Lung Cancer Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution from Traffic

Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 01/2011; 119(6):860-5. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1002353
Source: PubMed


Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer.
We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer.
We identified 592 lung cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry among 52,970 members of the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 in the Central Population Registry. We calculated the NOx concentration at each address by dispersion models and calculated the time-weighted average concentration for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit.
For the highest compared with the lowest quartile of NOx concentration at the residence, we found an IRR for lung cancer of 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.61], and the IRR for lung cancer in association with living within 50 m of a major road (>10,000 vehicles/day) was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95-1.55). The results showed tendencies of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly.
This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air pollution from traffic near the residence.

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    • "Input data for the AirGIS system included traffic data for individual road links (same input data as described for the noise modeling), emission factors for the Danish car fleet, street and building geometry, building height and meteorological data (Jensen et al., 2001). The AirGIS system and the OSPM model have been successfully validated and applied in several studies (Ketzel et al., 2011, 2012; Raaschou-Nielsen et al., 2011). As an example, AirGIS modeled and measured 1-month mean concentrations of NO x and NO 2 over an 8-year period (1998–2005) in a busy street in Copenhagen (Jagtvej, 25,000 vehicles/day, street canyon) showed a correlation coefficient of 0.88 and 0.67, respectively (Ketzel et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects.
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    • "Most studies in the literature have focused primarily on PM ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) or ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ); however, a number have also considered black carbon/black smoke, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfure dioxide, ozone, and volatile organic compounds (Beelen et al. 2008a, 2008b; Dockery et al. 1993; Filleul et al. 2005; Heinrich et al. 2013; Jerrett et al. 2013; Krewski et al. 2009; Nafstad et al. 2003; Nyberg et al. 2000; Raaschou-Nielsen et al. 2010, 2011; Villeneuve et al. 2013; Vineis et al. 2006). A few studies have focused on traffic exposures: modeling NO 2 from traffic sources alone (Nafstad et al. 2003; Nyberg et al. 2000; Raaschou-Nielsen et al. 2010, 2011) or using distance to major roadways or traffic volume surrounding a location (Beelen et al. 2008a, 2008b; Cesaroni et al. 2013; Hystad et al. 2013; Raaschou-Nielsen et al. 2011, 2013; Vineis et al. 2006). Many studies have relied on area-level assessment of exposure; however, some have also modeled air pollution at the residential level with the intent to decrease measurement error. "
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    • "Acute exposure to traffic related air pollution has been shown to trigger cardiovascular events (Peters et al., 2004). Chronic exposure in close proximity to traffic exhaust is associated with a wide range adverse health effects including cardiovascular , respiratory, cancer, and reproductive effects (Brugge et al., 2007; Gauderman et al., 2007; McConnell et al., 2010; Wilhelm et al., 2011; Rosenbloom et al., 2012; Raaschou-Nielsen et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the proximity of the bus lane to the pedestrian pathway (Fig. 1C). "
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