Significance of blood-related high-risk behaviors and horizontal transmission of hepatitis B Virus in Iran

Research Center for Tropical and Infectious Disease (RCTI), Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
Archives of Virology (Impact Factor: 2.39). 04/2011; 156(4):629-35. DOI: 10.1007/s00705-010-0902-y
Source: PubMed


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and approximately 30% of the world's population is infected with HBV. The objective of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and major risk factors associated with its occurrence. Four thousand eighty-seven healthy Iranian subjects aged 8-80 years were screened for HBV serological markers by an enzyme immunoassay method. A structured questionnaire was administered to all participants. Multiple logistic regression, an unpaired t-test for continuous data and the χ (2) test for categorical data were performed. A total of 4087 participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), of which 62 (1.5%) were seropositive. Fifteen percent of the subjects were positive for anti-HBs, 6.3% were positive for isolated anti-HBc and 12.5% were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc. Laborers showed a higher HBsAg(+) seroprevalence and risk compared with jobless participants (Pearson's = 8.276, P = 0.004; OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.5-11.2). Bivariate logistic regression revealed that the following variables were significantly associated with HBV seropositivity: phlebotomy (P = 0.002; OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.1-11.9), tattooing (P = 0.003; OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6-7.0), intravenous drug use (P = 0.001; OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.1). The adjusted prevalence ratios remained significantly associated with HBV seropositivity and thus likely served as possible risk factors for HBV. The overall positive seroprevalence was 1.5%. Among the variables, only phlebotomy, tattooing and intravenous drug injection emerged as major potential risk factors for hepatitis B infection and responsible for transmission of the disease.

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    • "physicians recognized that HBV could be an infectious agent in the environment and more than 45% were not aware of its transmission through needlestick which is 50–100 times higher in comparison with HIV [2,3,6,13]. Misconceptions and confusion that persist among PHC physicians in these aspects could interfere with patients’ education and the safety of household contacts [2,6,13]. The possible explanation could be that, during an undergraduate study the infectious diseases, such as HBV are given only a small share in comparison to other medical subjects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Primary health care (PHC) physicians will be in the forefront of managing hepatitis B (HBV) patients. In Saudi Arabia, very little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practice of PHC physicians towards HBV. This study aimed to assess the same parameters. Methods During April 2012, a cross-sectional survey of 180 practitioners aged 38.1 ± 10.3 years was carried out in the primary health care centers (PHCCs) in AlJouf Province of Saudi Arabia. The physicians were asked to fill a valid questionnaire containing their sociodemographic data, and well-modified questions regarding their knowledge base, attitudes, and practice towards HBV. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS (version 17) program, the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Result Response rate 88.3% yielded 159 questionnaires for analysis. Majority of the physicians surveyed 128 (80.6%) believed that PHC physicians are capable to achieve a major role in the management of HBV. 119 (74.8%) physicians surveyed were willing to manage HBV patients and 127 (79.9%) believed that vaccination is the most effective means to prevent HBV. There was a statistical significant correlation between physicians’ qualifications and continuity of care for HBV patients (32.8% vs 23.4%; p = 0.006), while continuality of care was more frequent among physicians with higher degrees compared to graduate physicians. Only 69 (43.4%) physicians were able to interpret HBV seromarkers. The vast majority of the physicians 142 (89.3%) were willing to subscribe in regular training programs about HBV. Conclusion Suitable attitudes with lack of knowledge are found, and practice of our physicians with regard to this significant health issue appeared inappropriate. More education focusing on HBV is recommended.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Research Notes
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    • "It has been estimated that more than one third of the population in the world has been infected with HBV. The epidemiological studies have shown that about 35% of Iranians have been exposed to HBV and 3% are chronic carriers, ranging from 1.7% to 5.1% in Fars and Golestan provinces, respectively (4-6). Therefore, HBV is an important candidate for public health measures for prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment (7). "
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    ABSTRACT: The duration of protection following primary series vaccination against hepatitis B is unknown in children and adolescents. It has been shown that the level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies (anti HBs Ab) declines over years after vaccination. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term immunity against hepatitis B virus infection among children and adolescents who had received a complete hepatitis B vaccination series during infancy. In a cross-sectional study, the - anti-HBsAb levels of 840 vaccinated children and adolescents were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatitis B seroprotection rates (anti HBsAb ≥ 10 IU/L) among vaccinated children and adolescents aged 1 and 18 years were 90% and 48.9%, respectively. The declining trend of geometric mean titer of anti-HBsAb levels was observed as changed from 272.3 IU/L to 94.1 IU/L in 1 and 18-year-old population, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between age and anti-HBsAb levels (r = - 0.220, P = 0.0001). The results showed a declining trend in anti-HBsAb titers over the time after vaccination against hepatitis B virus in our region. Further studies are warranted to establish the need for a booster dose in cases that are at risk of hepatitis B virus infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Hepatitis Monthly
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Hepatitis Monthly
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