Article

A Pilot Study on Zinc Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Independent Laboratory of Family Physician Education, Pomeranian Medical University, ul. Rybacka 1, 70-204, Szczecin, Poland.
Biological trace element research (Impact Factor: 1.75). 11/2011; 143(2):854-62. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-010-8952-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate zinc levels in three biological compartments (serum, erythrocytes and hair) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as compared to healthy individuals. Zinc levels in serum, erythrocytes and hair (in 74 patients with RA and 30 healthy individuals) were assessed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean hair zinc content was significantly lower in RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.001). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed in the RA patient group between the erythrocyte zinc levels and the prednisone dose (r
s = 0.48, p < 0.05), and a negative correlation was found in this population between the serum zinc levels and disease duration (r
s = −0.42, p < 0.0006). In conclusion, it seems that hair may be a useful complementary study material for evaluating “zinc status” in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

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    • "It has been reported in literature that reactive oxygen species play a key role in the etiology of RA (Cerhan et al. 2003;Sarban et al. 2005Sarban et al. , 2007Fautrel and Bourgeois 2000;Piotrowska-Jastrzębska et al. 2002) and that one of them is the superoxide radical, which is eliminated by superoxide dismutase—an enzyme containing zinc in its molecule (Tapiero and Tew 2003). It has also been found that over 90 % of this trace element present in erythrocytes is bound with carbonic anhydrase and superoxide dismutase (Mierzecki et al. 2011). Smoking, however, is an important source of exposure to toxic elements (TEs) such as aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb), which have been proposed as causative agents of cigarette smoke-induced physiological disorders (Kazi et al. 2008aKazi et al. , 2008b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking interferes with the metal homeostasis of the human body, which plays a crucial role for maintaining the health. A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In the present study, the relationship between toxic element (TE) exposure via cigarette smoking and rheumatoid arthritis incidence in population living in Dublin, Ireland, is investigated. The trace {zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se)} and toxic elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, who are smokers living in Dublin, Ireland. These results were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy, nonsmoker controls. The different brands of cigarette (filler tobacco, filter, and ash) consumed by the studied population were also analyzed for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb. The concentrations of trace and TEs in biological samples and different components of cigarette were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 96.4-99.8 % in certified reference materials. The filler tobacco of different branded cigarettes contains Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in the ranges of 9.55-12.4 ng, 0.432-0.727 μg, 1.70-2.12 μg, and 0.378-1.16 μg/cigarette, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean values of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compare to healthy controls, while Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se concentrations were found to be lower in rheumatoid arthritis patients, the difference was significant in the case of smoker patients (p < 0.001). The levels of four toxic elements were 2-3-folds higher in scalp hair and blood samples of nonrheumatoid arthritis smoker subjects as compared to nonsmoker controls. The high exposure of toxic metals as a result of cigarette smoking may be synergistic with risk factors associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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    • "160 . 9 ± 27 . 4 190 . 8 ± 29 . 9 b0 . 001 AAS Mierzecki et al . 2011 [ 229 ] 177 . 6 ± 72 . 6 [ 155 . 7 – 196 . 0 ] b 209 . 1 ± 92 . 9 [ 189 . 7 – 248 . 8 ] b ns AAS Wang et al . 2009 [ 230 ] Cu / Zn 0 . 33 ± 0 . 11 [ 0 . 31 – 0 . 38 ] b 0 . 16 ± −0 . 12 [ 0 . 11 – 0 . 19 ] b b0 . 001 Wang et al . 2009 [ 230 ] Fe / Cu 1 . 47 ± 0 . 88 [ 1 . 19 – 1 . 72 ] b 2 . 71 ± 2 . 03 [ 2 . 25 – 3 . 56 ] b b0 . 01 Wan"
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hair analysis is used for estimation of the nutritional status of individuals. In the present work, a systematic review on the relation between the mineral composition of hair and the physical or mental disorders is discussed. Detailed information of examined populations, methods of sample preparations and analytical techniques are presented. Methods: A systematic literature search in four electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Medline (from 1997 to 2012/01/31) for English language articles was performed. In addition, a reference list and manual search was undertaken. Results: The following number of studies was included: 66. Most of the authors reported that there exists a correlation between deficiency or excess of some elements in hair and occurrence of some diseases, such as: autism, cancer, hypertension, myocardial infarction, kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. However, not all results were consistent. Conclusions: Most of the authors concluded that the profile of hair mineral imbalance might be useful as a diagnostic tool for the early diagnosis of many diseases. However, it seems that there is a need to standardize sample preparation procedures, in particular washing and mineralization methods.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
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    • "It has been reported in literature that reactive oxygen species play a key role in the etiology of RA (Cerhan et al., 2003; Sarban et al., 2005; Fautrel and Bourgeois, 2000; Piotrowska-Jastrzębska et al., 2002; Sarban et al., 2007) and that one of them is the superoxide radical, which is eliminated by superoxide dismutase—an enzyme containing zinc in its molecule (Tapiero and Tew, 2003). It has also been found that over 90% of this trace element present in erythrocytes is bound with carbonic anhydrase and superoxide dismutase (Mierzecki et al., DOI 10.1007/ s12011-010-8952-2). "
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p=0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p<0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p<0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Science of The Total Environment
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