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Lectin-affinity chromatography brain glycoproteomics and Alzheimer disease: Insights into protein alterations consistent with the pathology and progression of this dementing disorder

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Abstract

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and both these pathological hallmarks of AD are extensively modified by glycosylation. Mounting evidence shows that alterations in glycosylation patterns influence the pathogenesis and progression of AD, but the vast number of glycan motifs and potential glycosylation sites of glycoproteins has made the field of glycobiology difficult. However, the advent of glycoproteomics has produced major strides in glycoprotein identification and glycosylation site mapping. The use of lectins, proteins that have strong affinity for specific carbohydrate epitopes, to enrich glycoprotein fractions coupled with modern MS, have yielded techniques to elucidate the glycoproteome in AD. Proteomic studies have identified brain proteins in AD and arguably the earliest form of AD, mild cognitive impairment, with altered affinity for Concanavalin-A and wheat germ agglutinin lectins that are consistent with the pathology and progression of this disorder. This is a relatively nascent field of proteomics research in brain, so future studies of lectin-based brain protein separations may lead to additional insights into AD pathogenesis and progression.

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... Many posttranslational modifications (PTMS) have been reported in salivary proteins [12][13][14] . Among them glycosylation has been considered a common PTM that regulates many cellular processes [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] . Different analytical procedures have been used to profile the salivary glycoproteome to date. ...
... The buffer solutions were 5% acetonitrile/ 0.1% formic acid (buffer A), 80% acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid (buffer B), and 500 mM ammonium acetate/5% acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid (buffer C). Step 1 consisted of an 85 min gradient from 0-100% buffer B. Steps 2-11 had the following profile: 3 min of 100% buffer A, 5 min of X% buffer C, a 10 min gradient from 0-15% buffer B, and a 97 min gradient from 15-45% buffer B. The 5 min buffer C percentages (X) were 5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40,55, and 75% respectively for the 10-step analysis (Steps 2-11). The final step, the gradient, contained: 3 min of 100% buffer A, 20 min of 100% buffer C, a 10 min gradient from 0-15% buffer B, and a 107 min gradient from 15-70% buffer B. The eluted peptides were directly introduced into either a Thermo Finnigan LCQ Deca XP, Thermo Finnigan LTQ linear ion trap or a Thermo Scientific hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA), by nano-electrospray ionization. ...
... Glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification having critical roles in many biological processes in the cell [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] . Analytical studies of glycoproteins are very complicated due to protein microheterogeinity of the carbohydrate chains, 15,16,[19][20][21]44 . ...
Article
In-depth analysis of the salivary proteome is fundamental to understanding the functions of salivary proteins in the oral cavity and to reveal disease biomarkers involved in different pathophysiological conditions, with the ultimate goal of improving patient diagnosis and prognosis. Submandibular and sublingual glands contribute saliva rich in glycoproteins to the total saliva output, making them valuable sources for glycoproteomic analysis. Lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics was used to explore the submandibular/sublingual (SM/SL) saliva glycoproteome. A total of 262 N- and O-linked glycoproteins were identified by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Only 38 were previously described in SM and SL salivas from the human salivary N-linked glycoproteome, while 224 were unique. Further comparison analysis with SM/SL saliva of the human saliva proteome, revealed 125 glycoproteins not formerly reported in this secretion. KEGG pathway analyses demonstrated that many of these glycoproteins are involved in processes such as complement and coagulation cascades, cell communication, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis neo-lactoseries, O-glycan biosynthesis, glycan structures-biosynthesis 2, starch and sucrose metabolism, peptidoglycan biosynthesis or others pathways. In summary, lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to MudPIT mass spectrometry identified many novel glycoproteins in SM/SL saliva. These new additions to the salivary proteome may prove to be a critical step for providing reliable biomarkers in the diagnosis of a myriad of oral and systemic diseases.
... The neuropathological hallmarks of AD are amyloid deposits (plaques) of the amyloid-b precursor protein (APP)derived Ab peptide accompanied by neurofibrillary tangles of the tau protein (5). In addition, a few studies suggest that the brain of AD patients displays an altered profile of protein O-GlcNAcylation, protein sialylation, and protein N-glycosylation (6)(7)(8)(9). However, the interplay between the cytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation and the secretory N-/O-glycosylation in AD has not been described. ...
... These include tau (22), APP (23), acetylcholinesterase (24), and transferrin (25). A few publications also described vast, global glycosylation-related alterations in the brain of AD patients (6)(7)(8)(9)(26)(27)(28). Specifically, global O-GlcNAcylation, N-glycosylation, and sialylation of proteins were reported to be altered in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients, respectively (6)(7)(8)(9). ...
... A few publications also described vast, global glycosylation-related alterations in the brain of AD patients (6)(7)(8)(9)(26)(27)(28). Specifically, global O-GlcNAcylation, N-glycosylation, and sialylation of proteins were reported to be altered in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients, respectively (6)(7)(8)(9). Several observations regarding the O-GlcNAcylation pathway suggest a causal role for altered O-GlcNAcylation in AD etiology. For example, reducing the extent of cellular O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) removal from tau in tauopathy model mice increased the level of the O-GlcNAc on tau, hindered formation of tau aggregates, and decreased neuronal cell loss (29). ...
Article
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Deviations from the normal nucleoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation, as well as from normal protein sialylation and N-glycosylation in the secretory pathway, have been reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the interplay between the cytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation and the secretory N-/O-glycosylation in AD has not been described. We present a comprehensive analysis of the N-, O-, and O-GlcNAc–glycomes in AD-affected brain regions as well as in AD patient serum. We detected marked differences in levels of glycan involved in both protein O-GlcNAcylation and N-/O-glycosylation between patients and healthy individuals and revealed brain region–specific glycosylation-related pathology in patients. These alterations are not general for other neurodegenerative conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia and corticobasal degeneration. The alterations in the AD glycome in the serum could potentially lead to novel glyco-based biomarkers for AD progression. Strikingly, negative interrelationship was found between the pathways of protein O-GlcNAcylation and N-/O-glycosylation, suggesting a novel intracellular cross-talk.
... Additionally, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein has been shown to be a strong predictor of 10 y mortality (34) as well as all-cause mortality in a recent large meta-analysis of >40K individuals (35). Changes in the level of several glycoproteins have also been observed in the hippocampus and inferior parietal lobe in human AD (36). Some of these glycoproteins interact with neurofibrillary tangles, leading to speculation that changes in their glycosylation may be associated with the pathogenesis of this disease (36). ...
... Changes in the level of several glycoproteins have also been observed in the hippocampus and inferior parietal lobe in human AD (36). Some of these glycoproteins interact with neurofibrillary tangles, leading to speculation that changes in their glycosylation may be associated with the pathogenesis of this disease (36). ...
Article
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Significance The absence of disease-modifying therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continues, and an understanding of early, easily accessible biomarkers to inform treatment strategies remains elusive. This study uses knowledge of blood metabolites previously associated with midlife cognition—a preclinical predictor of AD—to systematically investigate causal associations with later AD status. Given that the pathological changes underlying AD are thought to develop years before clinical manifestations of the disease, developing these findings further could hold special utility in informing early treatment intervention.
... The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the primary cause of dementia, are the deposits of the beta-amyloid peptide (Ab) and neurofibrillary tangles of the hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) protein (Chin, 2011). In addition, there are several indications for alterations of global protein glycosylation in the AD brain (Butterfield and Owen, 2011;Kanninen et al., 2004;Schedin-Weiss et al., 2014;Zhu et al., 2014). Yet, the role of these alterations in AD pathology has been hardly explored. ...
... Alterations in global protein glycosylation in AD have been noted in the past (Butterfield and Owen, 2011;Kanninen et al., 2004;Schedin-Weiss et al., 2014;Zhu et al., 2014). In particular, protein O-GlcNAcylation is decreased in the AD brain. ...
