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Proinflammatory role of aquaporin-4 in autoimmune neuroinflammation

Article (PDF Available)inThe FASEB Journal 25(5):1556-66 · April 2011with45 Reads
DOI: 10.1096/fj.10-177279 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) deficiency in mice reduces neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) produced by active immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG). Potential mechanisms for the protective effect of AQP4 deficiency were investigated, including AQP4-dependent leukocyte and microglia cell function, immune cell entry in the central nervous system (CNS), intrinsic neuroinflammation, and humoral immune response. As we found with active-immunization EAE, neuroinflammation was greatly reduced in AQP4-knockout mice in adoptive-transfer EAE. AQP4 was absent in immune cells, including activated T lymphocytes. The CNS migration of fluorescently labeled, MOG-sensitized T lymphocytes was comparable in wild-type and AQP4-knockout mice. Microglia did not express AQP4. Serum anti-AQP4 antibodies were absent in EAE. Remarkably, intracerebral injection of LPS produced much greater neuroinflammation in wild-type than in AQP4-knockout mice, and cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) secretion was reduced in astrocyte cultures from AQP4-knockout mice. Adenovirus-mediated expression of AQP4, or of an unrelated aquaporin, AQP1, increased cytokine secretion in astrocyte and nonastrocyte cell cultures, supporting the involvement of aquaporin water permeability in cytokine secretion. Our data suggest an intrinsic proinflammatory role of AQP4 involving AQP4-dependent astrocyte swelling and cytokine release. Reduction in AQP4 water transport may be protective in neuroinflammatory CNS diseases.
8 Figures
    • "Primary astrocyte cultures were generated from brain cortex of neonatal CD59 +/+ and CD59 −/− rats at day 7 post birth, as described [15] with modification. Briefly, the cerebral hemispheres were isolated and cortical tissue was minced and incubated for 15 min at 37 °C in 0.25% trypsin-EDTA. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which pathogenesis involves complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) produced by immunoglobulin G autoantibodies targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) on astrocytes. We reported evidence previously, using CD59−/− mice, that the membrane-associated complement inhibitor CD59 modulates CDC in NMO (Zhang and Verkman, J. Autoimmun. 53:67–77, 2014). Motivated by the observation that rats, unlike mice, have human-like complement activity, here we generated CD59−/− rats to investigate the role of CD59 in NMO and to create NMO pathology by passive transfer of AQP4-IgG under conditions in which minimal pathology is produced in normal rats. CD59−/− rats generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology showed no overt phenotype at baseline except for mild hemolysis. CDC assays in astrocyte cultures and cerebellar slices from CD59−/− rats showed much greater sensitivity to AQP4-IgG and complement than those from CD59+/+ rats. Intracerebral administration of AQP4-IgG in CD59−/− rats produced marked NMO pathology, with astrocytopathy, inflammation, deposition of activated complement, and demyelination, whereas identically treated CD59+/+ rats showed minimal pathology. A single, intracisternal injection of AQP4-IgG in CD59−/− rats produced hindlimb paralysis by 3 days, with inflammation and deposition of activated complement in spinal cord, optic nerves and brain periventricular and surface matter, with most marked astrocyte injury in cervical spinal cord. These results implicate an important role of CD59 in modulating NMO pathology in rats and demonstrate amplification of AQP4-IgG-induced NMO disease with CD59 knockout.
    Article · Dec 2017
    Xiaoming YaoAlan S. Verkman
    • "Recently, it has been reported that AQP4 also participates in immunoreactivity. For example, proinflammatory cytokine secretion is significantly reduced among AQP4 knockout mice near activated astrocytes injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Li et al., 2011b). Therefore, it is speculated that AQP4 may regulate inflammatory cytokine expression in epilepsy. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epilepsy refers to a clinical syndrome generated by spontaneous seizures in the central nervous system. Epilepsy triggers a complex pathological process including inflammatory response and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) increase. It has been reported that AQP4 helps to enhance the immunological function of the central nervous system in pathological conditions, but the relationship between AQP4 and inflammatory cytokines is poorly understood in chronic epilepsy processes. As an inhibitor of sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetazolamide (AZA) may inhibit water infiltration through AQP4. In this context, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is used to induce the chronic epilepsy model in rats to study the chronic epilepsy effects of AQP4 inhibition on proinflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus and proinflammatory cytokine quantification analysis of the plasma. Based on the assumption that AQP4 regulates proinflammatory cytokine expression, this article aims to demonstrate this effect in chronic epilepsy of rats. Rats were divided into four groups and were treated with different drugs: saline (Control), acetazolamide (AZA), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), and pentylenetetrazole plus acetazolamide (PTZ+AZA). The data showed that seizures increased proinflammatory cytokine expression and that AZA significantly inhibited AQP4 expression. Overall, the results suggested that AQP4 inhibition could weaken excitotoxicity in epileptogenesis by reducing proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. The findings provide a new insight into the involvement of cerebral edema insult and proinflammatory cytokines in the process of chronic epilepsy.
    Article · Sep 2016
    H. YuH. YuG.L. QiG.L. QiJ. WangJ. Wang+4 more authors ...X.Q. ZhuX.Q. Zhu
    • "Since all properties are similar to wild type mice except absence of AQP4, AQP4 knockout mice are excellent candidates for AQP4 study. Numerous reports have revealeddifferentAQP4 functions through comparing AQP4 deletion mice with wild type mice [8][9][10][11][12]. There are mainly three research groups that have reported AQP4 knockout lines. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular diseases are conditions caused by problems with brain vasculature, which have a high morbidity and mortality. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain and crucial for the formation and resolution of brain edema. Considering brain edema is an important pathophysiological change after stoke, AQP4 is destined to have close relation with cerebrovascular diseases. However, this relation is not limited to brain edema due to other biological effects elicited by AQP4. Till now, multiple studies have investigated roles of AQP4 in cerebrovascular diseases. This review focuses on expression of AQP4 and the effects of AQP4 on brain edema and neural cells injuries in cerebrovascular diseases including cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the current review, we pay more attention to the studies of recent years directly from cerebrovascular diseases animal models or patients, especially those using AQP4 gene knockout mice. This review also elucidates the potential of AQP4as an excellent therapeutic target.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2016
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