Article

Evidence of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) in Pakistan as confirmed by detection of antigen and antibody

Authors:
  • National Veterinary Laboratory (NVL) Islamabad
  • Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Sakrand Pakistan
  • National Veterinary Laboratory (NVL) Islamabad
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

An outbreak resulting in mortality in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) was investigated. There was a history of about 36 deaths (both young and adult) during the period of 1 month. Disease appeared in a generalized form, affecting the respiratory and digestive systems. Major lesions were respiratory distress, pustules on and in the mouth, ocular-nasal discharges, and severe diarrhea. The most significant lesion was the oculonasal discharges and diarrhea. Deaths were mainly due to blindness, anorexia, diarrhea, and respiratory arrest. Both adult (mortality = 21) and young (mortality = 15) animals were affected with the disease. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) antigen was detected in the spleen, lung, lymph node, and swab samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spleen and lung samples were also tested and found positive for the presence of F-gene of PPRV by polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen of 20 serum samples from nearby sheep and goats were found positive for antibodies to PPRV. The disease threatened the huge population of ibex in the wild life park, which was spread over a large area, but vaccination of the domestic population of sheep and goats in the surrounding villages appeared to control the disease.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In many areas where PPR is endemic, domestic animals intermingle with wildlife, allowing interspecies transmission of PPRV during grazing and at water sources (Banyard and Parida 2015). Abubakar et al. (2011) speculated that an outbreak of PPR in Sindh ibex was due to spillover of virus from a recent outbreak of PPR in nearby domestic small ruminants. (Bao et al. 2011) and in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area in northern Tanzania (Mahapatra et al. 2015). ...
... The clinical presentation of PPRV in wild ungulates is essentially the same as in domestic small ruminants. Initial involvement of the respiratory system causes lacrimation and nasal and ocular discharges (Bao et al. 2011;Abubakar et al. 2011;Hoffmann et al. 2012) which may lead to crusts forming over the nostrils and lip commissure (reported in antelopes; Kinne et al. 2010). Subsequent involvement of the alimentary tract epithelia causes cheesy necrotic material on the gums (reported in ibex; Abubakar et al. 2011) and erosions of the oral cavity membranes (reported in gazelle; Sharawi et al. 2010). ...
... Initial involvement of the respiratory system causes lacrimation and nasal and ocular discharges (Bao et al. 2011;Abubakar et al. 2011;Hoffmann et al. 2012) which may lead to crusts forming over the nostrils and lip commissure (reported in antelopes; Kinne et al. 2010). Subsequent involvement of the alimentary tract epithelia causes cheesy necrotic material on the gums (reported in ibex; Abubakar et al. 2011) and erosions of the oral cavity membranes (reported in gazelle; Sharawi et al. 2010). Unilateral corneal opacity has also been observed in gazelle (Abu-Elzein et al. 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of domestic small ruminants. It also affects wild ungulates but there are comparatively few studies of the incidence of natural infection, clinical signs and pathology, and confirmation of the virus, and in these species. In this article, we list the wild ungulates in which PPRV infection has been confirmed and summarize available information about the presentation of the disease, its identification, and impact of virus on wildlife populations. Considering recent reports of outbreaks by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), it is important to understand the transmission of this disease within wildlife populations in PPR endemic regions.
... Finally evidence of PPR has been found in free living wild animals i.e. Sindh Ibex [8,70]. ...
... Prevalence of PPR seen and reported higher in goats as compared to sheep in many studies in various regions of Paksitan [5,34,40,54,59,92]. Wild ruminants can also be affected with PPR and a significant outbreak has been documented by Abubakar et al. [8] in which the Sindh Ibex was severely affected with PPR. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is considered to be one of the main constraints to enhancing the productivity of goats and sheep in regions where it is present and becoming endemic. PPR was recognized in Pakistan in early 1990s but got importance during the Participatory Disease Surveillance (PDS) of Rinderpest Eradication Campaign. Lot of research work has been initiated during last decade towards disease epidemiology, risk factor recognition, laboratory diagnosis, vaccination and demonstration of control strategies. Although there are ongoing projects working towards the progressive control of the disease in country yet there is need to have a national level control program for PPR. Also there is need to have comprehensive social economic surveys, disease hot spot recognition and identification of role of other species in disease transmission. With combined efforts of local and national authorities and political will, there is high likelihood that this devastating disease can be controlled and eventually eradicated in near future.
... Interestingly, infection by 'peste des petits ruminants' (PPR) virus (referred to as PPRv) has been confirmed in a wide variety of antelope through serology (Munir, 2013; Kock, 2006), but it has not been reported as a clinical disease in natural free‐ranging populations of antelope, despite a current expansion of its range in Asia and Africa. PPRv is adapted to domestic sheep and goats, and it is thus not surprising that disease has only been reported to affect free‐ranging mountain caprines of Asia (Abubakar et al., 2011; Bao et al., 2011; Hoffmann et al., 2012). This status may change, however, and Mahapatra et al. (2015) report high infection rates in antelope of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area of the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem, but again there is no confirmed clinical disease syndrome in these species as yet. ...
... Rinderpest was maintained in cattle without any persistent wildlife reservoir, and this enabled global eradication through vaccination; unfortunately, this has not been possible with BTB partly because of persistent wildlife reservoirs. Other diseases associated with livestock spillover into wildlife are anthrax, pasteurellosis, rabies, and PPR (Pfukenyi et al., 2009; Abubakar et al., 2011; Clegg et al., 2007; Bekenov et al., 1998). Ironically, in some situations, fencing can protect wildlife from this sort of incursion and reduce risk as well as halt or slow down habitat destruction from slash and burn or agricultural expansion. ...
Chapter
Despite the long association between humans and antelope, surprisingly little has been written about their diseases. This chapter divides into three sections: the first two describes infection in terms of the ‘good’ and the ‘bad’ impact of disease on antelope population health and ecosystem dynamics as well as on the health of livestock and people. Some ecologically insensitive disease control measures still remain as part of veterinary policy, promulgated by national authorities and international organisations. In the final section, which one provocatively refers to as ‘the ugly', it discusses how veterinarians and veterinarian regulations have impacted conservation of antelope. The chapter focuses on evidence of disease and its impacts in free-ranging antelope populations. Zoological medicine records many diseases affecting antelope in captivity, but this aspect is not considered here, and readers should refer to zoo medicine texts if interested.
... PPR was also investigated in farm animals/domesticated i.e. Buffaloes, cattle, goat, sheep, yak, and camels [60,69,88,89]. Field outbreaks in Alain report from a zoological group [86]. ...
Article
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a world organization for animal health (OIE) notifiable and economically important transboundary, highly contagious and acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease is caused by the PPR Virus (PPRV). PPRV belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. The recent epidemiological and molecular characterization of PPR virus isolates subdivides them into four genetically distinct lineages (I, II, III and IV). The disease is endemic across Asia, the Middle East and African regions and is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world due to a huge burden on the economy and development of the affected countries and has recently been targeted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the OIE for global eradication by 2030. PPR-endemic countries should join the regional force, and implement regional roadmaps for the progressive and successful control and elimination of PPRV. In this review, the regional epidemiology of PPR outbreaks and overall regional associated risk factors including animal factors (age, species, sex), environmental factors (season, spatial distribution of disease in various locations) and trade associated factors with special reference to the PPR-affected countries in South, Central and East Asia is comprehensively discussed.
... China/XJBZ/2015 resulted in a high mortality to the affected ibex; whether these amino acids substitutions enhanced the attachment or fusion of the virus particle with the ibex cells and increased the pathogenicity should be further studied. High mortality has been observed in Sindh Ibex affected by PPRV in a national park in Pakistan [26]; there was about 38 ibex deaths during the period of 1 month in this study. It indicates PPR may threaten the huge population of ibex. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR). The spread of PPR often causes severe economic losses. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the surveillance of PPR emergence, spread, and geographic distribution. Here we describe a novel mutant of PPRV China/XJBZ/2015 that was isolated from Capra ibex in Xinjiang province in China 2015. The sequence analysis and phylogenetic assessment indicate that China/XJBZ/2015 belongs to lineage IV, being closely related to China/XJYL/2013 strain. Interestingly, the V protein sequence of China/XJBZ/2015 showed lower homology with other Chinese PPRVs isolated during 2013 to 2014 (94%~95%), whereas it shared 100% identity with three Tibet strains isolated in China 2007. The 3′ UTR, V gene, and C gene were determined to be highly variable. Besides, 29 PPR genomic sequences available in GenBank were analyzed in this study. It is the first time to use PPRV genomic sequences to classify the different lineages which confirmed the lineage clustering of PPRVs using N gene 255 bp fragments and F gene 322 bp fragments. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the PPRVs continue to evolve in China, and some new mutations have emerged.
