Laminar-specific and developmental expression of aquaporin-4 in the mouse hippocampus

Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions, Division of Biomedical Sciences, 1247 Webber Hall, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.36). 03/2011; 178:21-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.01.020
Source: PubMed


Mice deficient in the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) demonstrate increased seizure duration in response to hippocampal stimulation as well as impaired extracellular K+ clearance. However, the expression of AQP4 in the hippocampus is not well described. In this study, we investigated (i) the developmental, laminar and cell-type specificity of AQP4 expression in the hippocampus; (ii) the effect of Kir4.1 deletion on AQP4 expression; and (iii) performed Western blot and RT-PCR analyses. AQP4 immunohistochemistry on coronal sections from wild-type (WT) or Kir4.1-/- mice revealed a developmentally-regulated and laminar-specific pattern, with highest expression in the CA1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) and the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus (DG). AQP4 was colocalized with the glial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100β in the hippocampus, and was also ubiquitously expressed on astrocytic endfeet around blood vessels. No difference in AQP4 immunoreactivity was observed in Kir4.1-/- mice. Electrophysiological and postrecording RT-PCR analyses of individual cells revealed that AQP4 and Kir4.1 were co-expressed in nearly all CA1 astrocytes. In NG2 cells, AQP4 was also expressed at the transcript level. This study is the first to examine subregional AQP4 expression during development of the hippocampus. The strikingly high expression of AQP4 in the CA1 SLM and DG ML identifies these regions as potential sites of astrocytic K+ and H2O regulation. These results begin to delineate the functional capabilities of hippocampal subregions and cell types for K+ and H2O homeostasis, which is critical to excitability and serves as a potential target for modulation in diverse diseases.

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Available from: Devin K Binder, Dec 10, 2014
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    • "The hippocampus exhibited laminar specific AQP4 immunoreactivity (Figure 3(e)) as previously observed (Hsu et al., 2011). In the CA1 region, AQP4 was intensely stained across the hippocampal fissure and within the stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a bidirectional water channel that is found on astrocytes throughout the central nervous system. Expression is particularly high around areas in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting that AQP4 plays a role in fluid exchange between the cerebrospinal fluid compartments and the brain. Despite its significant role in the brain, the overall spatial and region-specific distribution of AQP4 has yet to be fully characterized. In this study, we used Western blotting and immunohistochemical techniques to characterize AQP4 expression and localization throughout the mouse brain. We observed AQP4 expression throughout the forebrain, subcortical areas, and brainstem. AQP4 protein levels were highest in the cerebellum with lower expression in the cortex and hippocampus. We found that AQP4 immunoreactivity was profuse on glial cells bordering ventricles, blood vessels, and subarachnoid space. Throughout the brain, AQP4 was expressed on astrocytic end-feet surrounding blood vessels but was also heterogeneously expressed in brain tissue parenchyma and neuropil, often with striking laminar specificity. In the cerebellum, we showed that AQP4 colocalized with the proteoglycan brevican, which is synthesized by and expressed on cerebellar astrocytes. Despite the high abundance of AQP4 in the cerebellum, its functional significance has yet to be investigated. Given the known role of AQP4 in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, the widespread and region-specific expression pattern of AQP4 suggests involvement not only in fluid balance and ion homeostasis but also local synaptic plasticity and function in distinct brain circuits.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · ASN Neuro
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    • "The IHC-o identifies a characteristic staining pattern that corresponds well to the anatomical distribution of AQP4 in the brain [18]. The pattern is well recognized despite the presence of other antibodies (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cell-based assays (CBA) have increased the sensitivity of the neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG/aquaporin-4-antibody detection compared to classical tissue-based indirect assays. We describe the sensitivity of an optimized immunohistochemistry (IHC-o) to detect NMO-IgG/aquaporin-4-antibody in comparison with that of two CBA: an in-house (CBA-ih) and a commercial (CBA-c) assay (Euroimmun, Germany). Coded serum from 103 patients with definite NMO and 122 inflammatory controls were studied by IHC-o, CBA-ih, and CBA-c. IHC-o used the same protocol described to detect antibodies against cell surface antigens. CBA-ih used live cells transfected with the aquaporin-4-M23-isoform. The sensitivity of the IHC-o was 74.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 65-83) and was similar to that of the CBA-ih 75.7% (95% CI 66-84) and the CBA-c 73.8% (95% CI 64-82). The specificity of the three assays was 100% (95% CI 97-100). Interassay concordance was high, 100 of 103 samples were coincident in all techniques. The optimized immunohistochemistry proves to be as sensitive and specific as the cell-based assays. This assay extends the available tools for NMO-IgG/aquaporin-4-antibody detection.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Research with transgenic AQP4 knockout mice support this hypothesis as they have increased ECS volume and are less susceptible to PTZ-induced seizures (Binder et al., 2004a,b). Glial-mediated water flow is also tightly coupled to K+ transport from the ECS through the inward rectifying K+ channel, Kir4.1, that is colocalized with AQP4 on the astrocyte membrane (Hsu et al., 2011). Similar to ECS volume, changes in the K+ concentration influence neuronal excitability with millimolar increases in ECS K+ exacerbating epileptiform activity (Feng and Durand, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal excitability of the brain and ongoing homeostasis depend not only on intrinsic neuronal properties, but also on external environmental factors; together these determine the functionality of neuronal networks. Homeostatic factors become critically important during epileptogenesis, a process that involves complex disruption of self-regulatory mechanisms. Here we focus on the bioenergetic homeostatic network regulator adenosine, a purine nucleoside whose availability is largely regulated by astrocytes. Endogenous adenosine modulates complex network function through multiple mechanisms including adenosine receptor-mediated pathways, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and adenosine receptor-independent changes to the epigenome. Accumulating evidence from our laboratories shows that disruption of adenosine homeostasis plays a major role in epileptogenesis. Conversely, we have found that reconstruction of adenosine's homeostatic functions provides new hope for the prevention of epileptogenesis. We will discuss how adenosine-based therapeutic approaches may interfere with epileptogenesis on an epigenetic level, and how dietary interventions can be used to restore network homeostasis in the brain. We conclude that reconstruction of homeostatic functions in the brain offers a new conceptual advance for the treatment of neurological conditions which goes far beyond current target-centric treatment approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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