A Germline Variant in the Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 Gene as a Novel Skin Cancer Risk Locus

Clinical Research Program, Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 02/2011; 71(5):1533-9. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1818
Source: PubMed


Genome-wide association studies on pigmentary phenotypes provide a pool of candidate genetic markers for skin cancer risk. The SNPs identified from a genome-wide association study of natural hair color were assessed for associations with the risk of three types of skin cancer simultaneously in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study [218 melanoma, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 common controls]. Along with two known pigmentation loci, MC1R and OCA2, the IRF4 rs12203592 T allele was associated with an increased risk of each type of skin cancer (P value, 6.6 × 10(-4) for melanoma, 7.0 × 10(-7) for SCC, and 0.04 for BCC). This association was further replicated in additional samples (190 melanoma, 252 SCC, and 634 common controls). The P value in the replication set was 0.03 for melanoma and 4.2 × 10(-3) for SCC. The risk of BCC was replicated in an independent set of 213 cases and 718 controls (P value, 0.02). The combined results showed that the association with SCC reached the genome-wide significance level [odds ratio (OR) for additive model = 1.61, 95%CI, 1.36-1.91, P = 3.2 × 10(-8)]. The OR was 1.49 for melanoma (95%CI, 1.23-1.80; P = 4.5 × 10(-5)), and 1.32 for BCC (95%CI, 1.11-1.57; P = 1.6 × 10(-3)). Given that the T allele was shown previously to be associated with increased expression of IRF4 locus, further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of the IRF4 gene in human pigmentation and skin cancer development.