... All of the diseases in question (PPR, CCPP, FMD, BT, and BVD) have been described in wildlife [26][27][28][29][30]. Wild ruminants have been shown to carry PPRV and several species can develop clinical signs of PPR [28,31,32]. Whether interaction or proximity between livestock and wildlife in general, and wild ruminants in particular, is an important risk factor for exposure to PPRV has not yet been determined. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Livestock husbandry is critical for food security and poverty reduction in a low-income country like Tanzania. Infectious disease is one of the major constraints reducing the productivity in this sector. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important diseases affecting small ruminants, but other infectious diseases may also be present. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for exposure to PPR, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bluetongue (BT), and bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in sheep and goats in Tanzania. Methods: Serum samples were collected in 2014 and 2015, and analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect antibodies to the five pathogens. Results and discussion: This is the first description of seroprevalence of FMD and BT among small ruminants in Tanzania. Risk factor analysis identified sex (female) (OR for 2014: PPR: 2.49, CCPP: 3.11, FMD: 2.98, BT: 12.4, OR for 2015: PPR: 14.1, CCPP: 1.10, FMD: 2.67, BT: 1.90, BVD: 4.73) and increasing age (>2 years) (OR for 2014: PPR: 14.9, CCPP: 2.34, FMD: 7.52, BT: 126, OR for 2015: PPR: 8.13, CCPP: 1.11, FMD: 2.98, BT: 7.83, BVD: 4.74) as risk factors for exposure to these diseases.
... Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an important and highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by Morbillivirus which is antigenically very similar to Rinderpest virus [1,2,3,4]. It is included in OIE reportable disease worldwide occurred in tropical and sub-tropical countries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste Des Petitis Ruminant (PPR) is a widely spreading economical important diseases of tropical and subtropical countries. It is endemic in Pakistan including Sindh province, where outbreaks have been reported many times. In present investigation, the magnitude of disease and circulation of PPR virus in the area was studied. Sero-monitoring was done after vaccination to study the antibody level for effective control. Two hundred serum samples were collected from non-vaccinated sheep (100) and goats (100) in various villages of Umerkot. The vaccination against PPRV was carried out in the herds of sampled animals. After one month of immunization, 200 serum samples were collected from vaccinated animals (sheep, 100 and goats, 100). Competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was performed to detect the antibodies against PPRV in serum samples collected before and after immunization. Total 30% animals (sheep, 25% and goats, 35%) shown the presence of antibody against PPRV before vaccination. However, 97% animals (93% sheep and 99% goats) were found to be positive after immunization. The percentage of antibody prevalence in pre and post vaccination animals was highly significant (P<0.01) and revealed that the PPR disease could be controlled through vaccination campaign.
... The virus was also isolated from wild goat and Bharals from Iran [44,65]. In Pakistan PPRV was isolated by PCR and immuncapture ELISA [IC ELISA] methods from Sindh Ibex [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants [PPR] is a highly acute disease of small ruminants with high morbidity and mortality. The geographic distribution of disease is almost global. The PPRV affecting small domestic and wild ruminants and camels. PPRV is a lymphotropic and epitheliotropic virus which causes conjunctivitis and rhinotracheitis, stomatitis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia. Histopathologically, pseudomembraneous [necrotic] stomatitis, necrotic tonsillitis, fibrinohemorrhagic enteritis, proliferative interstitial pneumonia suppurative bronchointerstitial pneumonia, multi-nucleated giant cells [syncytia] and cytoplasmic and/or nuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies are considered as pathognomonic signs. An acute form usually is seen in goat and is similar to rinderpest. The classic feature of PPR is a severe respiratory disease. The subacute form, usually occurs in sheep, but also possible in goats. Control and prevention program is based on vaccination, quarantine, movement control and sanitary slaughter and disinfection.
... A fatal outbreak of scabies in blue sheep Pseudois nayaur in the Pakistan Pamirs is suspected to have been transmitted from livestock (Dagleish et al. 2007). Another outbreak of PPRV in the wild goat Capra aegagrus in Pakistan was fatal, but appeared to be controlled in those areas where livestock in the surrounding villages had been vaccinated (Abubakar et al. 2011). ...
Book
Full-text available
FROM THE BACK COVER Our planet is witnessing the sixth mass extinction of species. We are trying to tackle this crisis almost on a war footing, with all the trappings and machinery of combat - fences, guns, protected areas, and a suite of top-down laws and policies. But we haven't been able to stop the bleeding. This book argues that we will not stanch the flow unless we are willing to change our fundamental attitude towards people - people who live in our last remaining natural areas, whose lives depend on these ecosystems, and who are most affected - negatively - by policies and actions designed to protect biodiversity. To conserve our natural ecosystems and species, we must gain the support of local people. Yet, this is more easily said than done. How does one engage with local communities and garner their support for conservation? Unlike protected areas, whose governance and management have been formalised worldwide, there are no clear-cut frameworks for community-based conservation, no universally accepted guidelines. This book is an attempt to fill that void. It should interest all who care about preserving the earth's wild species and ecosystems. This book is founded on two decades of experience working with local communities to conserve the high mountain habitats of the endangered snow leopard in various parts of Asia - the Himalayas, Altai, Tien Shan, Hindu Kush, Pamirs, and the Tibetan Plateau. Drawing from this wealth of experience, Dr. Charu Mishra and his colleagues at the Snow Leopard Trust distil eight principles of community-based conservation, discussing them with candor and pragmatism. These 'PARTNERS Principles' are a blend of the practical and the ethical. “I was struck by two aspects of this remarkable book. Firstly at its heart there is a deep love of both nature and humanity. The excitement, the joys and the challenges of community-based conservation shine out from its pages. Secondly, there is a refreshing honesty, a recognition of the doubts, problems, confusions and failures, and, crucially, a willingness to face these shortcomings and dilemmas, to try and learn from them. […] This book deserves to be widely read” – From the foreword by Professor Steve Redpath, University of Aberdeen
... sheep, goats, antelopes, deer, wild goats and camels. Large ruminants such as cattle and African buffalo can seroconvert, but do not show clinical signs (Abubakar et al., 2011;Furley et al., 1987;Kock et al., 2006). The clinical signs of PPR include pyrexia, ocular and nasal discharge, dyspnoea, pneumonia, diarrhoea, severe lethargy and decreased production, with some animals succumbing to the disease and dying within 10-12 days, due mostly to severe dehydration (Munir et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) is a potentially lethal, highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats. Domestic sheep and goats are important species for the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Within societies where PPR is now spreading, poverty is widespread and the disease is expected to have significant negative impacts on livelihoods. In resource-constrained marginalised societies, it is often difficult to collect disease data in conventional ways. Participatory epidemiology (PE) has been suggested as a particularly suitable research method to study epidemiology and social impacts of diseases in these contexts. However, for PE to achieve its full potential, stronger efforts to achieve true participation and to incorporate lessons about participation and power from the social sciences may be required. This review shows that social science engagement in PE to date is virtually non-existent, but that increased efforts to draw lessons from the social sciences and to increase the degree of participation in PE could increase its potential as an important tool in disease impact assessment and control. Particular attention is paid here to the potential role of PE in future research on the epidemiology and control of PPR.
... So, in future large data of sampling in wild species may show significant outcome regarding PPRV. Evidently, wildlife in Pakistan is susceptible to PPRV infection, as earlier studies showed the seroprevalence and detection of PPRV through clinical investigation and laboratory confirmation [30] and clinical picture of PPR in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi), confirmed by antigenic and serological analysis [39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is causing infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in domestic and wild small ruminants of Pakistan with valuable economical losses. The present study was carried out to investigate risk factors of PPRV in domestic small ruminants which were present in the vicinity of wildlife parks. A total of 265 sera samples (27 wild ruminants and 238 domesticated small ruminants) from apparently healthy animals from two different wildlife parks were collected and analysed for PPRV antibodies. Also, 20 nasal swabs from domestic small ruminants showing respiratory signs were collected to check for presence of PPRV antigen. Competitive ELISA revealed highest proportions of anti-PPRV antibodies in domestic small ruminants around the Wildlife Park at Lahore (35%) as compared to Faisalabad (13%), with no existence of PPRV antibodies in tested serum of wild ruminants at these parks. Higher seropositivity was observed in females (25.6%) than in males (5.1%) and in goats (34.5%) compared to sheep (11.2%). The results of N-gene based RT-PCR highlight the absence of PPRV due to lack of current PPR outbreak in the region during study period. Even though grazing was not a significant risk factor, there is still a possibility of wildlife-livestock interactions for feed and water reservoirs, resulting in spillover of PPR to wildlife. Keeping in view the high seropositivity and risk of PPR, vaccination should be adopted to avoid circulation of PPRV among wild and domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats).
