Proinflammatory role of aquaporin-4 in autoimmune neuroinflammation

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0521, USA.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.04). 04/2011; 25(5):1556-66. DOI: 10.1096/fj.10-177279
Source: PubMed


Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) deficiency in mice reduces neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) produced by active immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG). Potential mechanisms for the protective effect of AQP4 deficiency were investigated, including AQP4-dependent leukocyte and microglia cell function, immune cell entry in the central nervous system (CNS), intrinsic neuroinflammation, and humoral immune response. As we found with active-immunization EAE, neuroinflammation was greatly reduced in AQP4-knockout mice in adoptive-transfer EAE. AQP4 was absent in immune cells, including activated T lymphocytes. The CNS migration of fluorescently labeled, MOG-sensitized T lymphocytes was comparable in wild-type and AQP4-knockout mice. Microglia did not express AQP4. Serum anti-AQP4 antibodies were absent in EAE. Remarkably, intracerebral injection of LPS produced much greater neuroinflammation in wild-type than in AQP4-knockout mice, and cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) secretion was reduced in astrocyte cultures from AQP4-knockout mice. Adenovirus-mediated expression of AQP4, or of an unrelated aquaporin, AQP1, increased cytokine secretion in astrocyte and nonastrocyte cell cultures, supporting the involvement of aquaporin water permeability in cytokine secretion. Our data suggest an intrinsic proinflammatory role of AQP4 involving AQP4-dependent astrocyte swelling and cytokine release. Reduction in AQP4 water transport may be protective in neuroinflammatory CNS diseases.

