Caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer and resin-based fissure sealants on permanent teeth: An update of systematic review evidence

Division of Public Oral Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand - 7 York Rd,, Parktown/Johannesburg 2193, South Africa. .
BMC Research Notes 01/2011; 4(1):22. DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-22
Source: PubMed


This article constitutes a partial update of the original systematic review evidence by Yengopal et al. from 15 January 2008 (published in the Journal of Oral Science in 2009) with primary focus on research quality in regard to bias risk in trials. Its aim is to update the existing systematic review evidence from the English literature as to whether caries occurrence on pits and fissures of teeth sealed with either GIC or resin is the same.
In addition to the 12 trials included during the original systematic review, 5 new trials were identified during the database search (up to 26 August 2010) and 2 further trials were included from a hand search and reference check. Of these, 3 trials were excluded and 16 were accepted for data extraction and quality assessment. The quality of accepted trials was assessed, using updated quality criteria, and the risk of bias was investigated in more depth than previously reported. In addition, the focus of quantitative synthesis was shifted to single datasets that were extracted from the accepted trials.
Twenty-six dichotomous and 4 continuous datasets were extracted. Meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were used in combining clinically homogenous datasets. The overall outcome of the computed datasets suggest no difference between the caries-preventive effects of GIC- and resin-based fissure sealants.
This overall outcome is in agreement with the conclusions of the original systematic review. Although the findings of the trials identified in this update may be considered to be less affected by attrition- and publication bias, their risk of selection- and detection-/performance bias is high. Thus, verification of the currently available results requires further high quality randomised control trials.

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Available from: Steffen Mickenautsch
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    • "The best-case scenario was calculated by adding the number of lost-to-follow-up participants in the test group to the successes of that group and adding the number of lost-to-follow-up participants in the control group to the failures of that group. The method to assess attrition bias risk as sensitivity analysis by calculation of best/worse case scenarios was developed in collaboration with the School of Statistics & Actuarial Science, University of the Witwatersrand and applied in a number of published systematic reviews[12,28,29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Glass-ionomers are traditionally regarded to be inferior to resin as fissure sealants in protecting teeth from dental caries, due to their comparatively lower retention rate. Unlike low-viscosity glass-ionomers, high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC) are placed as sealants by pressing the material into pits and fissures with a petroleum-jelly-coated index finger. Hence, HVGIC sealants are assumed to penetrate pits and fissures deeper, resulting in a higher material retention rate, which may increase its caries-preventive effect. Methods: The aim of this review was to answer the question as to whether, in patients with fully erupted permanent molar teeth, HVGIC based fissure sealants are less effective to protect against dental carious lesions in occlusal pits and fissures than resin-based fissure sealants? A systematic literature search in eight databases was conducted. Heterogeneity of accepted trials and imprecision of the established evidence were assessed. Extracted sufficiently homogenous datasets were pooled by use of a random-effects meta-analysis. Internal trial validity was evaluated. The protocol of this systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO / Nr.: CRD42015016007). Results: Seven clinical trials were provisionally included for further review. Of these, one was excluded. Seven trial reports reporting on six trials were accepted. From these, 11 datasets were extracted and pooled in four meta-analyses. The results suggest no statistically significant differences after up to 48 months and borderline significant differences in favour of HVGIC sealants after 60 months (RR 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.95; p = 0.04 / RD -0.07; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.01). The point estimates and upper confidence levels after 24, 36, 48 and 60 months of RR 1.36; RR 0.90; RR 0.62; RR 0.29 and 2.78; 1.67; 1.21; 0.95, respectively, further suggest a chronological trend in favour of HVGIC above resin-based sealants. The internal trial validity was judged to be low and the bias risk high for all trials. Imprecision of results was considered too high for clinical guidance. Conclusion: It can be concluded that: (i) Inferiority claims against HVGIC in comparison to resin-based sealants as current gold-standard are not supported by the clinical evidence; (ii) The clinical evidence suggests similar caries-preventive efficacy of HVGIC and resin-based sealants after a period of 48 months in permanent molar teeth but remains challenged by high bias risk; (iii) Evidence concerning a possible superiority of HVGIC above resin-based sealants after 60 months is poor (even if the high bias risk is disregarded) due to imprecision and requires corroboration through future research.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Although a number of different types of glass ionomers have been used previously as sealants, largely low-viscosity Type III sealants and ART sealants using high viscous type II restorative GIC, systematic reviews comparing GIC sealants with resin sealants have almost always, perhaps unfairly, pooled these different types of GIC sealants under a single category which makes true specific comparisons difficult. Consequently, inconsistent findings have been found regarding the comparative effectiveness of GIC to resin sealant in preventing fissure caries [6,8] and there is no clear evidence to support the superiority of either of the two types of sealants [9,10]. However, there is a wide range of GIC materials available in the market with different formulations, properties, and performance for use in dentistry. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The relative performance of ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant in preventing fissure caries in permanent molars was compared in a randomized clinical trial conducted in southern China ( NCT01829334). Methods After obtaining ethical approval, healthy schoolchildren who had permanent first molars with occlusal fissures which were sound but deep or presented with only incipient caries were recruited for the study. Included molars were randomly allocated into one of four parallel study groups in units of left/right teeth per mouth. Two of the four groups adopted the methods of ART or fluoride-releasing resin sealant placement while the other two groups adopted the topical fluoride application methods. Fissure status of the molars in each group was evaluated every 6 months. Development of dentine caries and sealant retention over 24 months in the molars in the two sealant-using groups was compared in this report. Outcome on cost-effectiveness of all four groups over 36 months will be reported elsewhere. Results At baseline, a total of 280 children (383 molars) with mean age 7.8 years were involved for the two sealant groups. After 24 months, 261 children (357 molars) were followed. Proportions of molars with dentine caries were 7.3% and 3.9% in the ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant groups, respectively (chi-square test, p = 0.171). Life-table survival analysis showed that sealant retention (full and partial) rate over 24 months for the resin sealant (73%) was significantly higher than that (50%) for the ART sealant (p < 0.001). Molar survival (no development of dentine caries) rates in the ART sealant (93%) and fluoride-releasing resin sealant (96%) groups were not significantly different (p = 0.169). Multilevel logistic regression (GEE modeling) accounting for the effects of data clustering and confounding factors confirmed this finding. Conclusions Though the retention of fluoride-releasing resin sealant was better than that of the ART sealant, their effectiveness in preventing fissure caries in permanent molars did not differ significantly over 24 months. ART sealants could be a good alternative when and where resources for resin sealant placement are not readily available.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Oral Health
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    • "Strong evidence shows that sealants are effective in preventing caries [15] [16]. Over the last few years more than 11 guidelines and systematic reviews have recommended pit and fissure sealant use for at-risk populations [17] [18] [19]. However, more than 30 years after the introduction of pit and fissure sealant to the dental market place, the profession has not embraced the procedure to the extent that available scientific data would expect [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used to assess their knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. One-way analysis of variance, independent sample t-test, and multivariate regression analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results. The mean scores for knowledge, value, opinion, and practice were 41.8 ± 3.7, 18.7 ± 2.8, 18.1 ± 1.4, and 12.9 ± 2.3, respectively. Analysis revealed that qualification was statistically significant among all dependent variables ( P ≤ 0.05 ); work experience was significantly associated with both knowledge and opinion means scores ( P ≤ 0.05 ). Conclusion. The results suggest that dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge about dental sealants. They also acknowledge the importance of use of dental sealants. Practice of dental sealants in clinics was found adequate but they were not following the specific guidelines and standardized procedures.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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