... PPR is a highly contagious disease with very high morbidity and mortality (Abu-Elzein et al., 1990). It was first reported in sheep and goats (Gargadennec and Lalanne, 1942) and in Sindh Ibex (Abubakar et al., 2011b), it was thought to have limited to the African countries. However, during the recent years, the disease has been also been reported in other parts of the world, including Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Oman Lebanon, Jordan, Yemen and the United Arab Emirates. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is a viral contagious and important transboundary animal disease (TAD), affecting domestic and wild small ruminants like sheep and goats, endemic in Indo-Pak subcontinent. The study was undertaken to characterize the indigenous PPRV by characterizing the fusion protein (F) gene segments by sequencing and their phylogenetic analysis for determination of genetic variation in the field viruses. Selected F gene segments of PPRV genome were amplified using RT-PCR from 110 tissues (lungs, lymph nodes and spleen) samples from dead animals and 41 swabs (nasal, occular and oral) from PPR suspected animals. The resulting amplicons were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic tree based on the F gene sequences of PPRV from different locations clustered them into lineage 4 along with the other isolates from Pakistan. Thus, genetic diversity of PPRV into the same lineages based on the F gene sequences showed the presence of lineage 4 emerged to give up the thought of molecular epidemiology for PPRV.
... Serologically PPRV consists of a single serotype, genetically it is divided into four distinct lineages (I-IV) (Ku-mar et al., 2014). The main hosts of PPR are goats and sheep, though disease in wild small ruminants and camel has also been investigated (Abubakar et al., 2011;Aguilar et al., 2018;Mahapatra et al., 2015;Khalafalla et al., 2010). PPR virus transmission between animals such as sheep and goats can occur through aerosols, inhalation and direct contact with contaminated water, feed troughs, nasal and ocular discharges and faces. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of present study was to find out the margin macro-mineral composition of 15 different fodder tree leaves and shrubs of district Chakwal of Pakistan. The climate of this region is characterized by a moderately low annual rainfall (350-500 mm.) Temperature during winter is 4-25°C and during summer is 15-40°C. Samples of fifteen tree leaves (Acacia nilotica, Acacia modesta, Albizzia lebbeck, Capparis decidua, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Grawia optiva, Gymnosporia royleana, Indigofera gerardiana, Morus alba, Prosopis cineraria, Panicum antidotale, Nerium odorum, Moringa oleifera, Ziziphus mauritiana and Zizyphus mummularia) were collected in march and April and analyzed for macro-minerals, i.e. Na (Sodium), K (Potassium), P (Phosphorus) and Ca (Calcium). The mean percentage values for Ca, P, Na, and K were 1.66, 0.26, 0.08 and 0.069, respectively. Our current investigations on nutritional evaluation of fodder tree leaves and shrubs revealed that these are good source of macro-minerals and can be used as substitute feed in the district of Chakwal, especially during the feed deficient periods.
... It may be due to continuous surrounding of some of the NE states with PPR endemic countries like Bangladesh resulting in spread of disease in few endemic regions. Moreover it has been reported that Bangladesh PPR isolates and that of Tripura, were found similar, which may indicate cross border movement of animals between the international borders of both the countries resulting in the transmission of the virus to susceptible small ruminant population [2]. Thus, the high prevalence rate reported in the present study could be attributed to the increased animal movement from neighbouring states or countries. ...
Article
The present study was undertaken to detect the presence of PPRV in the goats of Assam. Competitive ELISA and Sandwich ELISA are used to detect the PPR viral antibody and antigen respectively. In addition, the study also involved the assessment of specific gene targets for detection of PPRV by RT-PCR from the clinical samples. A total of 579 sera samples (68.65 % in outbreak samples and 5.29 % in random samples) collected from different parts of Assam were tested by c-ELISA, indicated overall prevalence of 27.28 in goats. The percentage prevalence of PPRV antibodies in sera samples from goats collected at the time of outbreaks were 79.26, 85.41, 58.82, 6, 29.41 and 36.36 % in Kamrup, Nalbari, Mongoldoi, Jorhat, Darrang and Barpeta respectively. However, high percent prevalence (20.83 %) was observed in district Dhubri in random samples. Among the suspected samples, high percent prevalence (85.41 %) was observed in Nalbari. The competition percentage values (ranges from 35 to 45) obtained in competitive ELISA from tested goat samples found three categories, viz. positive, doubtful and negative. Most of the serum samples (n = 158) with competition percentage less than or equal to 35 % are considered positive for the presence of PPRV antibodies, (n = 9) greater than 35 % and less than or equal to 45 % are considered doubtful and retested, and (n = 423) greater than 45 % are considered negative. The overall sensitivity, specificity, apparent prevalence and true prevalence rate was found to be 68.65, 94.70, 27.28 and 34.69 % respectively. True prevalence rate was calculated based on the sensitivity and specificity of the c-ELISA employed in the study, which has a relative specificity of 94.70 % and sensitivity of 68.65 %.
... Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an acute viral infectious disease of domestic goats, sheep and some wild ruminants, is characterized by fever, ocular and nasal discharges, necrotic stomatitis, diarrhoea, pneumonia and death with significant mortality in na€ ıve outbreaks (Kwiatek et al., 2007;Soltan and Abd-Eldaim, 2014;Parida et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2015). Species of the family Caprinae are particularly susceptible to disease including several endangered mountain and desert ungulates (Abu-Elzein et al., 2004;Sharawi et al., 2010;Abubakar et al., 2011;Hoffmann et al., 2012;Munir, 2014). Some large ruminants including wildlife and cattle show seroconversion for antibodies specific to PPR virus (Kock, 2006;Lembo et al., 2013); virus has been isolated from water buffalo (Govindarajan et al., 1997) and experimentally infected cattle (Sen et al., 2014); and disease has been reported in camels (Ibu et al., 2008;Khalafalla et al., 2010). ...
... Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an acute viral infectious disease of domestic goats, sheep and some wild ruminants, is characterized by fever, ocular and nasal discharges, necrotic stomatitis, diarrhoea, pneumonia and death with significant mortality in na€ ıve outbreaks (Kwiatek et al., 2007;Soltan and Abd-Eldaim, 2014;Parida et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2015). Species of the family Caprinae are particularly susceptible to disease including several endangered mountain and desert ungulates (Abu-Elzein et al., 2004;Sharawi et al., 2010;Abubakar et al., 2011;Hoffmann et al., 2012;Munir, 2014). Some large ruminants including wildlife and cattle show seroconversion for antibodies specific to PPR virus (Kock, 2006;Lembo et al., 2013); virus has been isolated from water buffalo (Govindarajan et al., 1997) and experimentally infected cattle (Sen et al., 2014); and disease has been reported in camels (Ibu et al., 2008;Khalafalla et al., 2010). ...
Article
Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is endemic in many Asian countries with expansion of the range in recent years including across China during 2013-2014 (OIE, 2014). Till the end of 2014, no cases of PPR virus (PPRV) were officially reported to the Office Internationale des Epizooties (OIE) from Kazakhstan. This study describes for the first time clinicopathological, epidemiological and genetic characterization of PPRV in 3 farm level outbreaks reported for the first time in Zhambyl region (oblast), southern Kazakhstan. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial N gene sequence data confirms the lineage IV PPRV circulation, similar to the virus that recently circulated in China. The isolated viruses are 99.5-99.7% identical to the PPRV isolated in 2014 from Heilongjiang Province in China and therefore providing evidence of transboundary spread of PPRV. There is a risk of further maintenance of virus in young stock despite vaccination of adult sheep and goats, along livestock trade and pastoral routes, threatening both small livestock and endangered susceptible wildlife populations throughout Kazakhstan. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
... Despite this paucity of data, the existence of PPR in Pakistan has been well documented in the scientific literature with numerous reports of serological and genetic detection. Serological detection has been confirmed following clinical suspicion of disease in several areas Zahur et al. 2008;Rashid et al. 2010;Abubakar et al. 2011;Munir et al. 2013). Most recently, genetic analyses have been used to characterise a panel of isolates from Pakistan and all were found to be lineage IV (Munir et al. 2012a). ...