Article
The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are pathogenic oligomers and fibrils of misfolded amyloidogenic proteins (e.g. β-amyloid and hyper-phosphorylated tau in AD), which cause progressive loss of neurons in the brain and nervous system. While deviations from normal protein glycosylation have been documented in AD, their role in disease pathology has been barely explored. Here our analysis of available expression datasets indicates that many glycosylation-related genes are differentially expressed in brains of AD patients compared with healthy controls. The robust differences found enabled us to predict the occurrence of AD with remarkable accuracy in a test cohort and identify a set of key genes whose expression determines this classification. We then studied in-vivo the effect of reducing expression of homologues of six of these genes in transgenic Drosophila over-expressing human tau, a well-established invertebrate AD model. These experiments have led to the identification of glycosylation genes that may augment or ameliorate tauopathy phenotypes. Our results indicate that OstDelta, l(2)not and beta4GalT7 are tauopathy suppressors, whereas pgnat5 and CG33303 are enhancers, of tauopathy. These results suggest that specific alterations in protein glycosylation may play a causal role in AD etiology.
... glycoproteins by lectin affinity chromatography. LAC was a common and useful tool for proteomic and glycomic analysis4142434445. For instance, Butterfield et al. enriched and analyzed abnormal glycoproteins from brain of Alzheimer disease patient by using LAC [41]. ...
... LAC was a common and useful tool for proteomic and glycomic analysis4142434445. For instance, Butterfield et al. enriched and analyzed abnormal glycoproteins from brain of Alzheimer disease patient by using LAC [41]. Alvarez-Manilla and colleagues also identified potential glycobiomarkers from embryonic stem cells with LAC technology [43]. ...
Article
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), and infection of EV71 to central nerve system (CNS) may result in a high mortality in children less than 2 years old. Although there are two highly glycosylated membrane proteins, SCARB2 and PSGL-1, which have been identified as the cellular and functional receptors of EV71, the role of glycosylation in EV71 infection is still unclear. We demonstrated that the attachment of EV71 to RD and SK-N-SH cells was diminished after the removal of cell surface sialic acids by neuraminidase. Sialic acid specific lectins, Maackia amurensis (MAA) and Sambucus Nigra (SNA), could compete with EV71 and restrained the binding of EV71 significantly. Preincubation of RD cells with fetuin also reduced the binding of EV71. In addition, we found that SCARB2 was a sialylated glycoprotein and interaction between SCARB2 and EV71 was retarded after desialylation. In this study, we demonstrated that cell surface sialic acids assist in the attachment of EV71 to host cells. Cell surface sialylation should be a key regulator that facilitates the binding and infection of EV71 to RD and SK-N-SH cells.
... Together, the low affinity, broad specificity, and the shared protein/glycan epitope recognition limit the capacity of lectins to perform global glycopeptide enrichment. Instead lectins are more valuable for prefractionation steps [108][109][110] and for visualizing glyco-determinant expression using histochemical staining techniques, micro-arrays and lectin blotting [72,73,81,82,111]. Lectins can also be used in glycoproteomics studies where wanted bias is purposely introduced to analyze specific sub-glycoproteomes. ...
Article
Site-specific structural characterization of glycoproteins is important for understanding the exact functional relevance of protein glycosylation. Resulting partly from the multiple layers of structural complexity of the attached glycans, the system-wide site-specific characterization of protein glycosylation, defined as glycoproteomics, is still far from trivial leaving the N- and O-linked glycoproteomes significantly under-defined. However, recent years have seen significant advances in glycoproteomics driven, in part, by developments of dedicated workflows and efficient sample preparation, including glycopeptide enrichment and prefractionation. In addition, glycoproteomics has benefitted from the continuous performance enhancement and more intelligent use of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) instrumentation and a wider selection of specialized software tackling the unique challenges of glycoproteomics data. Together these advances promise more streamlined N- and O-linked glycoproteome analysis. Tangible examples include system-wide glycoproteomics studies detecting thousands of intact glycopeptides from hundreds of glycoproteins from diverse biological samples. With a strict focus on the system-wide site-specific analysis of protein N- and O-linked glycosylation, we review the recent advances in LC-MS/MS based glycoproteomics. The review opens with a more general discussion of experimental designs in glycoproteomics and sample preparation prior to LC-MS/MS based data acquisition. Although many challenges still remain, it becomes clear that glycoproteomics, one of the last frontiers in proteomics, is gradually maturing enabling a wider spectrum of researchers to access this new emerging research discipline. The next milestone in analytical glycobiology is being reached allowing the glycoscientist to address the functional importance of protein glycosylation in a system-wide yet protein-specific manner.
... Other classes of proteins identified by redox proteomics or Western blot methods in our laboratory as oxidatively modified and likely dysfunctional in AD and/or aMCI brain include proteins that normally function as: chaperones [52]; metabolic proteins [53]; proteins involved neurite extension [54]; proteasomal degradation of damaged, aggregated proteins [54]; glutathionylation [55][56][57] proteins involved in antioxidant defense [27,28,45,47,58,59] cell cycle proteins [60,61] p53-mediated non-transcriptional apoptosis [62,63] glycoproteins [64]; [65,66] proteins associated with PSD95 [67]; LRP-1, a major clearance protein that removes Aβ(1-42) from brain to blood [68]; heme oxygenase-1 that degrades pro-oxidant heme forming biliverdin [69]; biliverdin reductase, which rapidly converts biliverdin to the antioxidant and denitrifying molecule, bilirubin, is involved in various prosurvival signaling pathways [70,71] lipoamide dehydrogenase-mediated reduction of lipoic acid [72]; and protein synthesis [25]. ...
Article
This retrospective review on discoveries of the roles of oxidative stress in brain of subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD) and animal models thereof as well as brain from animal models of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) results from the author receiving the 2013 Discovery Award from the Society for Free Radical Biology and Medicine. The paper reviews our laboratory’s discovery of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in AD brain regions rich in amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) but not in Aβ-poor cerebellum; redox proteomics as a means to identify oxidatively modified brain proteins in AD and its earlier forms that are consistent with the pathology, biochemistry, and clinical presentation of these disorders; how Aβ in in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies can lead to oxidative modification of key proteins that also are oxidatively modified in AD brain; the role of the single methionine residue of Aβ(1–42) in these processes; and some of the potential mechanisms in the pathogenesis and progression of AD.
... Glycoproteomics coupled with mass spectrometric analyses have been used to identify the functions of glycoproteins, such as tumor markers (19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26). Although cell surface glycoproteins are known to participate in the recognition, binding, and infection of pathogens (27), this advanced methodology has never been applied to the discovery of virus receptors prior to this study. ...
Article
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Unlabelled: Because the pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains mostly ambiguous, identifying the factors that mediate viral binding and entry to host cells is indispensable to ultimately uncover the mechanisms that underlie virus infection and pathogenesis. Despite the identification of several receptors/attachment molecules for EV71, the binding, entry, and infection mechanisms of EV71 remain unclear. Herein, we employed glycoproteomic approaches to identify human nucleolin as a novel binding receptor for EV71. Glycoproteins purified by lectin chromatography from the membrane extraction of human cells were treated with sialidase, followed by immunoprecipitation with EV71 particles. Among the 16 proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis, cell surface nucleolin attracted our attention. We found that EV71 interacted directly with nucleolin via the VP1 capsid protein and that an antinucleolin antibody reduced the binding of EV71 to human cells. In addition, the knockdown of cell surface nucleolin decreased EV71 binding, infection, and production in human cells. Furthermore, the expression of human nucleolin on the cell surface of a mouse cell line increased EV71 binding and conferred EV71 infection and production in the cells. These results strongly indicate that human nucleolin can mediate EV71 binding to and infection of cells. Our findings also demonstrate that the use of glycoproteomic approaches is a reliable methodology to discover novel receptors for pathogens. Importance: Outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in Asia-Pacific countries and have caused thousands of deaths in young children during the last 2 decades. The discovery of new EV71-interacting molecules to understand the infection mechanism has become an emergent issue. Hence, this study uses glycoproteomic approaches to comprehensively investigate the EV71-interacting glycoproteins. Several EV71-interacting glycoproteins are identified, and the role of cell surface nucleolin in mediating the attachment and entry of EV71 is characterized and validated. Our findings not only indicate a novel target for uncovering the EV71 infection mechanism and anti-EV71 drug discovery but also provide a new strategy for virus receptor identification.
