The effects of oral xylitol administration on bone density in rat femur
Department of Periodontology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, 1-9-20 Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-8159, Japan. Odontology
(Impact Factor: 1.52).
01/2011; 99(1):28-33. DOI: 10.1007/s10266-010-0143-2
To examine the effects of oral xylitol administration on rat femur bone density, 36 four-week-old male Wistar rats divided into three groups were fed CE-2 diet (control, n = 12) alone or supplemented with 10% (n = 12) or 20% (n = 12) dietary xylitol for 40 days. Biochemical, morphological, and histological analyses were performed. The 10% and 20% xylitol groups showed higher levels of both serum Ca and alkaline phosphatase activity and lower levels of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase than the control group. Although no significant differences in the three-dimensional bone structure or trabecular bone structure of the femur were observed, both xylitol groups showed significantly higher bone density than the control group. Compared to the control group, the 10% and 20% xylitol groups showed an increase in trabeculae. Thus, oral administration of xylitol appears to affect bone metabolism, leading to increased bone density in rat femur.
Available from: Heidi-Lynn Ploeg
- "It is a highly water-soluble crystalline powder that is nonimmunogenic , inexpensive and widely available. Xylitol has demonstrated in animal models to affect bone metabolism and lead to increased bone density  and improved structural/mechanical properties . "
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ABSTRACT: Soluble particulate fillers can be incorporated into antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement in an effort to enhance antibiotic elution. Xylitol is a material that shows potential for use as a filler due to its high solubility and potential to inhibit biofilm formation. The objective of this work, therefore, was to investigate the usage of low concentrations of xylitol in a gentamicin-loaded cement. Five different cements were prepared with various xylitol loadings (0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 g) per cement unit, and the resulting impact on the mechanical properties, cumulative antibiotic release, biofilm inhibition, and thermal characteristics were quantified. Xylitol significantly increased cement porosity and a sustained increase in gentamicin elution was observed in all samples containing xylitol with a maximum cumulative release of 41.3%. Xylitol had no significant inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. All measured mechanical properties tended to decrease with increasing xylitol concentration; however, these effects were not always significant. Polymerization characteristics were consistent among all groups with no significant differences found. The results from this study indicate that xylitol-modified bone cement may not be appropriate for implant fixation but could be used in instances where sustained, increased antibiotic elution is warranted, such as in cement spacers or beads.
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To examine the effects of oral xylitol administration on the femur and mandibular bone of ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
Forty 4-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of 20 each. One group was subjected to ovariectomy (OVX rats) and the other group to sham surgery (Sham rats). The sham and OVX rats were then subdivided into a group fed only a basal solid diet (n = 10) or a group fed the basal solid diet supplemented with 10% (w/w) xylitol (n = 10). After 40 days on each diet, the rats were tested for serum Ca concentration, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) concentration as biochemical markers. The morphological analysis involved evaluating the trabecular bone by microfocus X-ray computed tomography. For histological analysis, tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Serum Ca concentration and ALP activity were lower in OVX rats than in Sham rats, and both recovered in rats fed the diet supplemented with xylitol. TRAP concentration was also lower in OVX rats, but decreased still further with xylitol supplementation. OVX rats had a lower bone density in the femur and mandibular bone than Sham rats, and the bone density increased with xylitol supplementation.
Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary oral xylitol administration may influence osteoclasts, with distinct changes in the trabecular bone pattern in the femur and slight changes in the mandibular bone in OVX rats.
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