... The disease results in an acute and severe course in goats and sheep and was not considered to be pathogenic for large domestic ruminants. However, PPR disease outbreak affecting both gazelles and deer was reported in Saudi Arabia in the 1980s (Abu-Elzein et al. 2004) and recently in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) in Sindh province, Pakistan (Abubakar et al. 2011). This disease is thought previously to have played a role in an epizootic in Ethiopia that affected dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) (Roger et al. 2000) but recently caused disease outbreaks with a mean 7.4 % mortality rate in camels in Sudan (Khalafalla et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was intended to determine the role played by peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in causing respiratory infections in camels and its association with other respiratory viruses. A total of 474 lung specimens showing pneumonia were collected from clinically healthy camels in slaughterhouses at five different areas in Sudan. Using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA), 214 specimens (45.1 %) were found to be positive for PPR antigen. The highest prevalence was found in central Sudan (59.9 %) then northern Sudan (56.6 %) and eastern Sudan (26.6 %). Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV 3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), and adenovirus were detected in 4.4, 2.9, 2.0, 9.0, and 1.3 % of the specimens, respectively. PPR antigen was found in about 50 % of specimens that showed positive result for other viral antigens. Twenty-five of 28 BVD, 15 of 16 PIV3, 8 of 12 RSV, 4 of 4 adenovirus, and 4 of 5 BHV-1 were found in association with other respiratory antigens. Results revealed the existence of PPRV infection in dromedary camels in Sudan and present evidence for mixed virus infection, suggesting that respiratory infections in camels might be exacerbated by PPRV.
... In southwest Asia, it spread to China (Tibet Autonomous Region) in 2007 (Bao et al., 2008), the Maldives in 2009, and Bhutan in 2010. In Asia, the impact of PPR has increased in the last decade to such a point that regular epizootic activities resulted in spillovers in the wild population and large die-offs among different wild species, some of them being endangered, notably bharal in Tibet (Bao et al., 2011(Bao et al., , 2012, ibex in Pakistan (Abubakar et al., 2011), and wild goats in Kurdistan (Hoffmann et al., 2012). All events were related to PPR-infected livestock. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) constitutes one of the major hurdles to the improvement of small-ruminant production in countries where it is endemic, directly affecting the poor, the main keepers of those species. Despite the existence of highly effective vaccines for more than 25 years, this disease remains a worrying and emerging cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic and high-risk regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. • Evolutionary biology of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the causative agent of PPR, has taught us much in the last 10 years, most notably about its recent evolutionary history and the extent of genetic diversity that lead to the four viral lineages known. Emergence of PPR, an ongoing issue, is disclosed through tracing back viruses belonging to these lineages. • It is likely that viral infections are manifested by a variation of clinical patterns, including strains with altered virulence or epidemiological potential and that the virus may eventually emerge in other species. However, there are still major gaps in our knowledge, most notably, the extent and causes of genetic diversity behind the disease dynamics and the evolution/variation in the disease severity. • Thus, special attention is to be paid to evolutionary and epidemiological factors underlying PPRV emergence, maintenance and spread, geographic distribution, and disease patterns. Integrated knowledge will provide decision-making tools for better guidance of control efforts against PPR.
... The evolution of measles, most probably an adapted strain of rinderpest virus (RPV) of cattle was coincident with the period of domestication of bovidae, when direct contact rates between humans and cattle was increasing. The eradication of rinderpest and coincident rise in the incidence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus across the original range of RPV and its incursion into other species (Khalafalla et al., 2010, Abubakar et al., 2011 is another issue that requires urgent and intensive research. This should focus on the role of molecular adaptation and the ecological niche in evolution of these viruses and their spread to and establishment in new species. ...
... This can be linked to migration of susceptible, unvaccinated sheep and goat herds from mountains to plains of the country. These results are in contrast to other studies in Pakistan that reported few seasonal trends of PPR but for shorter periods of study (Zahur et al., 2009(Zahur et al., , 2011Abubakar et al., 2011;Ullah et al., 2015). In contrast to other studies from the world, Opasina (1983) also proved in western Nigeria that PPR incidence is increased during cold season. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly fatal and economically devastating disease of sheep and goats. Present study was designed to have an insight into the epidemiology of PPR under field conditions in the country using molecular tools. A total of eighty-four (n = 84) PPR outbreaks were investigated during the study (2010 to 2013). The highest number of outbreaks was reported from Punjab province (n = 38) followed by Sindh (n = 21) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, n = 10). In 48 out of 84 outbreaks, disease occurred in goats only while 18 outbreaks affected sheep only and the remaining occurred in mixed herds. A total of 6221 animals were affected in these outbreaks. Sheep were less severely affected in comparison with goats. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rate were 26.79%, 10.83% and 40.41% in sheep in comparison with 34.90%, 16.34% and 46.82% in goats, respectively. Overall, disease affected all three age groups of sheep and goats but the younger animals were more severely affected with a morbidity rate of 37.19%. The mortality and case fatality rates were also higher in young which were 46.86% and 17.39%, respectively. Yearly data of outbreaks was suggestive that a cyclic as well as seasonal pattern of disease occurred. The results of the phylogenetic tree indicated that all Pakistani PPRV strains, regardless of the gene used either F or N, clustered in lineage IV which is the most prominent and prevalent lineage of Asia. The distribution of Pakistani strains of PPRV was more dispersed as the isolate collected from Taxilla was clustered slightly distinct compared to rest of the isolates collected from Pakistan. Our findings are indicative of PPR endemic state of the country.
... The role of other species in PPRV epidemiology There are numerous reports of PPRV infection in animals other than domestic sheep and goats. Infection of wild sheep/goats [28][29][30] and other wild and domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, gazelle and wildebeest) have been reported [31][32][33][34], as well as camels [35] and recently even dogs [36]. If confirmed and shown to be relevant from a transmission perspective, such observations would be very important due to the continued existence of transhumance and pastoralism amongst sheep and goat herders. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a significant pathogen of small ruminants and is prevalent in much of Africa, the Near and Middle East and Asia. Despite the availability of an efficacious and cheap live-attenuated vaccine, the virus has continued to spread, with its range stretching from Morocco in the west to China and Mongolia in the east. Some of the world's poorest communities rely on small ruminant farming for subsistence and the continued endemicity of PPRV is a constant threat to their livelihoods. Moreover, PPRV's effects on the world's population are felt broadly across many economic, agricultural and social situations. This far-reaching impact has prompted the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to develop a global strategy for the eradication of this virus and its disease. PPRV is a morbillivirus and, given the experience of these organizations in eradicating the related rinderpest virus, the eradication of PPRV should be feasible. However, there are many critical areas where basic and applied virological research concerning PPRV is lacking. The purpose of this review is to highlight areas where new research could be performed in order to guide and facilitate the eradication programme. These areas include studies on disease transmission and epidemiology, the existence of wildlife reservoirs and the development of next-generation vaccines and diagnostics. With the support of the international virology community, the successful eradication of PPRV can be achieved.
... Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and deadly disease caused by the peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) (Gibbs et al., 1979;ICTV, 2016). The main hosts are sheep and goats, however disease in wild small ruminants and camels has also been reported (Abubakar et al., 2011;Aguilar et al., 2018;Mahapatra et al., 2015;Khalafalla et al., 2010). Clinical signs related to PPR include a high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, necrotic lesions in mucous membranes, pneumonia, diarrhoea, immunosuppression, and a high case fatality rate (up to 90%) in an epidemic setting . ...
Article
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease caused by peste-des-petits-ruminants virus. Following the successful eradication of the related rinderpest virus, a program to control and eradicate PPR was launched by the FAO and OIE. PPR is today present in many tropical countries where maintaining the cold chain for sample transportation is one of the major barriers for timely processing. Transport of samples on filter paper is a simple and cost-effective method, however validation and optimization is required to fully adapt this approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the use of filter paper in serological diagnosis of PPR. Blood samples (serum and filter paper) were collected from sheep and goats in both Tanzania and Pakistan and analysed using a PPRV-specific cELISA. The positive proportion was 10.7% in Tanzania and 80% in Pakistan when performing the analysis on serum. These results were then considered as reference and compared to the results from the filter papers analysed by the same cELISA. According to the statistical analysis the cut-off for a positive results for samples stored on filter paper was adjusted from <50 % competition percentage to <84% in Tanzania and to <69% in Pakistan. These results demonstrate that filter papers are an acceptable and cost-effective transport method of whole blood samples for later use in serological analysis.
... The absences of both virus isolation and observation of clinical disease in wildlife species in Africa is surprising given the increasingly visible epidemics in wildlife in Asia [5,6,61,62]. Both absences could reflect facts (absence of viral excretion and disease expression in African wildlife) but could also be due to imperfect datasets constrained by the difficulty to survey disease in wildlife. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in East Africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife–livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exposure, disease outbreaks, and viral sequences in the northern Albertine Rift. PPRV antibodies indicated a widespread exposure in apparently healthy wildlife from South Sudan (2013) and Uganda (2015, 2017). African buffaloes and Uganda kobs <1-year-old from Queen Elizabeth National Park (2015) had antibodies against PPRV N-antigen and local serosurvey captured a subsequent spread of PPRV in livestock. Outbreaks with PPR-like syndrome in sheep and goats were recorded around the Greater Virunga Landscape in Kasese (2016), Kisoro and Kabale (2017) from western Uganda, and in North Kivu (2017) from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This landscape would not be considered typical for PPR persistence as it is a mixed forest–savannah ecosystem with mostly sedentary livestock. PPRV sequences from DRC (2017) were identical to strains from Burundi (2018) and confirmed a transboundary spread of PPRV. Our results indicate an epidemiological linkage between epizootic cycles in livestock and exposure in wildlife, denoting the importance of PPR surveillance on wild artiodactyls for both conservation and eradication programs.