... Basing on methods that employ classical "bottom-up" proteomic protocols (as schematized in Fig. 6), Butterfield and Owen emphasized the efficacy of lectin-affinity chromatography to pick out glycosylation changes of brain proteins in AD and MCI [92]. Two separate studies regarding respectively the ConA-and the WGA-fractionated proteome revealed altered levels for a variety of glycoproteins in hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule including chaperones, synaptic, cytoskeletal, cell signaling and protease inhibitor proteins, all consistent with the pathology and progression of AD [93,94]. ...
Article
Glycosylation consists in the covalent linkage of a carbohydrate structure to membrane bound and secreted glycoconjugates. It is a common post-translational modification that serves multiple functions in cell differentiation, signaling and intercellular communication. Unlike DNA/RNA/protein, the addition of complex carbohydrates is not-template driven and it is conceivable that both genetics and environmental factors might interact to influence glycosylation machinery in several pathological processes. Over the last few decades, the recognition of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) as an increasing number of genetic diseases of glycosylation with almost constant nervous system involvement, dramatically illustrated the consequences of abnormal glycosylation as improper CNS development and function. In addition, CDG recognition contributed to postulate that aberrant glycosylation processes might play a role in multifactorial, complex CNS diseases. On this context, CNS glycomics explores the effects of possible aberrant glycosylation to identify potential glyco-biomarkers useful for the diagnosis and ultimately for potential intervention strategies in neurological diseases. Up to date, CNS glycomics is an emerging, still uncharted area because of the specificity of CNS glycosylation, the complexity of the neurological disorders and for the inaccessibility and invasiveness of disease relevant samples. Here we review current knowledge on clinical glycomics of nervous system diseases, starting with CDG to include those pediatric and adulthood neuropsychiatric diseases where some evidences suggest that multifactor determinants converge to dysregulate glycosylation. Conventional and mass spectrometry-based high throughput technology for glyco-biomarker detection in CNS diseases is reported.
... The two core pathological hallmarks of AD are amyloid plaques composed of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau [31]. There is much evidence that alterations in glycosylation patterns influence the pathogenesis and progression of AD [32][33][34][35]. APP is processed into Aβ through β-secretase and γ-secretase, while the deposition of Aβ in the brain triggers neuronal dysfunction and death. ...
Article
Full-text available
N-glycosylation is one of the most prominent and abundant posttranslational modifications of proteins. It is estimated that over 50% of mammalian proteins undergo glycosylation. However, the analysis of N-glycoproteins has been limited by the available analytical technology. In this study, we comprehensively mapped the N-glycosylation sites in the mouse brain proteome by combining complementary methods, which included seven protease treatments, four enrichment techniques and two fractionation strategies. Altogether, 13492 N-glycopeptides containing 8386 N-glycosylation sites on 3982 proteins were identified. After evaluating the performance of the above methods, we proposed a simple and efficient workflow for large-scale N-glycosylation site mapping. The optimized workflow yielded 80% of the initially identified N-glycosylation sites with considerably less effort. Analysis of the identified N-glycoproteins revealed that many of the mouse brain proteins are N-glycosylated, including those proteins in critical pathways for nervous system development and neurological disease. Additionally, several important biomarkers of various diseases were found to be N-glycosylated. These data confirm that N-glycosylation is important in both physiological and pathological processes in the brain, and provide useful details about numerous N-glycosylation sites in brain proteins.
... Several lines of evidence have indicated that protein glycosylation is defective in AD [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]22], including APP [3][4][5][6][7], BACE1 [8], Tau [9][10][11], AChE [12,13], and Tf [14,15]. However, only a few AD glycomics studies have been reported [19][20][21][22][23]58]. More comprehensive and detailed studies may therefore lead to valuable insights into AD etiology and provide novel therapeutic interventions for AD. ...
Article
Full-text available
Glycosylation is one of the most common eukaryotic post-translational modifications, and aberrant glycosylation has been linked to many diseases. However, glycosylation and glycome analysis is a significantly challenging task. Although several lines of evidence have indicated that protein glycosylation is defective in Alzheimer's disease (AD), only a few studies have focused on AD glycomics. The etiology of AD is unclear and there are no effective disease-modifying treatments for AD. In this study, we found that the object recognition memory, passive avoidance, and spatial learning and memory of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain, an AD animal model, were deficient, and LW-AFC, which was prepared from the traditional Chinese medicine prescription Liuwei Dihuang decoction, showed beneficial effects on the deterioration of cognitive capability in SAMP8 mice. Forty-three and 56 N-glycan were identified in the cerebral cortex and serum of SAMP8 mice, respectively. The N-glycan profile in SAMP8 mice was significantly different from that of senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) strains, the control of SAMP8 mice. T reatment with LW-AFC modulated the abundance of 21 and 6 N-glycan in the cerebral cortex and serum of SAMP8 mice, respectively. The abundance of (Hex)3(HexNAc)5(Fuc)1(Neu5Ac)1 and (Hex)2(HexNAc)4 decreased in the cerebral cortex and serum of SAMP8 mice compared with SAMR1 mice, decreases that were significantly correlated with learning and memory measures. The administration of LW-AFC could reverse or increase these levels in SAMP8 mice. These results indicated that the effects of LW-AFC on cognitive impairments in SAMP8 mice might be through modulation of N-glycan patterns, and LW-AFC may be a potential anti-AD agent.
... Mounting evidence shows O-GlcNAc-modified proteins were decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and the disruption of glucose metabolism was not only a consequence of the disease but also a causative agent for AD [29,30]. ...
Article
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) as a severe neuropsychiatric complication is commonly present in the end stage of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). However, widely accepted biomarkers for diagnosing early HE are still absent. Here, we screened glycosylation patterns of serum proteins from Chinese HCC patients with or without early HE by lectin microarray. Then, phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E) as a lectin binding with bisecting GlcNAc structure which was significantly decreased in sera from Chinese HCC patients with early HE, was chosen to perform lectin affinity chromatography, following by in-gel digestion, Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis and bioinformatics analysis. Here we found, 13 lectins showed statistically significant reduction suggesting GalNAc, terminal α-1,3 Man, bisecting GlcNAc, (GlcNAc)n, O-GlcNAc, Neu5Ac, tetra-antennary complex-type N-glycan and GalNAc α/β1-3/6 Gal were decreased in serum glycoproteins from Chinese HCC patients with early HE. Furthermore, a total of 141 PHA-E-associated glycoproteins were identified in MS, of which 12 serum glycoproteins only in Chinese HCC patients without early HE and 26 serum glycoproteins only in Chinese HCC patients with early HE. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the PHA-E-associated serum glycoproteins only in Chinese HCC patients with early HE might be related to early HE occurrence through p38 MAPK signaling pathway and MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Collectively, this was the first glycomics study of serum proteins in HCC patients with early HE and it could provide a database for discovering and developing serum biomarkers to identify and predict early HE in HCC patients.
... Another method that has been used to study alterations of glycoproteins in AD is enrichment of glycoproteins with lectin chromatography followed by protein identification with MS [95]. WGA and Con A were used to study glycoproteomics in the hippocampus and the inferior parietal lobe in the brains of AD patients, patients with mild cognitive impairment, and nondemented controls [96,97]. ...
