Article

Movement disorders in nonpsychotic siblings of patients with nonaffective psychosis

Psychiatric Centre Symfora Group, Amersfoort, The Netherlands.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 06/2011; 188(1):133-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.01.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Movement disorders such as dyskinesia and Parkinsonism have frequently been reported in (drug-naïve) patients with nonaffective psychosis. Therefore movement disorders may be related to schizophrenia. Siblings of patients with nonaffective psychosis also appear to have subtle forms of movement disorders. This suggests that motor abnormalities may also be related to the risk of developing the disease. Subtle forms are not always detected with the use of the standard observation-based clinical rating scales, which are less sensitive than mechanical instrument measurement. This study compared the presence and severity of dyskinesia and Parkinsonism in 42 non-psychotic siblings of patients with nonaffective psychosis and in 38 controls as measured by mechanical instruments and clinical rating scales. There were no significant differences in movement disorders between siblings and controls on the basis of clinical assessments. However, mechanical measurements indicated that siblings compared to controls displayed significantly more dyskinesia and Parkinsonism signs. These results suggest that motor signs could be markers of vulnerability for psychosis or schizophrenia. In addition this study shows that mechanical instrument measurement of movement disorders is more sensitive than assessment with clinical rating scales. Therefore, it may be used in screening programs for populations at risk for psychosis.

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Available from: Leonard J van Schelven, Jul 30, 2014
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    • "We decided to study the PIP5K2A gene, because this gene has repeatedly been shown to be associated with schizophrenia (Schwab et al., 2006; Bakker et al., 2007; He et al., 2007; Saggers- Gray et al., 2008), and the vulnerability to develop TD is related to the likelihood to develop positive symptoms of schizophrenia . In a previous study, we have confirmed this association in the presently studied Caucasian Siberian patients with schizophrenia (Fedorenko et al., 2013), but now we also demonstrated a relationship with the prevalence of TD. Koning et al. (2011a, 2011b) have described an association of TD with schizotypy in Figure 2. Representation of the single nucleotide polymorphism positions of 3 studied polymorphisms of the PIP5K2A gene (He et al., 2007). "
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    • "We decided to study the PIP5K2A gene, because this gene has repeatedly been shown to be associated with schizophrenia (Schwab et al., 2006; Bakker et al., 2007; He et al., 2007; Saggers- Gray et al., 2008), and the vulnerability to develop TD is related to the likelihood to develop positive symptoms of schizophrenia . In a previous study, we have confirmed this association in the presently studied Caucasian Siberian patients with schizophrenia (Fedorenko et al., 2013), but now we also demonstrated a relationship with the prevalence of TD. Koning et al. (2011a, 2011b) have described an association of TD with schizotypy in Figure 2. Representation of the single nucleotide polymorphism positions of 3 studied polymorphisms of the PIP5K2A gene (He et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: This thesis focuses on several aspects of movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings. The main hypothesis is that movement disorders are not just side effects of antipsychotic medication but may also be symptoms of the illness itself and are related to the (genetic) risk of developing the disease. To address these questions a systematic literature search was followed by a clinical prevalence and association study of movement disorders with schizotypy in siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and a candidate gene study of movement disorders in patients using antipsychotic medication. Further, we developped a mechanical instrument and examined whether mechanical measurement of lingual force variability reflects tardive tongue dyskinesia and whether mechanical measurement of movement disorders in siblings of patients with schizophrenia is more sensitive than clinical rating scales. The results of this thesis suggest that movement disorders are associated to antipsychotic naïve patients with schizophrenia and are also more prevalent in their unaffected siblings compared to controls. This could imply that movement disorders represent symptoms of schizophrenia and may be markers of vulnerability of developing the disease.In addition the results of this thesis indicate that in siblings of patients with schizophrenia, mechanical instruments may also be more sensitive for detecting subclinical movement disorders than traditional clinician-based rating scales.
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