... Serologically PPRV consists of a single serotype, genetically it is divided into four distinct lineages (I-IV) (Ku-mar et al., 2014). The main hosts of PPR are goats and sheep, though disease in wild small ruminants and camel has also been investigated (Abubakar et al., 2011;Aguilar et al., 2018;Mahapatra et al., 2015;Khalafalla et al., 2010). PPR virus transmission between animals such as sheep and goats can occur through aerosols, inhalation and direct contact with contaminated water, feed troughs, nasal and ocular discharges and faces. ...
... Sharing the use of rangelands by livestock and wildlife can lead to disease transmission [33]. Abubakar et al. [14] pointed out that an outbreak of PPR in Sindh ibex was due to the spillover of the virus from a recent outbreak of PPR in nearby domestic small ruminants. Similar PPR spillovers to wild hosts are reported in Tibet [18] and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area in northern Tanzania [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the Trans-Himalayan region (THR) is an important endemic and rendezvous area of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), monitoring and prevention measurements are difficult to execute because of the rough geographical conditions. Besides, a heterogeneous breeding system and the poor veterinary service of susceptible animals compound the existing problems. Here, we propose a forecasting system to define the key points of PPR prevention and aid the countries in saving time, labor, and products to achieve the goal of the global eradication project of PPR. The spatial distribution of PPR was predicted in the THR for the first time using a niche model that was constructed with a combination of eco-geographical, anthropoid, meteorological, and host variables. The transboundary least-cost paths (LCPs) of small ruminants in the THR were also calculated. Our results reveal that the low-elevation area of the THR had a higher PPR risk and was mainly dominated by human variables. The high-elevation area had lower risk and was mainly dominated by natural variables. Eight LCPs representing corridors among India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and China were obtained. This confirmed the potential risk of transboundary communication by relying on PPR contamination on the grasslands for the first time. The predicted potential risk communication between the two livestock systems and landscapes (high and low elevation) might play a role in driving PPR transboundary transmission.
... PPRV has caused mass mortality of mountain caprine species categorised as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (Michel and Ghoddousi 2020;Weinberg and Ambarli 2020), with >1,000 deaths of wild goats (Capra aegagrus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran (Marashi et al., 2017) and >750 wild goats in Iraq (Hoffmann et al., 2012). Fatal PPR outbreaks have also been reported in free-ranging Sindh ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) in Pakistan (Abubakar et al., 2011) and in ibex (Capra ibex) (Xia et al., 2016;Zhu et al., 2016;Li et al., 2017), bharal (Pseudois nayaur) (Bao et al., 2011(Bao et al., , 2012Li et al., 2017;Xia et al., 2016;Zhu et al., 2016), argali sheep (Ovis ammon) (Li et al., 2017), goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) (Li et al., 2017), and Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) (Li et al., 2019) in China. To date, the most devastating impact of PPRV on biodiversity was its emergence in the critically endangered Mongolian saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica mongolica) in 2016-2017, which caused a mass mortality event and contributed to loss of ∼80 per cent of the population (Aguilar et al., 2018;Pruvot et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes disease in domestic and wild ungulates, is the target of a global eradication programme and threatens biodiversity. Understanding the epidemiology and evolution of PPRV in wildlife is important, but hampered by the paucity of wildlife-origin PPRV genomes. In this study, full PPRV genomes were generated from three Mongolian saiga antelope, one Siberian ibex and one goitered gazelle from the 2016-2017 PPRV outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis showed that for Mongolian and Chinese PPRV since 2013, the wildlife and livestock-origin genomes were closely related and interspersed. There was strong phylogenetic support for a monophyletic group of PPRV from Mongolian wildlife and livestock, belonging to a clade of lineage IV PPRV from livestock and wildlife from China since 2013. Discrete diffusion analysis found strong support for PPRV spread into Mongolia from China and phylogeographic analysis indicated Xinjiang Province as the most likely origin, although genomic surveillance for PPRV is poor and lack of sampling from other regions could bias this result. Times of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) were June 2015 (95% HPD: August 2014 – March 2016) for all Mongolian PPRV genomes and May 2016 (95% HPD: October 2015 – October 2016) for Mongolian wildlife-origin PPRV. This suggests that PPRV was circulating undetected in Mongolia for at least six months before the first reported outbreak in August 2016, and that wildlife were likely infected before livestock vaccination began in October 2016. Finally, genetic variation and positively selected sites were identified that might be related to PPRV emergence in Mongolian wildlife. This study is the first to sequence multiple PPRV genomes from a wildlife outbreak, across several host species. Additional full PPRV genomes and associated metadata from the livestock-wildlife interface are needed to enhance the power of molecular epidemiology, support PPRV eradication and safeguard the health of the whole ungulate community.
... PPRV has caused mass mortality of mountain caprine species categorised as vulnerable by the IUCN (Michel and Ghoddousi 2020;Weinberg and Ambarli 2020), with > 1000 deaths of wild goats (Capra aegagrus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran (Marashi et al. 2017) and > 750 wild goats in Iraq (Hoffmann et al. 2012). Fatal PPR outbreaks have also been reported in free-ranging Sindh ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi) in Pakistan (Abubakar et al. 2011) and in ibex (Capra ibex) (J. Li et al. 2017;Xia et al. 2016;Zhu et al. 2016), bharal (Pseudois nayaur) (Bao et al. 2011;Bao et al. 2012;J. ...
Preprint
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes disease in domestic and wild ungulates, is the target of a global eradication programme and threatens biodiversity. Understanding the epidemiology and evolution of PPRV in wildlife is important, but hampered by the paucity of wildlife-origin PPRV genomes. In this study, full PPRV genomes were generated from three Mongolian saiga antelope, one Siberian ibex and one goitered gazelle from the 2016-2017 PPRV outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis showed that for Mongolian and Chinese PPRV since 2013, the wildlife and livestock-origin genomes were closely related and interspersed. There was strong phylogenetic support for a monophyletic group of PPRV from Mongolian wildlife and livestock, belonging to clade of lineage IV PPRV from livestock and wildlife from China since 2013. Discrete diffusion analysis found strong support for PPRV spread into Mongolia from China and phylogeographic analysis indicated Xinjiang Province as the most likely origin, although genomic surveillance for PPRV is poor and lack of sampling from other regions could bias this result. Times of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) were June 2015 (95% HPD: August 2014 – March 2016) for all Mongolian PPRV genomes and May 2016 (95% HPD: October 2015 – October 2016) for Mongolian wildlife-origin PPRV. This suggests that PPRV was circulating undetected in Mongolia for at least six months before the first reported outbreak in August 2016, and that wildlife were likely infected before livestock vaccination began in October 2016. Finally, genetic variation and positively-selected sites were identified that might be related to PPRV emergence in Mongolian wildlife. This study is the first to sequence multiple PPRV genomes from a wildlife outbreak, across several host species. Additional full PPRV genomes and associated metadata from the livestock-wildlife interface are needed to enhance the power of molecular epidemiology, support PPRV eradication and safeguard the health of the whole ungulate community. Author Summary Recent mass mortality of critically endangered Mongolian saiga antelope due to peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has dramatically highlighted the threat this viral disease represents for biodiversity. The genome of viruses such as PPRV evolve fast, so virus genetic data gathered from infected animals can be used to trace disease spread between livestock and wildlife, and to determine if the virus is adapting to infect wildlife more efficiently. Here we obtained PPRV virus genomes from Mongolian wildlife and compared them with other published PPRV genomes. Using a molecular clock, we estimated that the disease was circulating in Mongolia well before it was first reported. Genetic analyses support the hypothesis of virus spread from livestock to wildlife, with genetic changes potentially helping infection in Asian wild ungulates. However, more PPR virus genomes and epidemiology data are needed from disease outbreaks in areas shared between livestock and wildlife to confirm these results and take efficient actions to safeguard the health of the whole ungulate community.
