Article

Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol

Department of Molecular Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550 Japan.
Nature Reviews Immunology (Impact Factor: 34.99). 02/2011; 11(2):85-97. DOI: 10.1038/nri2921
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The worldwide epidemic of obesity has brought considerable attention to research aimed at understanding the biology of adipocytes (fat cells) and the events occurring in adipose tissue (fat) and in the bodies of obese individuals. Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity causes chronic low-grade inflammation and that this contributes to systemic metabolic dysfunction that is associated with obesity-linked disorders. Adipose tissue functions as a key endocrine organ by releasing multiple bioactive substances, known as adipose-derived secreted factors or adipokines, that have pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory activities. Dysregulated production or secretion of these adipokines owing to adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-linked complications. In this Review, we focus on the role of adipokines in inflammatory responses and discuss their potential as regulators of metabolic function.

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    • "Given the measured white adipose tissue mass differences (Figure 1D), the data are consistent with an approximate doubling of adipocyte number in the obese-Trim28 +/D9 animals. Plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory adipokines TNF-a and resistin, of C-reactive protein (Ouchi et al., 2011), and of the plasma-soluble receptor RAGE (Alexiou et al., 2010) were unremarkable (Figure S1H). Further, no evidence was found of secondary metabolic complications such as hepatosteatosis (Figure S1I), though our own previous work examining older cohorts has shown this as a potential endpoint (Whitelaw et al., 2010). "
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    • "Beyond its energy storage capacity, WAT is an endocrine organ secreting multiple bioactive molecules known as adipokines, among which are the monochemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), LPSbinding protein (LBP), leptin, and adiponectin [3] [4]. Dysregulated production or secretion of these adipokines, caused by WAT dysfunction and excess adiposity, contribute to the development of the obesity-associated low-grade inflammation [4] [5]. Dietary fat absorption in the body is primarily governed by the small intestine whose lipid absorption capacity adapts to ingested fat amount. "
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    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
    • "As such, it functions as an endocrine organ that regulates metabolic processes in the body through the excretion of hormones[5]. Many of these adipocyte-derived hormones, generally referred to as adipokines, also have immuno-modulatory roles[6], which we will describe in more detail below. The origin of adipose organs has been studied most extensively in mice. "
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