Specificity of Jumping, Sprinting, and Quick Change-of-Direction Motor Abilities

Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 05/2011; 25(5):1249-55. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da77df
Source: PubMed


Despite being addressed in a number of previous studies, the controversy regarding the generality vs. specificity of jumping, sprinting, and change-of-direction speed (CODS) abilities still remains unresolved. Here, we tested the hypotheses that jumping, sprinting, and CODS represent separate and specific motor abilities, and that the jumping ability based on concentric and slow stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is relatively independent of the same ability based on fast SSC. Eighty-seven male college athletes performed 3 concentric/slow SSC and 3 fast SSC jump tests, 4 sprint tests, and 3 CODS tests. The hypotheses were tested by means of the principal component factor analysis (PCA). The applied procedure reduced the greater number of manifest variables to a smaller number of independent latent dimensions or factors and, thereafter, assessed the relationships among them. The PCA revealed a relatively simple and consistent structure consisting of 4 separate factors that explained nearly 80% of variance of the applied tests. The factors appeared to correspond to the sprinting ability, concentric/slow SSC jumping ability, fast SSC jumping ability, and CODS ability. Further analyses revealed that the extracted factors were mainly independent, because they shared only between 6 and 23% of the common variance. These results supported our hypotheses regarding the specificity of jumping, sprinting, and CODS abilities, and specificity of the concentric/slow SSC and fast SSC jumping abilities. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals should, therefore, use separate performance tests for the assessment of the studied abilities.

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    • "Relationships between the referees' fitness test performances were examined using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (r), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). To interpret the results, the threshold values for Pearson product-moment used by Salaj et al. [17] were used: low ( "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. ¬ The purpose of our research was primarily to investigate the physical fitness and physiological characteristics of soccer referees according to their competitive status, level and age, and secondly, to analyze the relationship among sprint, change of direction ability and endurance capacity. Material and Methods.  Forty-five Spanish referees were grouped according to status: field (FR, n = 23) and assistant (NR, n = 22), competitive level: national (NR, n = 28) and provincial (PR, n = 17), and age: > 35 yr (n = 10) and ≤ 35 yr (n = 35). The main focuses of our study were acceleration, agility and endurance capacity, which were measured by 20 and 30 m linear straight sprinting tests (LSST), the modified agility T-test free (MATF) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (YYIR1), respectively. Results.  The results showed no significant differences between FR and AR, or between NR and PR groups. However, > 35 yr were significantly slower (p ≤ 0.01) than the ≤ 35 yr in the 20 m sprint, 30 m sprint and the MATF. Moreover, the > 35 yr covered significantly (p ≤ 0.01) less distance in the YYIR1 than the ≤ 35 yr group and HRmax was significantly (p ≤ 0. 05) lower in the > 35 yr group. MATF was strongly related to the 20 m (r = 0.762) and 30 m (r = 0.757) sprints. Conclusion.  Our findings suggest the necessity of implementing specific training programs focused on maintaining agility, acceleration and aerobic capacity in referees older than 35 years.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Science & Sports
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    • "Indeed, the IRSA exercise increases the total amount of this variable in training, which results in improvements in jumping tasks that require such a neuromuscular component (i.e., the SJ). Salaj and Markovic (2011) reported that jumping , sprinting and change of direction performance could be described as separate and mainly independent (i.e., specific) motor abilities because there is a low-to-moderate correlations among them. However, the correlations explain only the associations but not the cause and effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the training effects based on repeated sprint ability (RSA) (with one change of direction) with an intensive repeated sprint ability (IRSA) (with two changes of direction) on jump performance and aerobic fitness. Eighteen male basketball players were assigned to repeated sprint ability and intensive repeated sprint ability training groups (RSAG and IRSAG). RSA, IRSA, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test were assessed before and after four training weeks. The RSA and IRSA trainings consisted of three sets of six sprints (first two weeks) and eight sprints (second two weeks) with 4-min sets recovery and 20-s of sprints recovery. Four weeks of training led to an overall improvement in most of the measures of RSA, but little evidence of any differences between the two training modes. Jump performance was enhanced: CMJ of 7.5% (P < 0.0001) and 3.1% (P = 0.016) in IRSAG and RSAG respectively. While SJ improved of 5.3% (P = 0.003) for IRSAG and 3.4% (P = 0.095) for RSAG. Conversely the Yo-Yo distance increased 21% (P = 0.301) and 34% (P = 0.017) in IRSAG and RSAG respectively. Therefore, short-term repeated sprint training with one/two changes of direction promotes improvements in both RSA and IRSA respectively but the better increase on jump performance shown a few changes on sprint and endurance performances.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Sports Sciences
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    • "These results are in agreement with other studies performed in soccer (Sporis, et al., 2010), where the CV did not exceed 5.6%. The relationship between acceleration, jumping and CODA is still unclear, and these motor abilities can be considered independent (Salaj & Markovic, 2011). We did find correlations among several tests; however, the magnitude of the correlations found was not high (r>.7). "
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