... A wide range of wild artiodactyl species are susceptible to PPRV infection, based on the serological detection of PPRV antibodies, and outbreaks of clinical disease in Asia have been diagnosed as PPR on the basis of the molecular detection of PPRV. In most of these cases, it is likely that there was spillover of the virus from nearby populations of infected domestic small ruminants leading to sporadic wildlife epidemics and possible cross-species transmission between wild species, while spillback from wildlife to livestock has not been reported [6,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. Many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to PPR virus (PPRV) infection, and some outbreaks have threatened endangered wild populations. The role of wild species in PPRV epidemiology is unclear, which is a knowledge gap for the Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR. These studies aimed to investigate PPRV infection in wild artiodactyls in the Greater Serengeti and Amboseli ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania. Out of 132 animals purposively sampled in 2015–2016, 19.7% were PPRV seropositive by ID Screen PPR competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; IDvet, France) from the following species: African buffalo, wildebeest, topi, kongoni, Grant’s gazelle, impala, Thomson’s gazelle, warthog and gerenuk, while waterbuck and lesser kudu were seronegative. In 2018–2019, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected African buffalo and Grant’s gazelle herds was conducted. The weighted estimate of PPRV seroprevalence was 12.0% out of 191 African buffalo and 1.1% out of 139 Grant’s gazelles. All ocular and nasal swabs and faeces were negative by PPRV real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Investigations of a PPR-like disease in sheep and goats confirmed PPRV circulation in the area by rapid detection test and/or RT-qPCR. These results demonstrated serological evidence of PPRV infection in wild artiodactyl species at the wildlife–livestock interface in this ecosystem where PPRV is endemic in domestic small ruminants. Exposure to PPRV could be via spillover from infected small ruminants or from transmission between wild animals, while the relatively low seroprevalence suggests that sustained transmission is unlikely. Further studies of other major wild artiodactyls in this ecosystem are required, such as impala, Thomson’s gazelle and wildebeest.
... PPRV outbreaks in free-ranging wild artiodactyls can result in severe mortality and threaten wildlife populations and ecosystem stability (9)(10)(11)(12), although the full impact on biodiversity conservation remains to be determined. In endemic situations, such as in East Africa, serological responses to PPRV in wildlife indicate widespread spillover at the wildlife-livestock interface, but no overt disease (13). ...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence suggests that multiple wildlife species can be infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), with important consequences for the potential maintenance of PPRV in communities of susceptible hosts, and the threat that PPRV may pose to the conservation of wildlife populations and resilience of ecosystems. Significant knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of PPRV across the ruminant community (wildlife and domestic), and the understanding of infection in wildlife and other atypical host species groups (e.g., camelidae, suidae, and bovinae) hinder our ability to apply necessary integrated disease control and management interventions at the wildlife-livestock interface. Similarly, knowledge gaps limit the inclusion of wildlife in the FAO/OIE Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR, and the framework of activities in the PPR Global Eradication Programme that lays the foundation for eradicating PPR through national and regional efforts. This article reports on the first international meeting on, "Controlling PPR at the livestock-wildlife interface," held in Rome, Italy, March 27-29, 2019. A large group representing national and international institutions discussed recent advances in our understanding of PPRV in wildlife, identified knowledge gaps and research priorities, and formulated recommendations. The need for a better Fine et al. PPR and the Wildlife-Livestock Interface understanding of PPRV epidemiology at the wildlife-livestock interface to support the integration of wildlife into PPR eradication efforts was highlighted by meeting participants along with the reminder that PPR eradication and wildlife conservation need not be viewed as competing priorities, but instead constitute two requisites of healthy socio-ecological systems.
... So, in future large data of sampling in wild species may show significant outcome regarding PPRV. Evidently, wildlife in Pakistan is susceptible to PPRV infection, as earlier studies showed the seroprevalence and detection of PPRV through clinical investigation and laboratory confirmation [30] and clinical picture of PPR in Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi), confirmed by antigenic and serological analysis [39]. ...
Article
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is causing infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in domestic and wild small ruminants of Pakistan with valuable economical losses. The present study was carried out to investigate risk factors of PPRV in domestic small ruminants which were present in the vicinity of wildlife parks. A total of 265 sera samples (27 wild ruminants and 238 domesticated small ruminants) from apparently healthy animals from two different wildlife parks were collected and analysed for PPRV antibodies. Also, 20 nasal swabs from domestic small ruminants showing respiratory signs were collected to check for presence of PPRV antigen. Competitive ELISA revealed highest proportions of anti-PPRV antibodies in domestic small ruminants around the Wildlife Park at Lahore (35%) as compared to Faisalabad (13%), with no existence of PPRV antibodies in tested serum of wild ruminants at these parks. Higher seropositivity was observed in females (25.6%) than in males (5.1%) and in goats (34.5%) compared to sheep (11.2%). The results of N-gene based RT-PCR highlight the absence of PPRV due to lack of current PPR outbreak in the region during study period. Even though grazing was not a significant risk factor, there is still a possibility of wildlife-livestock interactions for feed and water reservoirs, resulting in spillover of PPR to wildlife. Keeping in view the high seropositivity and risk of PPR, vaccination should be adopted to avoid circulation of PPRV among wild and domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats).
... The first sequence from a PPRV isolate was generated by Diallo et al. in 1994 [4] when they cloned the N gene of a vaccine strain originating from Nigeria in 1975, which was followed by the sequencing of the F protein gene [5]. The sequencing of the N and F genes also allowed the development of important molecular diagnostic tools for PPRV that are routinely used today by many [6][7][8][9][10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Small ruminants (e.g. sheep and goats) contribute considerably to the cash income and nutrition of small farmers in most countries in Africa and Asia. Their husbandry is threatened by the highly infectious transboundary viral disease Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by the peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). Given its social and economic impact, PPR is presently being targeted by international organizations for global eradication by 2030. Since its first description in Côte d'Ivoire in 1942, and particularly over the last 10 years, a large amount of molecular epidemiological and genomic data on the virus have been generated in Africa. This review aims to consolidate these data in order to have a clearer picture of the current PPR situation in Africa which will, in turn, assist authorities in global eradication attempts. 3
... Such spill-over events are most likely to occur as a result of interactions between PPRVinfected small ruminants and other susceptible hosts during epidemic or endemic conditions and may act as a foundation for further inter-species transmission, particularly in livestock-dense endemic regions. PPRV has previously been reported in other species, such as populations of several species of wild mountain goat (genus Capra), and is most likely due to spillover from domestic small ruminants (Abubakar et al. 2011). Thus, the viral-host jumps are not uncommon for PPRV and associated with provoking hurdles in disease eradication worldwide. ...
... PPRV outbreaks in free-ranging wild artiodactyls can result in severe mortality and threaten wildlife populations and ecosystem stability (9)(10)(11)(12), although the full impact on biodiversity conservation remains to be determined. In endemic situations, such as in East Africa, serological responses to PPRV in wildlife indicate widespread spillover at the wildlife-livestock interface, but no overt disease (13). ...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that multiple wildlife species can be infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). This has important consequences for the potential maintenance of PPRV in communities of susceptible hosts, and the threat that PPRV may pose to the conservation of wildlife populations and resilience of ecosystems. Significant knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of PPRV across the ruminant community (wildlife and domestic), and understanding of the infection in wildlife and other atypical host species groups (e.g. camelidae, suidae, and bovinae) hinders our ability to apply necessary integrated disease control and management interventions at the wildlife-livestock interface. Similarly, knowledge gaps limit the inclusion of wildlife in the FAO/OIE Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR, and the framework of activities in the PPR Global Eradication Programme that lays the foundation for eradicating PPR through national and regional efforts. This article reports on the first international meeting on, “Controlling PPR at the livestock-wildlife interface”, held in Rome, Italy, March 27-29, 2019. A large group representing national and international institutions discussed recent advances in our understanding of PPRV in wildlife, identified knowledge gaps and research priorities, and formulated recommendations. The need for a better understanding of PPRV epidemiology at the wildlife-livestock interface to support the integration of wildlife into PPR eradication efforts was highlighted by meeting participants along with the reminder that PPR eradication and wildlife conservation need not be viewed as competing priorities, but should instead constitute two requisites of healthy socio-ecological systems.
... provides ample opportunities for virus sharing between wild and domestic hosts. So far, the knowledge about the role of wildlife in PPR epidemiology, recently reviewed 8,9 , is limited to outbreaks from ex-situ populations in zoos and fenced enclosures, and to rare recent in situ epidemics affecting mountain goats [10][11][12][13] and, on one occasion, free-ranging antelope and wild caprines in Mongolia 14 . Transmission of PPR between domestic and non-domestic species could hinder control of the disease in some areas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating viral disease affecting mainly sheep and goats, but also a large number of wild species within the order Artiodactyla. A better understanding of PPR transmission dynamics in multi-host systems is necessary to efficiently control the disease, in particular where wildlife and livestock co-occur. Notably, the role of wildlife in PPR epidemiology is still not clearly understood. Non-invasive strategies to detect PPR infection without the need for animal handling could greatly facilitate research on PPR epidemiology and management of the disease in atypical hosts and in complex field situations. Here, we describe optimized methods for the direct detection of PPR virus genetic material and antigen in fecal samples. We use these methods to determine the detection window of PPR in fecal samples, and compare the sensitivity of these methods to standard invasive sampling and PPR diagnostic methods using field samples collected at a wildlife-livestock interface in Africa. Our results show that quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-QPCR) amplification of PPRV from fecal swabs has good sensitivity in comparison to ocular swabs. Animals infected by PPRV could be identified relatively early on and during the whole course of infection based on fecal samples using RT-QPCR. Partial gene sequences could also be retrieved in some cases, from both fecal and ocular samples, providing important information about virus origin and relatedness to other PPRV strains. Non-invasive strategies for PPRV surveillance could provide important data to fill major gaps in our knowledge of the multi-host PPR epidemiology.