Article
Glycosylation is one of the most common, and the most complex, forms of post-translational modification of proteins. This review serves to highlight the role of protein glycosylation in Alzheimer disease (AD), a topic that has not been thoroughly investigated, although glycosylation defects have been observed in AD patients. The major pathological hallmarks in AD are neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Neurofibrillary tangles are composed of phosphorylated tau, and the plaques are composed of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), which is generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP). Defects in glycosylation of APP, tau and other proteins have been reported in AD. Another interesting observation is that the two proteases required for the generation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), i.e. γ-secretase and β-secretase, also have roles in protein glycosylation. For instance, γ-secretase and β-secretase affect the extent of complex N-glycosylation and sialylation of APP, respectively. These processes may be important in AD pathogenesis, as proper intracellular sorting, processing and export of APP are affected by how it is glycosylated. Furthermore, lack of one of the key components of γ-secretase, presenilin, leads to defective glycosylation of many additional proteins that are related to AD pathogenesis and/or neuronal function, including nicastrin, reelin, butyrylcholinesterase, cholinesterase, neural cell adhesion molecule, v-ATPase, and tyrosine-related kinase B. Improved understanding of the effects of AD on protein glycosylation, and vice versa, may therefore be important for improving the diagnosis and treatment of AD patients.
... For example, concanavilin A (ConA) lectin specifically binds to alpha-linked mannose and terminal glucose residues, while wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectin selectively recognizes N-acetyl glucosamine and sialic acid groups. Prior studies suggested that brain glycoproteins with altered affinity for ConA and WGA were correlated with the pathology and progression of neurological disease [10]. Therefore, in the current study, we combined ConA and WGA lectin affinity chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis to investigate the plasma glycoproteome in TH-treated cardiac arrest patients with different clinical outcomes and explore prognostic markers with putative clinical value. ...
Article
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Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a neuroprotective treatment post-cardiac arrest but is grossly underutilized. After TH induction, traditional biomarkers and parameters can no long predict clinical outcome due to a lack of understanding of hypothermic response. Innovative approaches to better understand the clinical effect of TH will help to prognosticate outcome and expand beneficial population. Protein glycosylation is an important extracellular post-translational modification, regulating various extracellular signaling pathways. Here, we used glycoproteomics to investigate the association of plasma glycoproteins with the prognosis of TH-treated cardiac arrest patients. Using lectin affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified 640 glycoproteins in the plasma of cardiac arrest patients undergoing TH treatment, of which 23 were up-regulated and 14 were down-regulated in good outcome patients as compared with poor outcome ones. Notably, two glycoproteins with antioxidant activity, ceruloplasmin (CP) and haptoglobin (HP), were found to be associated with favorable neurologic outcome. This was further supported by ELISA assay in a large patients cohort, in which glycosylated CP and HP enriched by concanavilin A (ConA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectins were significantly increased in patients developing good outcome (ConA-CP: p = 0.033; ConA-HP: p = 0.04; WGA-HP: p = 0.021). Furthermore, ROC analysis demonstrated the predictive potential of ConA-CP, ConA-HP, and WGA-HP (ConA-CP: AUC = 0.732, p = 0.031; ConA-HP: AUC = 0.746, p = 0.022; WGA-HP: AUC = 0.714, p = 0.046) and combination of them improved the predictive power (AUC = 0.830, p = 0.002). Our results suggested that glycosylated CP and HP as well as other glycoproteins may play critical roles in neuroprotection and serve as sensitive prognostic markers for TH treatments.
... Finally, we found negative associations between glycoprotein acetyls (mainly a1-acid glycoprotein) and shortterm verbal memory in the whole sample, and positive associations between pyruvate and delayed verbal memory in females. With regard to glycoprotein acetyls, changes in the level of several glycoproteins have been observed in the hippocampus and inferior parietal lobe in human AD; 40 some of these glycoproteins interact with neurofibrillary tangles, leading to speculation that changes in their glycosylation may be associated with the pathogenesis of this disease 40 . Additionally, A1-acid glycoprotein was previously found to be a strong predictor of 10-year mortality 41 and was also recently negatively associated with general cognitive ability 4 . ...
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Maintenance of healthy cognitive ageing is vital for independence and wellbeing in the older general population. We investigated the association between blood metabolites and cognitive function and decline. Participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD, the British 1946 birth cohort) were studied; 233 nuclear magnetic resonance circulating metabolite measures were quantified in 909 men and women at ages 60–64. Short-term and delayed verbal memory and processing speed were concurrently assessed and these tests were repeated at age 69. Linear regression analyses tested associations between metabolites and cognitive function at ages 60–64, and changes in these measures by age 69, adjusting for childhood cognition, education, socio-economic status and lifestyle factors. In cross-sectional analyses, metabolite levels, particularly fatty acid composition and different lipid sub-classes, were associated with short-term verbal memory (4 measures in females and 11 measures in the whole sample), delayed verbal memory (2 measures in females) and processing speed (8 measures in males and 2 measures in the whole sample) (p < 0.002). One metabolite was associated with change in cognition in females. Most of the observed associations were attenuated after adjustment for childhood cognition and education. A life course perspective can improve the understanding of how peripheral metabolic processes underlie cognitive ageing.
... A third mechanism is protein glycosylation, which has been reported to be altered in AD brains (Butterfield and Owen, 2011;Kanninen et al., 2004;Schedin-Weiss et al., 2014;Zhu et al., 2014). The role that protein glycosylation plays in AD pathology is largely unknown. ...
Article
Work spanning almost two decades using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to study tau-mediated neurodegeneration has provided valuable and novel insights into the causes and mechanisms of tau-mediated toxicity and dysfunction in tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The fly has proven to be an excellent model for human diseases because of its cost efficiency, and the availability of powerful genetic tools for use in a comparatively less-complicated, but evolutionarily conserved, in vivo system. In this review, we provide a critical evaluation of the insights provided by fly models, highlighting both the advantages and limitations of the system. The fly has contributed to a greater understanding of the causes of tau abnormalities, the role of these abnormalities in mediating toxicity and/or dysfunction, and the nature of causative species mediating tau-toxicity. However, it is not possible to perfectly model all aspects of human degenerative diseases. What sets the fly apart from other animal models is its genetic tractability, which makes it highly amenable to overcoming experimental limitations. The explosion of genetic technology since the first fly disease models were established has translated into fly lines that allow for greater temporal control in restricting tau expression to single neuron types, and lines that can label and monitor the function of subcellular structures and components; thus, fly models offer an unprecedented view of the neurodegenerative process. Emerging genetic technology means that the fly provides an ever-evolving experimental platform for studying disease.
... Furthermore, the induction of autophagy may rescue the tauopathy phenotype, suggesting that the formation of GABs is a compensatory mechanism rather than a trigger of neurodegeneration and also that the disruption of autophagic processes plays a critical role in the progression of the tau pathology (50). Another key mechanism of tauopathy is protein glycosylation, which appears to be altered in the AD brain (51)(52)(53). The role that protein glycosylation plays in AD pathology currently remains unclear. ...
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common chronic neurodegenerative disease that mainly affects the medial temporal lobe and associated neocortical structures. The disease process involves two abnormal structures, plaques and tangles, which damage and destroy nerve cells. Tangles are twisted fibers of tau protein that build up inside cells. Plaques are deposits of a protein fragment called amyloid-beta (Aβ) that accumulate in the spaces between nerve cells. Aβ derives from the amyloid precursor protein and is the main component of amyloid plaques in the AD brain. Although AD has been extensively examined, its pathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear and there are currently no effective drugs for this disorder. Many AD model systems have recently been established using Drosophila melanogaster by expressing the proteins involved in AD in the brain. These systems successfully reflect some of the symptoms associated with AD such as the onset of learning defects, age-dependent short-term memory impairment, increase of wakefulness and consolidated sleep disruption by expressing human Aβ42 or human APP/BACE in Drosophila central nervous system. We herein discuss these Drosophila AD models.
