Functional analysis of the chicken PPARΓ gene 5′-flanking region and C/EBPα-mediated gene regulation
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) are the master regulators of adipogenesis. The regulatory mechanism of PPARγ and C/EBPα gene expression is clear in mammals, however, little is known in chicken. The aim of the present study was to characterize chicken PPARγ promoter and investigate whether PPARγ could be regulated by C/EBPα in chickens. A 2-kb nucleotide sequence upstream of the start codon of chicken PPARγ gene was cloned and characterized by using bioinformatics and experimental approaches. This 2-kb promoter region exhibited strong promoter activity in DF1 cells. The reporter gene assay showed that the chicken C/EBPα could activate PPARγ gene promoter. Further study by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and mutational analysis revealed that the chicken C/EBPα could directly bind to and regulate the PPARγ gene promoter. Our results demonstrate that PPARγ can be directly regulated by C/EBPα in chickens.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Promoter analysis of the cPPARγ gene revealed that transcription factor binding sites (such as C/EBPα, Sp1 and AP1) exist as is the case with mammalian PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 promoters. Interestingly, structure of cPPARγ promoter is more similar to the mammalian PPARγ2 promoters compared to PPARγ1 promoters . These results suggest that C/EBPα-PPARγ pathway is conserved across the species and that PPARγ2 gene first appeared in the course of evolution when additional PPARγ isoforms have been acquired. "
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ABSTRACT: While an understanding of lipid metabolism in chickens is critical for a further improvement of food production, there are few studies concerning differences in lipid metabolism mechanisms between chickens and other species at a molecular level. Chickens have three PPAR gene subtypes (α, β, and γ) that function differently from those present in humans and mice. The chicken PPAR-gamma (cPPARγ) gene is shorter than that in humans and lacks a γ2 isoform. Moreover, in serum-free media, cPPARγ shows high transcriptional activity without exogenous ligands. Luciferase reporter assays were used to examine the effect of sera on cPPAR transcriptional activities and showed that adult bovine serum and chicken serum highly activate cPPARα and β functions. Moreover, we found that bezafibrate induces the transactivation function of cPPARβ, but not human PPARδ (human PPARβ ortholog). This ligand selectivity relies on one amino acid residue (chicken: Val419, human: Met444). These results show the possibilities for unique functions of cPPARs on chicken-specific lipid glucose metabolism. As such, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism in chickens could result in higher productivity for the poultry industry.
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ABSTRACT: The associations between polymorphisms of five genes, calpain 1 ( CAPN1 ), follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHB), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and retinol binding protein 7 (RBP7), and live weight, carcass composition, and meat-quality traits were estimated from two meat-type chickens lines (n = 311). Except for the variants of the FSHR gene, 11 SNPs of the other four genes and two diplotypes of PPARG were associated with one or more traits excluding shear factor (SF). SNP C31566680T of the CAPN1 gene was significantly associated with live weight (LW) carcass traits. The SNP A4580859C of FSHB gene was significantly associated with breast muscle weight (BrW) and LW. One of the PPARG SNPs, C5070948T, was associated with intramuscular fat content in breast (IMF( br )). Diplotype P1 of the PPARG gene was significantly associated with LW and all carcass traits. P3 were significantly associated with abdominal fat weight (AbFW). SNPs in RBP7 were only associated with BrW. These results indicate that the four genes were associated with these traits and have promise as genetic markers for future marker-assisted selection. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online.
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ABSTRACT: Adipogenesis is controlled by a complicated process involving certain transcriptional events. In chicken adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key regulator of preadipocyte differentiation and abdominal fat accumulation. However, in a recent study in mammals, some novel factors related to regulation of adipogenesis, including preadipocyte differentiation, were identified in mammals. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the expression profiles of these mammalian adipogenesis-related factors, such as zinc-finger protein 423 (ZNF423), Krüppel-like factor -2, -5, and -15 (KLF-2, -5, -15), and FGF10, in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Specifically, we analyzed their expression in primary preadipocyte differentiation in vitro and also analyzed their tissue distribution and their temporal expression in adipose tissue development in vivo. During chicken adipocyte differentiation, the gene expression of ZNF423, KLF-2, KLF-5 and FGF10 was found to rapidly decrease in the early stage of preadipocyte differentiation. Expression of ZNF423 then increased in the late stage of differentiation. KLF-15 expression increased in a time-dependent manner for 48 hours. Protein expressions of these factors were reflected by western blot analysis. High levels of aP2, PPARγ and FGF10 mRNA were found in adipose tissue. In addition, aP2, PPARγ and ZNF423 mRNA levels in the adipose tissue were elevated at day 10 and 20. These expression profiles of the adipogenesis-related factors in chicken are, in part, different from in mammalian adipogenesis but this seems to reflect the differences in regulation of adipogenesis and in adipose tissue functions between avians and mammals.
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