... Since first report of PPRV in Pakistan, several outbreaks have been reported [2,9,1213141516171819. Most of these were based on either clinical history, antigen or antibody detection. ...
... Such spill-over events A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t are most likely to occur as a result of interactions between PPRV-infected small ruminants and other susceptible hosts during epidemic or endemic conditions and may act as a foundation for further inter-species transmission, particularly in livestock-dense endemic regions. PPRV has previously been reported in other species, such as populations of several species of wild mountain goat (genus Capra), and is most likely due to spill-over from domestic small ruminants (Abubakar et al. 2011). Thus, the viral-host jumps are not uncommon for PPRV and associated with provoking hurdles in disease eradication worldwide. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since its first report in 1942, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) has caused several epidemics in a wide range of susceptible hosts around the world. In the last 30 years, the evidence of natural and experimental infections and virus isolation were reported from novel but unusual hosts such as camel, cattle, buffalo, dogs, Asiatic lion and pigs. In addition, PPRV in a potential vector, biting midges (Culicoides imicola), has been reported. Either presented as clinical and/or subclinical infections, the presence of the virus in an extended range of susceptible hosts highlights the cross-species transmission and supports the hypothesis of an endemic circulation of PPRV among susceptible hosts. However, the potential role of large ruminants, camels and unusual hosts for PPRV epidemiology is still obscure. Therefore, there is a need for molecular and epidemiological investigations of the disease among usual and unusual hosts to achieve the goals of disease control and eradication programmes initiated by national and international organisations, such as the FAO and OIE. This review is the first to summarise the scattered data on PPR in large ruminants, camels and unusual hosts to obtain the global scientific communities’ attention for further research on epidemiological aspects, not only in its native hosts, but also in large ruminants, camels and other unusual hosts.
Chapter
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. Clinically, it is characterized by fever, gastroenteritis, erosive lesions of mucous membranes, and respiratory distress due to severe bronchopneumonia. PPR is a transboundary animal disease (TAD) with mortality rates varying considerably but as high as 60–70%. It is in the list of the group of economically important animal diseases to be notified to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Described for the first time in 1942 in Côte d’Ivoire, PPR has steadily expanded its geographical distribution throughout Africa, the Middle and Near East, and Asia, from China to Kazakhstan. It has now become the most important sheep and goat infectious disease. It is estimated that productions of nearly two billion of sheep and goats, and many vulnerable wild small ruminants such as Saiga in Mongolia, are threatened by PPR. As sheep and goats are vital for day-to-day livelihoods of small farmers, the fight against PPR should be seen as a program for the reduction of poverty in the world, one of the Millennium Development Goals. Taking lessons from the success of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP), and as PPR shares with rinderpest some favorable technical attributes that have facilitated rinderpest eradication, FAO and the OIE have jointly developed a Strategy for the Global Eradication of PPR by the year 2030.
Article
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is primarily a highly contagious morbillivirus infection of small domesticated ruminants. However, it can also infect and cause disease in buffaloes, camels, and a variety of wild ungulates. In camels, it can cause serious disease, although experimental infection often failed to reproduce the natural situation. Clinical disease in wildlife has been observed in various locations of the Arabian Peninsula and in Asia. In numerous cases, there is epidemiological evidence of a spillover of PPR virus from sheep or goats to unusual hosts. Whilst there is clear evidence that a number of wildlife species are susceptible to infection, the actual role of wildlife in the epidemiology of PPR virus remains largely undetermined. Although an enzootic occurrence of PPR in unusual hosts has not been observed up to now, the epidemiological role of these hosts including wildlife populations should not be underestimated and is therefore important in PPR control and final eradication for reaching to PPR zero level.
Preprint
Full-text available
A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Qatar. Three hundred sixty-eight blood, swabs, and organ tissue samples collected between 2009 and 2016 were screened for PPR viral antibodies, antigens and nucleic acids using ELISA-Ab, ELISA-Ag and r RT-PCR, respectively. Fifteen PPR positive samples were subjected to virus isolation using Vero cell lines. 52% (n=192) of the samples were shown positive for PPR reporting first time infection of 52% (n=71) animal species including sheep, goat, deer, gazelle, addax, Oryx, blackbuck, deer, springbuck and waterbuck. Eight PPR virus (PPRV) field isolates demonstrated classical PPRV cytopathic effect (CPE) and shown positive for the virus antigens proving finally virus isolation. Sheep had the highest infection rate (55%) followed by wild ruminants (54%) and goats (47%). History wise, PPR might exist in Qatar before 2009. A systematic investigation is recommended to identify the risk factors associated with exposure of the susceptible animals to PPR infection, to test the susceptibility of the different species to PPR infection, and to describe the molecular entity and the replicative potentiality of the circulating field strains.
Article
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infects a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants, and occasionally unusual hosts such as camel, cattle and pig. Given their broad host-spectrum and disease endemicity in several developing countries, it is imperative to elucidate the viral evolutionary insights for their dynamic pathobiology and differential host-selection. For this purpose, a dataset of all available (n = 37) PPRV sequences originating from wild and unusual hosts was composed and in silico analysed. Compared to domestic small ruminant strains of same geographical region, phylogenomic and residue analysis of PPRV sequences originating from wild and unusual hosts revealed a close relationship between strains. A lack of obvious difference among the studied sequences and deduced residues suggests that these are the host factors that may play a role in their susceptibility to PPRV infection, immune response, pathogenesis, excretion patterns and potential clinical signs or resistance to clinical disease. Summarizing together, the comparative analysis enhances our understanding towards molecular epidemiology of the PPRV in wild and unusual hosts for appropriate intervention strategies particularly at livestock-wildlife interface.
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008 in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania, and is now endemic in this area. This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro District. During June 2015, 33 PPR-like disease reports were investigated in different parts of the district, using semi-structured interviews, clinical examinations, PPR virus rapid detection test (PPRV-RDT), and laboratory analysis. Ten flocks were confirmed as PPRV infected by PPRV-RDT and/or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and two flocks were co-infected with bluetongue virus (BTV), confirmed by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analysis of six partial N gene sequences showed that the PPR viruses clustered with recent lineage III Tanzanian viruses, and grouped with Ugandan, Kenyan and Democratic Republic of Congo isolates. No PPR-like disease was reported in wildlife. There was considerable variation in clinical syndromes between flocks: some showed a full range of PPR signs, while others were predominantly respiratory, diarrhoea, or oro-nasal syndromes, which were associated with different local disease names (olodua-a term for rinderpest, olkipiei-lung disease, oloirobi-fever, enkorotik-diarrhoea). BTV co-infection was associated with severe oro-nasal lesions. This clinical variability makes the field diagnosis of PPR challenging, highlighting the importance of access to pen-side antigen tests and multiplex assays to support improved surveillance and targeting of control activities for PPR eradication.
Chapter
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a highly contagious and infectious virus of small ruminants and camel and is endemic in several African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries. Recently, intensive efforts have been made to develop and produce potent vaccines and efficient diagnostic kits, and to understand the molecular epidemiology in endemic countries. These efforts, along with success story of rinderpest, have established baseline for the control of PPRV. Efforts for effective control and subsequent eradication include focused vaccinations in high-risk small ruminants followed by carpet vaccination, understanding socio-economic and culture situation of the small ruminants holder, established infrastructure to cope emergence of disease, and co-operation in countries where disease is endemic with essential involvement of international organizations. In this chapter, all these requirements and deliverables are comprehensively discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a severe respiratory and digestive tract disease of domestic small ruminants caused by PPR virus (PPRV) of the genus Morbillivirus. Although the primary hosts of PPRV are goats and sheep, the host range of PPRV has been continuously expanding and reported to infect various animal hosts over the last decades, which could bring a potential challenge to effectively control and eradicate PPR globally. In this review, we focused on current knowledge about host expansion and interspecies infection of PPRV and discussed the potential mechanisms involved.