... Brains of AD patients display an altered profile of protein O-glycosylation, sialylation, and N-glycosylation. 43,44 Both O-GlcNAcylation and O-GalNAcylation have been found to play a role in AD. 45,46 Many of the AD-related proteins, including APP, TAU, BACE1, nicastrin, are functionally modified by glycosylation in AD pathogenesis. 43,[47][48][49] The interplay between Tn antigen, T antigen, COSMC, T-synthase, and sialylation needs further exploration in AD. ...
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Introduction: Mutations in brain tissues that cumulate with age may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal glycoprotein and Tn antigen expression have been demonstrated in AD. We identified C1GALT1C1/COSMC mutations in AD and age-matched normals without AD. The COSMC coding mutations resulted in a significant reduction in T-synthase activity in advanced AD cases. Methods: Identification of COSMC mutations, Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (Q-RT-PCR), western blotting, and T-synthase activity assays. Results: COSMC mutations were detected in the promotor, coding region and 3'UTR in AD and normals. COSMC coding mutations demonstrated a correlation with AD progression. T-synthase levels were significantly elevated in advanced AD compared to AD III (P = 0.03) and normals (P = 0.002). T-synthase activity in advanced AD {Braak and Braak (B&B) stages V and VI} with COSMC coding mutations was 3-fold lower than advanced AD without mutations, and 1.3-fold lower than normal (P = 0.001) and AD B&B stage III (P = 0.01) with coding mutations. Discussion: COSMC coding mutations significantly diminished T-synthase activity in advanced AD, potentially causing defective galactosylation.
... Given their key role in protein structure and function, it is not surprising that alterations in protein glycosylation have been implicated in diseases such as cancer and diabetes mellitus [29,51]. Likewise, the level of global protein glycosylation, as well as glycosylation of specific proteins, was reported to be aberrant in AD patients [52,53], and their brains displayed impaired glucose metabolism [54]. ...
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... This study provides the first, system-level view of human brain N-glycoproteins and in vivo N-glycosylation sites in AD and control brains. Previous postmortem AD brain studies used a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based glycoproteomic approach and identified only a limited number (<20) of putative N-glycosylated proteins without mapping their N-glycosylation sites (38,39). Our study using a high-resolution LC-MS/MS-based quantitative N-glycoproteomic approach has identified 1132 N-glycosylated proteins and mapped 2294 in vivo N-glycosylation sites in human brain. ...
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Protein N-glycosylation plays critical roles in controlling brain function, but little is known about human brain N-glycoproteome and its alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report the first, large-scale, site-specific N-glycoproteome profiling study of human AD and control brains using mass spectrometry-based quantitative N-glycoproteomics. The study provided a system-level view of human brain N-glycoproteins and in vivo N-glycosylation sites and identified disease signatures of altered N-glycopeptides, N-glycoproteins, and N-glycosylation site occupancy in AD. Glycoproteomics-driven network analysis showed 13 modules of co-regulated N-glycopeptides/glycoproteins, 6 of which are associated with AD phenotypes. Our analyses revealed multiple dysregulated N-glycosylation-affected processes and pathways in AD brain, including extracellular matrix dysfunction, neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, cell adhesion alteration, lysosomal dysfunction, endocytic trafficking dysregulation, endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction, and cell signaling dysregulation. Our findings highlight the involvement of N-glycosylation aberrations in AD pathogenesis and provide new molecular and system-level insights for understanding and treating AD.
... The detailed methodologies of LAC, hydrazide chemistry and other enrichment methods in glycoproteomics have been extensively reviewed in the past (Tian and Zhang, 2010;Wei and Li, 2009). In particular, LAC is of great interest in studies of glycosylation alterations as markers of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases due to its recent applications in brain glycoproteomics (Butterfield and Owen, 2011). Our group has utilized multi-lectin affinity chromatography containing concanavalin A (ConA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to enrich N-linked glycoproteins in control and prion-infected mouse plasma (Wei et al., 2010b). ...
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Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 genes cosegregate with the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigrees. We now document that the Aβ1–42(43)/Aβ1–40 ratio in the conditioned media of independent N2a cell lines expressing three FAD-linked PS1 variants is uniformly elevated relative to cells expressing similar levels of wild-type PS1. Similarly, the Aβ1–42(43)/Aβ1–40 ratio is elevated in the brains of young transgenic animals coexpressing a chimeric amyloid precursor protein (APP) and an FAD-linked PS1 variant compared with brains of transgenic mice expressing APP alone or transgenic mice coexpressing wild-type human PS1 and APP. These studies provide compelling support for the view that one mechanism by which these mutant PS1 cause AD is by increasing the extracellular concentration of Aβ peptides terminating at 42(43), species that foster Aβ deposition.
Article
The mechanism by which mutations in the presenilin (PS) genes cause the most aggressive form of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown, but fibroblasts from mutation carriers secrete increased levels of the amyloidogenic A42 peptide, the main component of AD plaques. We established transfected cell and transgenic mouse models that coexpress human PS and amyloid -protein precursor (APP) genes and analyzed quantitatively the effects of PS expression on APP processing. In both models, expression of wild-type PS genes did not alter APP levels, - and -secretase activity and A production. In the transfected cells, PS1 and PS2 mutations caused a highly significant increase in A42 secretion in all mutant clones. Likewise, mutant but not wild-type PS1 transgenic mice showed significant overproduction of A42 in the brain, and this effect was detectable as early as 2−4 months of age. Different PS mutations had differential effects on A generation. The extent of A42 increase did not correlate with presenilin expression levels. Our data demonstrate that the preseniiin mutations cause a dominant gain of function and may induce AD by enhancing A42 production, thus promoting cerebral -amyloidosis.
Article
A sensitive protocol for unambiguously and positively identifying O-glycosylation sites in glycopeptides is described, based on beta-elimination of the glycan chain(s) using NH4OH. On glycan elimination, NH3 is incorporated into the amino acid residue(s) to which the glycan(s) had been attached, to yield a modified amino acid residue having a distinct mass. Electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry allows the released, modified peptide to be sequenced and the site(s) of the modified amino acid residue(s) to be identified. The protocol has been optimized using a series of structurally related O-glycopeptides, and standard conditions are recommended for handling unknowns. We demonstrate that site determination can be achieved using as little as 1 pmol of starting material.
Article
Neuronal synaptic functional deficits are linked to impaired learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently demonstrated that O-GlcNAc, a novel cytosolic and nuclear carbohydrate post-translational modification, is enriched at neuronal synapses and positively regulates synaptic plasticity linked to learning and memory in mice. Reduced levels of O-GlcNAc have been observed in AD, suggesting a possible link to deficits in synaptic plasticity. Using lectin enrichment and mass spectrometry, we mapped several human cortical synaptic O-GlcNAc modification sites. Overlap in patterns of O-GlcNAcation between mouse and human appears to be high, as previously mapped mouse synaptic O-GlcNAc sites in Bassoon, Piccolo, and tubulin polymerization promoting protein p25 were identified in human. Novel O-GlcNAc modification sites were identified on Mek2 and RPN13/ADRM1. Mek2 is a signaling component of the Erk 1/2 pathway involved in synaptic plasticity. RPN13 is a component of the proteasomal degradation pathway. The potential interplay of phosphorylation with mapped O-GlcNAc sites, and possible implication of those sites in synaptic plasticity in normal versus AD states is discussed. iTRAQ is a powerful differential isotopic quantitative approach in proteomics. Pulsed Q dissociation (PQD) is a recently introduced fragmentation strategy that enables detection of low mass iTRAQ reporter ions in ion trap mass spectrometry. We optimized LTQ ion trap settings for PQD-based iTRAQ quantitation and demonstrated its utility in O-GlcNAc site mapping. Using iTRAQ, abnormal synaptic expression levels of several proteins previously implicated in AD pathology were observed in addition to novel changes in synaptic specific protein expression including Synapsin II.
