Article

The effects of severe psychosocial deprivation and foster care intervention on cognitive development at 8 years of age: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

Department of Human Development, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.46). 09/2011; 52(9):919-28. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02355.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previous reports from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project suggested that children removed from institutions and placed into intervention displayed gains in IQ relative to children randomized to remain in institutional care.
The current report presents data from the 8-year follow-up of these children. One hundred and three of the original 136 children in the study were tested with the WISC IV.
Results reveal continued benefit from the intervention even though many of the children in both the intervention and control groups were no longer residing in their initial placements. Gains in IQ were particularly evident for those children who remained with their intervention family. There were also modest timing effects such that children placed earlier displayed higher scores on the WISC processing speed subscale. Early placement was also a significant predictor of a profile of stable, typical IQ scores over time.
These data suggest the continued importance of early intervention and the negative effects of severe psychosocial deprivation on the development of IQ scores across early childhood.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Charles H Zeanah, Jul 14, 2015
    • "In some cognitive domains, foster children's capacities were superior to institutionalized children's but below those of their community peers. Despite their advantages in IQ over institutionalized children, foster children's IQ scores were lower than the community control children's on all Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children subscales at age 8 years (Fox et al., 2011). Similarly, on assessment of inhibitory control at age 54 months, the foster children scored higher than the institutionalized children did but lower than the community comparison group did (Nelson et al., 2014). "

    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2016
  • Source
    • "(2011) "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal–infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Development and Psychopathology
  • Source
    • "Previous studies have found both cognitive deficits and neuroanatomical differences in children exposed to early institutional rearing when compared to typically developing children (Fox, Almas, Degnan, Nelson, & Zeanah, 2011; Nelson et al., 2007; Sheridan et al., 2010; Sheridan, Fox, Zeanah, McLaughlin, & Nelson, 2012). While institutional care is significantly predictive of negative neurocognitive outcomes, individual differences in both the impact of early adversity, as well as the degree of recovery following placement in improved caregiving environments, has been demonstrated (Fox et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An individual’s neurodevelopmental and cognitive sequelae to negative early experiences may, in part, be explained by genetic susceptibility. We examined whether extreme differences in the early caregiving environment, defined as exposure to severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care compared to normative rearing, interacted with a biologically informed genoset comprising BDNF (rs6265), COMT (rs4680), and SIRT1 (rs3758391) to predict distinct outcomes of neurodevelopment at age 8 (N = 193, 97 males and 96 females). Ethnicity was categorized as Romanian (71%), Roma (21%), unknown (7%), or other (1%). We identified a significant interaction between early caregiving environment (i.e., institutionalized versus never institutionalized children) and the a priori defined genoset for full-scale IQ, two spatial working memory tasks, and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume. Model validation was performed using a bootstrap resampling procedure. Although we hypothesized that the effect of this genoset would operate in a manner consistent with differential susceptibility, our results demonstrate a complex interaction where vantage susceptibility, diathesis stress, and differential susceptibility are implicated.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · International Journal of Behavioral Development
Show more