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Available from: Scott S Zamvil, Dec 18, 2013
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    • "Astroglial overexpression of AQP4 in mice accelerates ischemia-induced brain edema [56], and AQP4 knockdown in traumatized astroglial cultures reduces cell swelling [57]. AQP4 may have a prominent neuroinflammatory role in brain insults, since experiments with AQP4 knockout mice confirm the protein's requirement for full induction of brain proinflammatory cytokines (notably tumor necrosis factor alpha) during endotoxin treatment or experimental allergic encephalomyelitis [58]. Thus AQP4 acts as a brain neuroinflammatory channel during particular stresses or insults. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence that brain edema and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels have roles in experimental binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration has stimulated interest in swelling/edema-linked neuroinflammatory pathways leading to oxidative stress. We report here that neurotoxic binge ethanol exposure produces comparable significant effects in vivo and in vitro on adult rat brain levels of AQP4 as well as neuroinflammation-linked enzymes: key phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family members and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In adult male rats, repetitive ethanol intoxication (3 gavages/d for 4 d, ∼9 g/kg/d, achieving blood ethanol levels ∼375 mg/dl; "Majchrowicz" model) significantly increased AQP4, Ca+2-dependent PLA2 GIVA (cPLA2), phospho-cPLA2 GIVA (p-cPLA2), secretory PLA2 GIIA (sPLA2) and PARP-1 in regions incurring extensive neurodegeneration in this model-hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and olfactory bulb-but not in two regions typically lacking neurodamage, frontal cortex and cerebellum. Also, ethanol reduced hippocampal Ca+2-independent PLA2 GVIA (iPLA2) levels and increased brain "oxidative stress footprints" (4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins). For in vitro studies, organotypic cultures of rat hippocampal-entorhinocortical slices of adult age (∼60 d) were ethanol-binged (100 mM or ∼450 mg/dl) for 4 d, which augments AQP4 and causes neurodegeneration (Collins et al. 2013). Reproducing the in vivo results, cPLA2, p-cPLA2, sPLA2 and PARP-1 were significantly elevated while iPLA2 was decreased. Furthermore, supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), known to quell AQP4 and neurodegeneration in ethanol-treated slices, blocked PARP-1 and PLA2 changes while counteracting endogenous DHA reduction and increases in oxidative stress footprints (3-nitrotyrosinated proteins). Notably, the PARP-1 inhibitor PJ-34 suppressed binge ethanol-dependent neurodegeneration, indicating PARP upstream involvement. The results with corresponding models support involvement of AQP4- and PLA2-associated neuroinflammatory pro-oxidative pathways in the neurodamage, with potential regulation by PARP-1 as well. Furthermore, DHA emerges as an effective inhibitor of these binge ethanol-dependent neuroinflammatory pathways as well as associated neurodegeneration in adult-age brain.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Wild-type astrocytes express both M1– and M23–AQP4 and show polarization of AQP4 toward the leading edge when migrating into a scratch wound (Saadoun et al., 2005b). We transfected cortical astrocyte cultures, generated from AQP4 / mice, with adenovirus encoding M1– or M23–AQP4 (Li et al., 2011) and measured recruitment of each isoform to the leading edge of cells migrating into a scratch wound. M1–AQP4 showed diffuse staining throughout the cell membrane with some enrichment in lamellipodia, but M23–AQP4 aggregates were excluded from leading-edge areas (Fig. 1, A and B). Figure 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: The astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed as heterotetramers of M1 and M23 isoforms in which the presence of M23-AQP4 promotes formation of large macromolecular aggregates termed orthogonal arrays. Here, we demonstrate that the AQP4 aggregation state determines its subcellular localization and cellular functions. Individually expressed M1-AQP4 was freely mobile in the plasma membrane and could diffuse into rapidly extending lamellipodial regions to support cell migration. In contrast, M23-AQP4 formed large arrays that did not diffuse rapidly enough to enter lamellipodia and instead stably bound adhesion complexes and polarized to astrocyte end-feet in vivo. Co-expressed M1- and M23-AQP4 formed aggregates of variable size that segregated due to diffusional sieving of small, mobile M1-AQP4-enriched arrays into lamellipodia and preferential interaction of large, M23-AQP4-enriched arrays with the extracellular matrix. Our results therefore demonstrate an aggregation state-dependent mechanism for segregation of plasma membrane protein complexes that confers specific functional roles to M1- and M23-AQP4.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    • "The BBB is more severely disrupted in NMO than in MS [82], but T cells are not required for lesion formation, as shown in mice administered IgG from NMO patients [83]. EAE susceptibility is almost eliminated in AQP4−/− mice [84,85], and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from AQP4 −/− astrocytes was reduced in vitro[84]. However, AQP4 deficiency significantly increased the extent of neuron loss, demyelination, and motor dysfunction in a spinal cord contusion injury model [86]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal activity intimately communicates with blood flow through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte endfeet cover more than 90% of brain capillaries and interact with synapses and nodes of Ranvier. The roles of astrocytes in neurovascular coupling in the CNS remain poorly understood. Here we show that astrocytes that are intrinsically different are activated by inflammatory autoimmune insults and alterations of neuronal activity. In the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), both fibrous and protoplasmic astrocytes were broadly and reversibly activated in the brain and spinal cord, indicated by marked upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and other astrocytic proteins. In early and remitting EAE, upregulated GFAP and astrocytic endfoot water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) enclosed white matter lesions in spinal cord, whereas they markedly increased and formed bundles in exacerbated lesions in late EAE. In cerebellar cortex, upregulation of astrocytic proteins correlated with EAE severity. On the other hand, protoplasmic astrocytes were also markedly activated in the brains of ankyrin-G (AnkG) and Kv3.1 KO mice, where neuronal activities are altered. Massive astrocytes replaced degenerated Purkinje neurons in AnkG KO mice. In Kv3.1 KO mice, GFAP staining significantly increased in cerebellar cortex, where Kv3.1 is normally highly expressed, but displayed in a patchy pattern in parts of the hippocampus. Thus, astrocytes can detect changes in both blood and neurons, which supports their central role in neurovascular coupling. These studies contribute to the development of new strategies of neuroprotection and repair for various diseases, through activity-dependent regulation of neurovascular coupling.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013
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