Article
Enolase enzymes are abundantly expressed, cytosolic carbon-oxygen lyases known for their role in glucose metabolism. Recently, enolase has been shown to possess a variety of different regulatory functions, beyond glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, associated with hypoxia, ischemia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is an age-associated neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by elevated oxidative stress and subsequent damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, appearance of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, and loss of synapse and neuronal cells. It is unclear if development of a hypometabolic environment is a consequence of or contributes to AD pathology, as there is not only a significant decline in brain glucose levels in AD, but also there is an increase in proteomics identified oxidatively modified glycolytic enzymes that are rendered inactive, including enolase. Previously, our laboratory identified alpha-enolase as one the most frequently up-regulated and oxidatively modified proteins in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), early-onset AD, and AD. However, the glycolytic conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate catalyzed by enolase does not directly produce ATP or NADH; therefore it is surprising that, among all glycolytic enzymes, alpha-enolase was one of only two glycolytic enzymes consistently up-regulated from MCI to AD. These findings suggest enolase is involved with more than glucose metabolism in AD brain, but may possess other functions, normally necessary to preserve brain function. This review examines potential altered function(s) of brain enolase in MCI, early-onset AD, and AD, alterations that may contribute to the biochemical, pathological, clinical characteristics, and progression of this dementing disorder.
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. One hallmark of this disease is the continuous increase in the numbers and size of aggregating amyloid plaques. The accumulation of extracellular plaques is an immunologically interesting phenomenon since microglial cells, brain-specific macrophages, should be able to cleanse the aggregating material from the human brain. Immunotherapy targeting beta-amyloid peptides in plaques with antibodies represents a promising therapy in AD. Recent progress in pattern recognition receptors of monocytes and macrophages has revealed that the sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) family of receptors is an important recognition receptor for sialylated glycoproteins and glycolipids. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed that microglial cells contain only one type of Siglec receptors, Siglec-11, which mediates immunosuppressive signals and thus inhibits the function of other microglial pattern recognition receptors, such as TLRs, NLRs, and RAGE receptors. We will review here the recent literature which clearly indicates that aggregating amyloid plaques are masked in AD by sialylated glycoproteins and gangliosides. Sialylation and glycosylation of plaques, mimicking the cell surface glycocalyx, can activate the immunosuppressive Siglec-11 receptors, as well as hiding the neuritic plaques, allowing them to evade the immune surveillance of microglial cells. This kind of immune evasion can prevent the microglial cleansing process of aggregating amyloid plaques in AD.
Article
Protein glycosylation regulates protein function and cellular distribution. Additionally, aberrant protein glycosylations have been recognized to play major roles in human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Glycoproteomics, a branch of proteomics that catalogs and quantifies glycoproteins, provides a powerful means to systematically profile the glycopeptides or glycoproteins of a complex mixture that are highly enriched in body fluids, and therefore, carry great potential to be diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Application of this mass spectrometry-based technology to the study of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) is relatively new, and is expected to provide insight into the biochemical pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, as well as biomarker discovery. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of glycoproteins in biology and neurodegenerative disease, and have discussed existing proteomic technologies that are utilized to characterize glycoproteins. Some of the ongoing studies, where glycoproteins isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and human brain are being characterized in Parkinson's disease at different stages versus controls, are presented, along with future applications of targeted validation of brain specific glycoproteins in body fluids.
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, comprising 60-80% of all reported cases, and currently affects 5.2 million Americans. AD is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and synapse loss. The early stages of memory loss associated with AD have been studied in a condition known as amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), arguably the earliest form of AD. In spite of extensive research across a variety of disciplines, the cause of AD remains elusive. Proteomics techniques have helped to advance knowledge about AD by identifying irregularities in protein expression and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in AD brain. Glycosylation is a less studied PTM with regards to AD and MCI. This PTM is important to study because glycosylation is involved in proper protein folding, protein anchoring to cell membranes, and the delivery of proteins to organelles, and these processes are impaired in AD. Concanavalin-A (Con-A) binds to N-linked glycoproteins, but hydrophobic sites on nonglycoproteins are also known to bind Con-A. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to examine Con-A-associated brain proteins in MCI and AD with focus on the hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) brain regions. Proteins found in AD hippocampus with altered levels are glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tropomyosin 3 (TPM3), Rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor XAP-4 (XAP4), and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Proteins found with altered levels in AD IPL are alpha-enolase, gamma-enolase, and XAP-4. MCI hippocampal proteins with altered levels are dihydropyrimidase-2 (DRP2), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP-78), protein phosphatase related protein Sds-22 (Sds22), and GFAP and the only protein found with altered levels in MCI IPL was beta-synuclein. These results are discussed with reference to biochemical and pathological alterations in and progression of AD.
Article
Peanut agglutinin, purified by affinity chromatography, agglutinates lymphocytes from mouse, rat, guinea pig, and man only after their treatment with neuraminidase. However, it stimulates only neuraminidase-treated rat and human cells. A similar number cell surface receptors for peanut agglutinin was found on neuraminidase-treated rat and mouse lymphocytes although the latter cells were not stimulated by the lectin. Galactose specifically inhibited the agglutination and stimulation of lymphocytes by peanut agglutinin. Sequential treatment of lymphocytes with neuraminidase and beta-galactosidase markedly reduced the response of the cells to stimulation by peanut agglutinin, soybean agglutinin, and galactose oxidase. It is suggested that the same galactosyl residue may be the target for the initial step in triggering lymphocytes by the above mentioned mitogens.
Article
Positron emission tomographic studies of cerebral glucose metabolism have shown high diagnostic specificity in distinguishing among the degenerative dementias and differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal aging. The current investigation was undertaken to characterize the regional glucose metabolic deficits in AD, using cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. All subjects met the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for AD (n = 45) or were normal (n = 20), and the AD subjects were subdivided into incipient and mild AD and moderate plus moderately severe subgroups based on the Global Deterioration Scale. The subjects underwent a non-contrast computed tomographic scan and a positron emission tomographic (PETT VI) scan. The AD subjects (n = 14) and normal control subjects (n = 15) received evaluations 2 to 3 years after baseline study. The brain regions that show glucose metabolic deficits cross-sectionally (temporal and parietal association areas, with lesser degrees of deficit in subcortical gray matter structures), over the stages of AD, also show further deficits longitudinally within the same AD subjects. The reduction in glucose metabolism is greater than would be expected from the degree of brain atrophy. The glucose metabolic deficits are discussed in the context of neuropathologic findings and neurotransmitter deficits in AD.
Article
Positron emission tomography (PET) is currently the only technology affording three-dimensional measurement of the brain's energy metabolism which is closely coupled to brain function. Studies of glucose metabolism by PET of (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose are therefore widely applied to show the contribution of various brain structures in the performance of a variety of tasks or their participation in functional deficits associated with various diseases. Although glucose metabolism decreases slightly with age to a regionally different degree, most types of dementia show severe changes in glucose metabolism. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by metabolic disturbances most prominent in the parietotemporal association cortex and later in the frontal lobe, whereas primary cortical areas, basal ganglia, thalamus, brainstem, and cerebellum are not affected. It is this typical pattern that distinguishes AD from other dementia syndromes. A ratio calculated from the metabolic rates of glucose of "affected" and "nonaffected" brain regions was able to separate patients with AD from age-matched controls and permitted the discrimination of patients with cognitive impairment of other origin in 85%. The discriminative power can be further improved by activation studies. A continuous visual recognition task increased the metabolic rate in normal subjects by 21% and in patients with AD by 6% on average, with significant regional differences. During activation the significant relation between severity of disease and temporoparietal metabolic rate became even stronger. In the assessment of effects of treatment on disturbed metabolism, PET studies demonstrated an equalization of metabolic heterogeneities in patients responding to a muscarinergic cholinagonist, whereas general increases in glucose utilization were observed with piracetam, pyritinol, and phosphatidyl-serine. The therapeutic relevance of such metabolic effects, however, must be proved in controlled clinical trials.
