and Study 2 explored Black people's responses to interactions with White people. Non-Black participants' expectancies about coming across as biased in interracial interactions and Black participants' expectancies about White people's bias predicted their interracial anxiety and whether they had positive interactions with outgroup members during the 2 weeks between assessments. Across both studies, interracial anxiety predicted the desire to avoid interactions with outgroup members. In addition, participants who were personally motivated to respond without prejudice reported more positive expectancies. The findings are discussed in terms of the implications for understanding the course and quality of interracial interactions.
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The Implicit Association Test (IAT) assesses relative strengths of four associations involving two pairs of contrasted concepts (e.g., male-female and family-career). In four studies, analyses of data from 11 Web IATs, averaging 12,000 respondents per data set, supported the following conclusions: (a) sorting IAT trials into subsets does not yield conceptually distinct measures; (b) valid IAT measures can be produced using as few as two items to represent each concept; (c) there are conditions for which the administration order of IAT and self-report measures does not alter psychometric properties of either measure; and (d) a known extraneous effect of IAT task block order was sharply reduced by using extra practice trials. Together, these analyses provide additional construct validation for the IAT and suggest practical guidelines to users of the IAT.
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This study is an attempt to replicate and extend research on employment discrimination by A. P. Brief and colleagues (A. P. Brief, J. Dietz, R. R. Cohen, S. D. Pugh, & J. B. Vaslow, 2000). More specifically, the authors attempted (a) to constructively replicate the prior finding that an explicit measure of modern racism would interact with a corporate climate for racial bias to predict discrimination in a hiring context and (b) to extend this finding through the measurement of implicit racist attitudes and motivation to control prejudice. Although the authors were unable to replicate the earlier interaction, they did illustrate that implicit racist attitudes interacted with a climate for racial bias to predict discrimination. Further, results partially illustrate that motivation to control prejudice moderates the relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes. Taken together, the findings illustrate the differences between implicit and explicit racial attitudes in predicting discriminatory behavior.
Article
Two experiments examined the extent to which implicit (Implicit Association Test [IAT]) and explicit (Pro-Black/Anti-Black Attitudes Questionnaire [PAAQ]) measures of racial attitudes predicted social behaviors of Caucasian participants toward African American targets. Experiment 1 showed that both the IAT and the Pro-Black subscale of the PAAQ predicted behavior toward an African American partner in a Prisoner's Dilemma. Experiment 2 showed that the IAT predicted friendliness of nonverbal behaviors directed toward Caucasian confederates relative to African American confederates, and that Pro-Black scores predicted friendliness of verbal behaviors toward the African American confederates. Importantly, these results could not be attributed to heightened attitude accessibility because the attitude and behavioral assessments in both experiments were separated by one week and counterbalanced.
Article
The present research, involving three experiments, examined the existence of implicit attitudes of Whites toward Blacks, investigated the relationship between explicit measures of racial prejudice and implicit measures of racial attitudes, and explored the relationship of explicit and implicit attitudes to race-related responses and behavior. Experiment 1, which used a priming technique, demonstrated implicit negative racial attitudes (i.e., evaluative associations) among Whites that were largely disassociated from explicit, self-reported racial prejudice. Experiment 2 replicated the priming results of Experiment 1 and demonstrated, as hypothesized, that explicit measures predicted deliberative race-related responses (juridic decisions), whereas the implicit measure predicted spontaneous responses (racially primed word completions). Experiment 3 extended these findings to interracial interactions. Self-reported (explicit) racial attitudes primarily predicted the relative evaluations of Black and White interaction partners, whereas the response latency measure of implicit attitude primarily predicted differences in nonverbal behaviors (blinking and visual contact). The relation between these findings and general frameworks of contemporary racial attitudes is considered.
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In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT's practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent's latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure.
Chapter
This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.
Article
The chapter presents the two very different basic processes that link attitudes and behavior, along with variants that amount to a mixture of the essentials of each process. Conditions that promote one process or the other also are discussed in the chapter. This discussion of mixed models illustrates the complexity of the role of spontaneous and deliberative processing to understand the manner in which attitudes influence behavior. The basic difference between the two types of models of the attitude-behavior process centers on the extent to which deciding on a particular course of action involves conscious deliberation about a spontaneous reaction to one's perception of the immediate situation. An individual may analyze the costs and benefits of a particular behavior and, in so doing, deliberately reflect on the attitudes relevant to the behavioral decision. These attitudes may serve as one of possibly many dimensions that are considered in arriving at a behavior plan, which may then be enacted.