Lung-derived soluble mediators are pathogenic in ventilator-induced lung injury

Programme in Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.08). 03/2011; 300(4):L648-58. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00305.2010
Source: PubMed


Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) due to high tidal volume (V(T)) is associated with increased levels of circulating factors that may contribute to, or be markers of, injury. This study investigated if exclusively lung-derived circulating factors produced during high V(T) ventilation can cause or worsen VILI. In isolated perfused mouse lungs, recirculation of perfusate worsened injury (compliance impairment, microvascular permeability, edema) induced by high V(T). Perfusate collected from lungs ventilated with high V(T) and used to perfuse lungs ventilated with low V(T) caused similar compliance impairment and permeability and caused a dose-dependent decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across rat distal lung epithelial monolayers. Circulating soluble factors derived from the isolated lung thus contributed to VILI and had deleterious effects on the lung epithelial barrier. These data demonstrate transferability of an injury initially caused exclusively by mechanical ventilation and provides novel evidence for the biotrauma hypothesis in VILI. Mediators of the TER decrease were heat-sensitive, transferable via Folch extraction, and (following ultrafiltration, 3 kDa) comprised both smaller and larger molecules. Although several classes of candidate mediators, including protein cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, macrophage inflammation protein-1α) and lipids (e.g., eicosanoids, ceramides, sphingolipids), have been implicated in VILI, only prostanoids accumulated in the perfusate in a pattern consistent with a pathogenic role, yet cyclooxygenase inhibition did not protect against injury. Although no single class of factor appears solely responsible for the decrease in barrier function, the current data implicate lipid-soluble protein-bound molecules as not just markers but pathogenic mediators in VILI.

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    • "Low tidal volume is advocated for ALI patients. Many studies proved that high tidal volume could not only induce high permeability pulmonary edema in normal and injured lung in different signal pathways [19,20], but decrease vascular relaxations to acetylcholine [5,21], sometimes it was considered to be the “second hit” to ALI patients. According to our results, Ventilation with the tidal volume of 6 mL/kg resulted in significantly less lung injury and vasodilatation compared with 12 mL/kg and sepsis induced ALI groups. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Sepsis could induce indirect acute lung injury(ALI), and pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction. While low tidal volume is advocated for treatment of ALI patients. However, there is no evidence for low tidal volume that it could mitigate pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction in indirect ALI. Our study is to evaluate whether low tidal volume ventilation could protect the pulmonary vascular function in indirect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury rats. Methods An indirect ALI rat model was induced by intravenous infusion of LPS. Thirty rats (n = 6 in each group) were randomly divided into (1)Control group; (2) ALI group; (3) LV group (tidal volume of 6mL/kg); (4) MV group (tidal volume of 12mL/kg); (5)VLV group (tidal volume of 3mL/kg). Mean arterial pressure and blood gas analysis were monitored every 2 hours throughout the experiment. Lung tissues and pulmonary artery rings were immediately harvested after the rats were bled to be killed to detect the contents of endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and TNF-α. Acetylcholine (Ache)-induced endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated pulmonary artery rings were measured by tensiometry. Results There was no difference within groups concerning blood pressure, PaCO2 and SNP-induced endothelium-independent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings. Compared with MV group, LV group significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of ET-1 level (113.79 ± 7.33pg/mL vs. 152.52 ± 12.75pg/mL, P < 0.05) and TNF-α (3305.09 ± 334.29pg/mL vs.4144.07 ± 608.21pg/mL, P < 0.05), increased the expression of eNOS (IOD: 15032.05 ± 5925.07 vs. 11454.32 ± 6035.47, P < 0.05). While Ache (10-7mol/L-10-4mol/L)-induced vasodilatation was ameliorated 30% more in LV group than in MV group. Conclusions Low tidal volume could protect the pulmonary vasodilative function during indirect ALI by decreasing vasoconstrictor factors, increasing expressions of vasodilator factors in pulmonary endothelial cells, and inhibiting inflammation injuries.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Respiratory research
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    • "These mediators can increase microvascular permeability in lungs and extrapulmonary organs, like the kidney and potentially also in the heart, as a manifestation of remote VILI-induced organ injury in the course of biotrauma [12-14]. In line with this, exposure to perfusate from injuriously ventilated lungs induced increased microvascular permeability in uninjured lungs [15]. Also, a harmful stimulus in the lung, such as LPS, may induce pulmonary release of inflammatory mediators into the circulation that can increase VCAM-1 expression on liver vascular endothelial cells in vitro [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Injurious mechanical ventilation (MV) may augment organ injury remote from the lungs. During sepsis, myocardial dysfunction is common and increased endothelial activation and permeability can cause myocardial edema, which may, among other factors, hamper myocardial function. We investigated the effects of MV with injuriously high tidal volumes on the myocardium in an animal model of sepsis. Normal rats and intraperitoneal (i.p.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats were ventilated with low (6 ml/kg) and high (19 ml/kg) tidal volumes (Vt) under general anesthesia. Non-ventilated animals served as controls. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output (CO) and pulmonary plateau pressure (Pplat) were measured. Ex vivo myocardial function was measured in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts. Cardiac expression of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and edema were measured to evaluate endothelial inflammation and leakage. MAP decreased after LPS-treatment and Vt-dependently, both independent of each other and with interaction. MV Vt-dependently increased CVP and Pplat and decreased CO. LPS-induced peritonitis decreased myocardial function ex vivo but MV attenuated systolic dysfunction Vt-dependently. Cardiac endothelial VCAM-1 expression was increased by LPS treatment independent of MV. Cardiac edema was lowered Vt-dependently by MV, particularly after LPS, and correlated inversely with systolic myocardial function parameters ex vivo. MV attenuated LPS-induced systolic myocardial dysfunction in a Vt-dependent manner. This was associated with a reduction in cardiac edema following a lower transmural coronary venous outflow pressure during LPS-induced coronary inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Respiratory research
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    • "Uncontrolled release of various inflammatory mediators provoked by injurious mechanical ventilation represents another feature of ventilator-induced inflammation. Among these mediators, cytokines and chemokines are the most studied, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (Halbertsma et al., 2005; Jaecklin et al., 2011). These proinflammatory mediators are usually present at increased levels in alveolar lavage fluid and plasma from experimental ventilatorinduced lung injury models as well as patients subjected to high tidal volume ventilation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation is an indispensable supportive intervention for acute respiratory failure. However, mechanical ventilation can provoke ventilator-induced lung injury, which remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Excessive inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells and overproduction of inflammatory mediators contributes to the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. At present, apart from the protective ventilation strategy, no other pharmacological intervention is available to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the inducible isoform of the first and rate-limiting enzyme which degrades heme into carbon monoxide, ferritin and bilirubin. Accumulating evidence suggests that HO-1 system may function as a crucial negative regulator in the modulation of inflammatory process. This anti-inflammatory action of HO-1 is mediated essentially by the regulation of the key cells involved in inflammation and restoration of the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Therefore, HO-1 system represents a promising therapeutic target for intervention of ventilator-induced lung injury.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · European journal of pharmacology
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