Article
Positron emission tomographic (PET) data on local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (LCMR) are reported for 32 regions of interest (ROI)s in cross-sectional studies on 57 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 neurologically normal controls, and in serial studies on 13 of the AD cases, including a familial, young-onset case where the diagnosis has been confirmed at autopsy. Extensive psychological testing was done on all the AD cases. Almost all cortical regions showed a significant decline in LCMR with age in the control subjects. There were the expected cortical metabolic deficits in AD and the serial studies showed a general increase in such deficits over time in 12 of the 13 cases. The regions showing the greatest declines with time in serial studies are the same as those showing the most severe deficiencies in cross-sectional studies. The young-onset case did not show a greater rate of metabolic decline than many of the older cases studied. Results on individual psychological tests tended to correlate with metabolic rates in multiple, rather than single, cortical regions, suggesting intact neuronal networks are required for good performance. The correlations with cortical metabolic activity found were of a sign indicating that the higher the metabolic rates and the better the left:right asymmetry index, the better was the performance.
Article
Fifty-seven patients with the diagnosis of hepatosplenomegaly of unknown cause were studied. Most of the patients were infants and preschool age children. They were evenly distributed by sex. The patients were not undernourished nor did they have low height. However if such was the case, they were usually patients with a metabolic or neoplastic problem. Psychomotor retardation, paleness, jaundice and bleeding were the most common signs and symptoms. Hepatic function tests, complete blood count and urinalysis helped to establish the cause of hepatosplenomegaly in 19 of the 57 patients. Other studies only helped to establish the diagnosis of visceromegaly of unknown cause. Liver biopsy, bone marrow biopsy and a metabolic study were useful to establish the diagnosis in 34 cases. Infectious, metabolic and neoplastic problems were the usual cause for visceromegaly.
Article
Large pyramidal neurons of rat and human neocortex stain immunohistochemically for phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). In a limited number of postmortem brains, we find large reductions in cortical PAG activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This finding is consistent with histological evidence that pyramidal neurons are affected in AD. The reductions are greater than those found in the same samples in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) but the possible deleterious effects of coma and similar premortem factors on human PAG activity have yet to be assessed. The activity of beta-glucuronidase, a lysosomal enzyme which occurs in reactive astrocytes, is elevated in the same samples. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), have demonstrated significant deficiencies in glucose metabolism in the cortex in AD, with the parietal, temporal and some frontal areas being particularly affected. We found in serial scans of 13 AD cases, including one relatively young (44-46 year old) familial case, an exacerbation of the defect over time in most cases. We have found a negative correlation between the regional metabolic rates for glucose (LCMR(s] measured premortem and the beta-glucuronidase activities measured postmortem on a few AD cases that have come to autopsy. The correlations between LCMR(s) and PAG and ChAT activities tend to be positive. The results are consistent with previous suggestions that decreased LCMR(s) in AD reflect local neuronal loss and gliosis.
Article
We have purified and characterized the cerebral amyloid protein that forms the plaque core in Alzheimer disease and in aged individuals with Down syndrome. The protein consists of multimeric aggregates of a polypeptide of about 40 residues (4 kDa). The amino acid composition, molecular mass, and NH2-terminal sequence of this amyloid protein are almost identical to those described for the amyloid deposited in the congophilic angiopathy of Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome, but the plaque core proteins have ragged NH2 termini. The shared 4-kDa subunit indicates a common origin for the amyloids of the plaque core and of the congophilic angiopathy. There are superficial resemblances between the solubility characteristics of the plaque core and some of the properties of scrapie infectivity, but there are no similarities in amino acid sequences between the plaque core and scrapie polypeptides.
Article
When concanavalin A (Con A) is reacted with a low concentration of glutaraldehyde, the product formed strongly binds to DEAE-cellulose. Thus, the resultant material can be used as an affinity medium for those glycoproteins which interact with Con A. This affinity medium is easy to prepare, has a capacity comparable to that of similar commercially available affinity media, and is stable for up to at least 6 months.
Article
The induction by anti-immunoglobulin of patch and cap formation on mouse lymphocytes was inhibited by the addition of concanavalin A. This effect was reversed by alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, a competitive inhibitor of the binding of concanavalin A. Concanavalin A prevented both patch and cap formation, in contrast to the metabolic inhibitor NaN(3), which prevented only cap formation. This suggests that binding of concanavalin A induces changes on or in the lymphocyte membrane that inhibit free diffusion of immunoglobulin receptors.
Article
Crystalline wheat germ agglutinin was prepared from unprocessed wheat germ by a new purification procedure. Its purity and some of its molecular characteristics were examined by a number of criteria. Sedimentation analysis gave a molecular weight of 17,000 ± 1,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 2.1 S when determined in 0.05 N HCl. At neutral pH, the agglutinin dimerizes with a molecular weight of around 35,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 3.6 S. Amino acid analyses indicate that the protein contains a high amount of glycine and half cystine; none of the latter is present as cysteine. Three times crystallized agglutinin is devoid of neutral sugars. Equilibrium dialysis experiments using N acetyl [1 14C]glucosamine indicate that the agglutinin has 2 binding sites for N acetylglucosamine per mole of the polypeptide chain with a dissociation constant of 7.6 x 10-4 M. This binding is highly specific. The β 1,4 di and trisaccharides of N acetylglucosamine showed higher affinities with apparent dissociation constants of 4.9 and 1.2 x 10-5 M, respectively.
Article
Some cases of Alzheimer's disease are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Genetic linkage studies have mapped a locus (AD3) associated with susceptibility to a very aggressive form of Alzheimer's disease to chromosome 14q24.3. We have defined a minimal cosegregating region containing the AD3 gene, and isolated at least 19 different transcripts encoded within this region. One of these transcripts (S182) corresponds to a novel gene whose product is predicted to contain multiple transmembrane domains and resembles an integral membrane protein. Five different missense mutations have been found that cosegregate with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Because these changes occurred in conserved domains of this gene, and are not present in normal controls, they are likely to be causative of AD3.
Article
The beta-amyloid protein deposits of Alzheimer disease, whether in diffuse or consoliated form, are an agglomeration of many extracellular proteins. At least 35 have been reported as components of senile plaques, most of which also occur in diffuse deposits. More than half of these proteins are directly associated with the immune system. Since diffuse deposits are believed to be the precursors of senile plaques, it is important to define the precise molecular events that lead to the transition. Diffuse deposits share with senile plaques the presence of opsonizing components of complement, the complement activators beta-amyloid protein, amyloid P, thrombin, and apolipoprotein E. However, senile plaques contain, in addition, dystrophic neurites, agglomerates of activated microglia, components of the membrane attack complex, and the inhibitors of the membrane attack complex, clusterin, protectin and vitronectin. Microglial cells are professional phagocytes which possess the respiratory burst apparatus when activated. It produces extracellular superoxide molecules which can then form additional toxic products such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl free radicals. It has long been known that opsonized zymosan is a powerful activator of the respiratory burst system. We found this activation could be inhibited by antibodies to complement receptors in the nanomolar range. Dapsone and indomethacin, two antiinflammatory agents that may have therapeutic potential in Alzheimer disease, were weakly inhibitory (10(-4) M range).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRG1) measured by positron emission tomography of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose was studied longitudinally (interval ranging from 6 to 27 months) in 25 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). A significant decline of rCMRG1 was noted in the whole brain (p = 0.02) which was most pronounced in the temporoparietal (p = 0.002), frontal (p = 0.01), superior parietal (p = 0.01) and occipital (p = 0.03) association cortex. A similar decline was also present in the thalamus (p = 0.04) but not in the primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The changes of rCMRG1 in the temporoparietal, frontal and occipital association cortex were related to the change of the Mini Mental State Examination score (temporoparietal: r = 0.49, p = 0.01; frontal: r = 0.40, p = 0.05; occipital: r = 0.44, p = 0.03). The rate of clinical and metabolic decline was not related to age at onset, sex, family history or duration of disease. The results suggest that clinical deterioration and metabolic impairment in probable AD are closely related and dependent on progression of pathological changes in cortical association areas.