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    • "However the relationships of these SNPs to SCC risk are uncertain. For example, SNP rs12916300 at 15q13 (Figure S2) lies within intron 68 of HERC2, which encodes a ubiquitin-protein ligase recruited to sites of DNA damage from ionizing radiation, and which has been associated with BCC (Han et al., 2011) and pigmentation phenotypes (Han et al., 2011;Eiberg et al., 2008). This SNP is in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (R 2 = 0.85) with rs12913832, another intronic SNP in HERC2 that M A N U S C R I P T A C C E P T E D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 5 has been associated with pigmentation phenotypes (Sturm et al., 2008;Han et al., 2008;Eiberg et al., 2008;Branicki et al., 2009;Nan et al., 2009b) and that modifies expression of OCA2, a nearby gene encoding a melanosomal enzyme needed for melanin synthesis (Visser et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) conducted among non-Hispanic white (NHW) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) health care system. The study includes a genome-wide screen of 61,457 members (6,891 cases and 54,566 controls) genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom European array and a replication phase involving an independent set of 6,410 additional members (810 cases and 5600 controls). Combined analysis of screening and replication phases identified ten loci containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with P-values < 5x10-8. Six loci contain genes in the pigmentation pathway; SNPs at these loci appear to modulate SCC risk independently of the pigmentation phenotypes. Another locus contains HLA class II genes studied in relation to elevated SCC risk following immunosuppression. SNPs at the remaining three loci include an intronic SNP in FOXP1 at locus 3p13, an intergenic SNP at 3q28 near TP63, and an intergenic SNP at 9p22 near BNC2. These findings provide insights into the genetic factors accounting for inherited SCC susceptibility.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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    • "IRF4 plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis and acts as a potential marker for haematological neoplasms and malignant melanoma [19,45]. Recent GWAS findings have indicated that variants of the IRF4 gene were associated with the susceptibility to some cancer types, including CLL, HL, NHL, MM and skin cancer [25-27,35]. Given the possible of the IRF4 gene product in the immune response and carcinogenesis, numerous investigators have studied the possible association between the IRF4 polymorphisms and cancer risk, but the results are somewhat inconclusive. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Research has indicated that the rs12203592 and rs872071 interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) gene polymorphisms correlate with the risk of cancer, especially skin cancer and haematological malignancies, but the results remain controversial. To understand better the effects of these two polymorphisms on skin cancer and haematological malignancies susceptibility, a cumulative meta-analysis was performed. Methods We conducted a search using the PubMed and Web of Science databases for relevant case-control studies published before April 2014. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models where appropriate. Heterogeneity test, publication bias test, and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results In total, 11 articles comprised of 19 case–control studies were identified; five focused on the rs12203592 polymorphism with 7,992 cases and 8,849 controls, and six were on the rs872071 polymorphism with 3108 cases and 8300 controls. As for rs12203592, a significant correlation with overall skin cancer and haematological malignancies risk was found with the homozygote comparison model (OR = 1.566, 95% CI 1.087-2.256) and recessive model (OR = 1.526, 95% CI 1.107-2.104). For rs872071, a significantly elevated haematological malignancies risk was observed in all genetic models (homozygote comparison: OR = 1.805, 95% CI 1.402-2.323; heterozygote comparison: OR = 1.427, 95% CI 1.203-1.692; dominant: OR = 1.556, 95% CI 1.281-1.891; recessive: OR = 1.432, 95% CI 1.293-1.587; additive: OR = 1.349, 95% CI 1.201-1.515). Similarly, increased skin cancer and haematological malignancies risk was also identified after stratification of the SNP data by cancer type, ethnicity and source of controls for both polymorphisms. Conclusions Our meta-analysis indicated that the rs12203592 and rs872071 IRF4 gene polymorphisms are associated with individual susceptibility to skin cancer and haematological malignancies. Moreover, the effect of the rs12203592 polymorphism on skin cancer risk was particularly prominent among Caucasians. Further functional research should be performed to validate the association.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Cancer
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    • "In our study, rs12203592*T was associated with protection to melanoma (OR 0.65, p-value 0.037) when dominant penetrance model is taken into account. A recently published study suggests that minor allele of this SNP (rs12203592*T) is actually associated with risk of developing skin cancer, including MM [47], nevertheless our study validates the protective association obtained by Duffy et al., where rs12203592*C (major allele) was associated with the presence of nevi and a predisposition to melanoma [48]. Although we have not being able to find any association between the presence of nevi and rs12203592, we did detect an association with lentigines [48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Few high penetrance genes are known in Malignant Melanoma (MM), however, the involvement of low-penetrance genes such as MC1R, OCA2, ASIP, SLC45A2 and TYR has been observed. Lately, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been the ideal strategy to identify new common, low-penetrance susceptibility loci. In this case–control study, we try to validate in our population nine melanoma associated markers selected from published GWAS in melanoma predisposition. Methods We genotyped the 9 markers corresponding to 8 genes (PARP1, MX2, ATM, CCND1, NADSYN1, CASP8, IRF4 and CYP2R1) in 566 cases and 347 controls from a Spanish population using KASPar probes. Genotypes were analyzed by logistic regression and adjusted by phenotypic characteristics. Results We confirm the protective role in MM of the rs3219090 located on the PARP1 gene (p-value 0.027). Additionally, this SNP was also associated with eye color (p-value 0.002). A second polymorphism, rs12203592, located on the IRF4 gene was associated with protection to develop MM for the dominant model (p-value 0.037). We have also observed an association of this SNP with both lentigines (p-value 0.014) and light eye color (p-value 3.76 × 10-4). Furthermore, we detected a novel association with rs1485993, located on the CCND1 gene, and dark eye color (p-value 4.96 × 10-4). Finally, rs1801516, located on the ATM gene, showed a trend towards a protective role in MM similar to the one firstly described in a GWAS study. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first time that these SNPs have been associated with MM in a Spanish population. We confirmed the proposed role of rs3219090, located on the PARP1 gene, and rs12203592, located on the IRF4 gene, as protective to MM along the same lines as have previous genome-wide associated works. Finally, we have seen associations between IRF4, PARP1, and CCND1 and phenotypic characteristics, confirming previous results for the IRF4 gene and presenting novel data for the last two, suggesting that pigmentation characteristics correlated with eye color are potential mediators between PARP1 and MM protection.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Cancer
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