Article
A pattern of reduced cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) has been shown by positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. To verify if a similar rCMRglc pattern is present in subjects 'at risk' for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we used high-resolution PET to longitudinally study a subject with isolated memory impairment and a family history for autosomal dominant AD. Initial rCMRglc data did not reveal any consistent abnormality as compared to a group of sex- and age-matched healthy controls. However, 1 year later, a follow-up evaluation did reveal reduced parietal rCMRglc values coinciding with a worsening of cognitive impairment, which suggested that standard analyses of resting rCMRglc data may not be useful in the early diagnosis of AD. In contrast, when a previously determined discriminant function for distinguishing controls from AD patients was applied, the subject was correctly identified as an AD patient on both PET scans.
Article
To determine whether the presenilin 1 (PS1), presenilin 2 (PS2) and amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) mutations linked to familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) increase the extracellular concentration of amyloid beta-protein (A beta) ending at A beta 42(43) in vivo, we performed a blinded comparison of plasma A beta levels in carriers of these mutations and controls. A beta 1-42(43) was elevated in plasma from subjects with FAD-linked PS1 (P < 0.0001), PS2N1411 (P = 0.009), APPK670N,M671L (P < 0.0001), and APPV7171 (one subject) mutations. A beta ending at A beta 42(43) was also significantly elevated in fibroblast media from subjects with PS1 (P < 0.0001) or PS2 (P = 0.03) mutations. These findings indicate that the FAD-linked mutations may all cause Alzhelmer's disease by increasing the extracellular concentration of A beta 42(43), thereby fostering cerebral deposition of this highly amyloidogenic peptide.
Article
Mutations in the genes encoding amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) are known to cause early-onset, autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Studies of plasma and fibroblasts from subjects with these mutations have established that they all alter amyloid beta-protein (beta APP) processing, which normally leads to the secretion of amyloid-beta protein (relative molecular mass 4,000; M(r) 4K; approximately 90% A beta1-40, approximately 10% A beta1-42(43)), so that the extracellular concentration of A beta42(43) is increased. This increase in A beta42(43) is believed to be the critical change that initiates Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis because A beta42(43) is deposited early and selectively in the senile plaques that are observed in the brains of patients with all forms of the disease. To establish that the presenilin mutations increase the amount of A beta42(43) in the brain and to test whether presenilin mutations act as true (gain of function) dominants, we have now constructed mice expressing wild-type and mutant presenilin genes. Analysis of these mice showed that overexpression of mutant, but not wild-type, PS1 selectively increases brain A beta42(43). These results indicate that the presenilin mutations probably cause Alzheimer's disease through a gain of deleterious function that increases the amount of A beta42(43) in the brain.
Article
Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 genes cosegregate with the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigrees. We now document that the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio in the conditioned media of independent N2a cell lines expressing three FAD-linked PS1 variants is uniformly elevated relative to cells expressing similar levels of wild-type PS1. Similarly, the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio is elevated in the brains of young transgenic animals coexpressing a chimeric amyloid precursor protein (APP) and an FAD-linked PS1 variant compared with brains of transgenic mice expressing APP alone or transgenic mice coexpressing wild-type human PS1 and APP. These studies provide compelling support for the view that one mechanism by which these mutant PS1 cause AD is by increasing the extracellular concentration of Abeta peptides terminating at 42(43), species that foster Abeta deposition.
Article
To examine O-linked glycosylation of serum IgA1 in children with acute Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). The O-linked oligosaccharides of serum IgA1 from 28 children with acute HSP and 26 control children were examined by enzyme immunoassay using plant lectins with well defined carbohydrate binding specificities. The lectins included Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin), Arachis hypogaea (peanut lectin), and Sambucus nigra (elderberry lectin). Jacalin binds to galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal-GalNAc). Jacalin interaction with this oligosaccharide is not influenced by the presence of sialic acid on the galactose moiety. Peanut lectin also interacts with Gal-GalNAc, but binding is inhibited if the galactose residue is sialylated. Elderberry lectin binds to N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid). There was no difference in the binding of jacalin to IgA1 from patients with HSP compared to controls (p = 0.5). The binding of peanut lectin to IgA1 was significantly higher in HSP compared to controls (p = 0.007). Since peanut lectin binding is inhibited by the presence of sialylated galactose, these results suggest diminished sialic content of the O-linked oligosaccharides of IgA1 in HSP compared to controls. Indeed, the binding of the sialic acid-specific elderberry lectin to IgA1 was significantly lower in HSP compared to controls (p = 0.004). The O-linked oligosaccharides of serum IgA1 from children with acute HSP are deficient in salic acid compared to serum IgA1 from control children.
Article
Accumulation of the amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) in the cerebral cortex is an early and invariant event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The final step in the generation of Abeta from the beta-amyloid precursor protein is an apparently intramembranous proteolysis by the elusive gamma-secretase(s). The most common cause of familial Alzheimer's disease is mutation of the genes encoding presenilins 1 and 2, which alters gamma-secretase activity to increase the production of the highly amyloidogenic Abeta42 isoform. Moreover, deletion of presenilin-1 in mice greatly reduces gamma-secretase activity, indicating that presenilin-1 mediates most of this proteolytic event. Here we report that mutation of either of two conserved transmembrane (TM) aspartate residues in presenilin-1, Asp 257 (in TM6) and Asp 385 (in TM7), substantially reduces Abeta production and increases the amounts of the carboxy-terminal fragments of beta-amyloid precursor protein that are the substrates of gamma-secretase. We observed these effects in three different cell lines as well as in cell-free microsomes. Either of the Asp --> Ala mutations also prevented the normal endoproteolysis of presenilin-1 in the TM6 --> TM7 cytoplasmic loop. In a functional presenilin-1 variant (carrying a deletion in exon 9) that is associated with familial Alzheimer's disease and which does not require this cleavage, the Asp 385 --> Ala mutation still inhibited gamma-secretase activity. Our results indicate that the two transmembrane aspartate residues are critical for both presenilin-1 endoproteolysis and gamma-secretase activity, and suggest that presenilin 1 is either a unique diaspartyl cofactor for gamma-secretase or is itself gamma-secretase, an autoactivated intramembranous aspartyl protease.
Article
Glycoproteins carrying O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modifications have been isolated from a wide range of organisms ranging from trypanosomes to humans. Interest in this modification is increasing as evidence accumulates that it is an abundant and transient modification that is dynamic and responsive to cellular stimuli. Concurrent advances in biological mass spectrometry (MS) have facilitated high-sensitivity protein identification by tandem MS. In this study, we show that the lability of the O-GlcNAc moiety to low-energy collision in tandem MS offers a means of distinguishing such peptides from others that are not modified. The differential between the energy required to remove the O-GlcNAc group and the energy required to fragment the peptide chain allows the O-GlcNAc group to be detected and the peptide sequence, and therefore the protein, to be identified. This technique thus allows the simultaneous detection and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides, even when present at low levels in complex mixtures. The method was initially developed and validated using a synthetic O-GlcNAc-modified peptide and then applied to the detection of an extremely low abundance O-GlcNAc-modified peptide from bovine alpha-crystallin. We believe that with further development this assay system may prove to be a useful tool for the direct investigation of intracellular O-GlcNAc levels, thus providing valuable insights into the physiological role of O-GlcNAc modified proteins.