Article
Full-text available
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) or goat plague is considered a leading, highly contagious, and most lethal infectious viral disease of small ruminants affecting the worldwide livestock economy and international animal trade. Although sheep and goats are the primarily affected, the PPR Virus (PPRV) host range has expanded to other livestock (large ruminants) and wildlife animals over the last few decades, resulting in serious concern to the ongoing PPR global eradication program, which is primarily optimized, designed, and targeted towards accessible sheep and goat population. A systematic review and meta-analysis study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and spill-over infection of PPRV in large ruminants (bovine and camel) and wildlife. Published articles from 2001 to October 2021 on the "PPR" were searched in four electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, and Google Scholars. The articles were then selected using inclusion criteria (detection/prevalence of PPRV in bovine, camel, and wildlife population), exclusion criteria (only sheep or goats, lack of prevalence data, experimental trial, test evaluation, and reviews written in other languages or published before 2001), and the prevalence was estimated by random effect meta-analysis model. In the current study, all published articles belonged to Africa and Asia. The overall pooled prevalence of PPR estimates was 24% (95% CI: 15-33), with 30% in Asia (95% CI: 14-49) and 20% in Africa (95% CI: 11-30). The overall estimated pooled prevalence at an Africa-Asia level in bovine and camel was 13% (95% CI: 8-19), and in wildlife, it was 52% (95% CI: 30-74) with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 97%) in most pooled estimates with a high prevalence in atypical hosts and wildlife across Asia and Africa. Over the last two decades, the host range has increased drastically in the wildlife population, even for prevalent PPR in the unnatural hosts only for a short time, contributing to virus persistence in multi-host systems with an impact on PPR control and eradication program. This observation on the epidemiology of the PPRV in unnatural hosts demands appropriate intervention strategies, particularly at the livestock-wildlife interface.
Article
Full-text available
0,77). При определении возможных направлений и факторов заноса инфекции с дикими восприимчивыми жвачными был проведен экспертный опрос, в котором специалисты в области эпизоотологии болезней мелкого рогатого скота оценили вероятность реализации опасности. В ходе опроса было установлено, что ожидается занос чумы мелких жвачных в Российскую Федерацию со стороны Монголии (вероятность 0,81), а самым значимым фактором являются сезонные миграции популяций диких жвачных. Полученные полуколичественные показатели уровня вероятной угрозы можно рекомендовать к использованию при планировании и реализации мер по недопущению заноса и распространения чумы мелких жвачных в интактные популяции домашнего и дикого мелкого рогатого скота на территории Российской Федерации. Ключевые слова: чума мелких жвачных, анализ, дикие мелкие жвачные, риск распространения заболевания, эпизоотическая ситуация, занос чумы мелких жвачных на территорию РФ Благодарности: Работа выполнена за счет средств ФГБУ «ВНИИЗЖ» в рамках тематики научно-исследовательских работ «Ветеринарное благополучие». Для цитирования: Щербинин С. В., Коренной Ф. И., Акимова Т. П., Караулов А. К. Полуколичественная оценка риска заноса чумы мел-ких жвачных на территорию Российской Федерации с дикими восприимчивыми животными. Ветеринария сегодня.
Article
Full-text available
An outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in suburban area of Rawalpindi District of Punjab province Pakistan has been investigated. A total of 38 clinically affected animals out of 140 goats and sheep 10- 18 months old with no history of PPR vaccination. Nasal and ocular swabs were analysed by RT-PCR for the presence of PPRV specific genome and their sera were analysed for PPR antibodies by competitive ELISA. Eight out of 10 swab samples were found positive for PPRV and all sera were positive for PPRV specific antibodies. It is thus speculated that a comparatively mild strain of PPR virus exists in the population.
Article
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a severe viral disease of small ruminants caused by a Morbillivirus closely related to rinderpest virus. It is widespread in Africa and Asia and is currently also found in Turkey and Northern Africa. PPR is transmitted via direct contact, and the disease would mainly be transferred to infection-free areas by transport of infected animals. In the EU, it could only happen through illegal transport of animals. The risk of that depends on the prevalence in the country of origin and the number of animals illegally moved. The extent of the spread would depend mainly on the time during which it is undetected, the farm density, the frequency and distance of travel of animals. PPR has a high within-herd transmission rate, therefore contacts between flocks, e.g. through common grazing areas, should be avoided when PPR is present. If PPR enters EU areas with dense sheep population but low goat density, it may spread rapidly undetected, since goats are considered more susceptible than sheep. Effective measures in limiting the spread of PPR in the EU include prompt culling of infected herds, rapid detection, movement restriction, and disinfection. Live attenuated vaccines against PPR are available, safe and effective, and have been successfully used to control PPR epidemics, but no method exists for differentiating between infected and vaccinated animals; therefore, the development of one is recommended. Awareness-raising campaigns for farmers and veterinary staff to promote recognition of the disease should be considered. The cooperation of the EU with neighbouring countries should be encouraged to prevent the spread of PPR and other transboundary diseases.
Thesis
La peste des petits ruminants (PPR), causée par un Morbillivirus, est l'infection virale la plus grave des caprins et ovins. Elle est largement répandue en Asie, au Moyen Orient et en Afrique. En Afrique elle est en émergence au nord et au sud du continent et représente un facteur majeur d'insécurité alimentaire pour la population agricole (70% des populations pauvres des régions considérées). La PPR est un modèle d'étude des maladies transfrontalières ; sa diffusion est très liée aux mouvements régionaux d'animaux vivants. La compréhension de cette diffusion est une condition essentielle à la mise en place de mesures de contrôle efficaces (vaccination, quarantaine, contrôle aux frontières,…). A notre connaissance aucune étude n'a été entreprise pour connaître l'ampleur de la diversité génétique du PPRv au cours d'infections naturelles de petits ruminants et l'accumulation des mutations virales dans un circuit de diffusion. Or dans les pays d'élevages extensifs tropicaux l'identification et la traçabilité animale sont inexistantes, ce qui rend difficile reconstruction des circuits de diffusion des animaux et du virus. Dans ces conditions, la diversité génétique du virus peut être utilisée comme marqueur de diffusion épidémiologique. L'objectif de cette thèse est d'utiliser la variabilité génétique du PPRV pour caractériser les lignées virales circulantes et retracer les processus de transmission du virus à travers un large territoire centré sur le Sénégal. En analysant 2 gènes de PPR nous avons estimé la vitesse d'évolution du virus sur une période de 4 années comprise en 2010 et 2014.Les résultats montrent que les premières souches de la lignée 2 de PPRv ont été introduites en 2005 au Sénégal et dans les pays voisins. L'horloge moléculaire et l'arbre phylogéographique rapportés ici indiquent clairement que la lignée II maintenant enzootique en Afrique de l'ouest prend son origine au Nigeria. Les mouvements trans-africains à l'origine du déplacement est-ouest de la lignée II trouvent leur origine dans le commerce de bétail à la croisée des frontières, une évidence économique et culturelle en Afrique de l'Ouest.Mots clés : peste des petits ruminants ; gène viral ; mutation virale ; circuit de transmission ; phylogénie ; phylogéographie ; surveillance épidémiologique, Sénégal.
Chapter
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important plague of small ruminants. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has even spread into the developed world through the spread of the infection into sheep and goat populations within European Turkey. Where the virus is present, it is often seen to disproportionately affect small ruminant production, often causing increased poverty in what are already the poorest areas of the globe. PPR is considered to be a transboundary disease of great significance through its effect on the development and maintenance of sustainable agriculture in developing countries, most notably in Western Africa and South Asia. Here, we review reporting to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and World Reference Laboratories (WRLs) over the last 16 years and comment on reporting systems. Furthermore, we discuss the utility of molecular tools to genetically type PPRV infection across Africa, Asia and Europe.
Article
An immunocapture ELISA for the diagnosis of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants is described. Monoclonal antibodies directed against non-overlapping antigenic domains on the nucleocapsid (N) were used to detect the virus N protein in supernatants from infected cells and in field specimens. The assay, which is very sensitive, can be performed in one hour on pre-coated plates. There was no cross reaction between the two viruses in the test and the N protein could be detected in infected cell supernatants kept at ambient temperature for one week. These results show that the ELISA is suitable for routine diagnosis of field samples.
Article
Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) have been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to both rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in cattle, sheep and goats. Examination of serum samples from sheep and goats in Gambia, before and after vaccination with rinderpest vaccine, suggested that antibodies to PPR virus could prevent an immune response to the rinderpest vaccine. Cattle sera from Nigeria and Ghana showed a high prevalence of antibody against PPR virus which may explain the difficulty experienced in some countries in achieving high post-vaccination immunity levels against rinderpest. Because antibodies against PPR virus are both cross-neutralizing and cross-protective against rinderpest virus further vaccination in the presence of antibodies against PPR virus may be a waste of national resources. This paper presents serological evidence for the transmission of PPR virus from sheep and goats to cattle and highlights the need to include PPR serology in the sero-monitoring programme to give a better indication of national herd immunity.
Article
The high sequence variability found in RNA viruses makes it difficult to design primers for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification which will be certain to work with all new field isolates. To overcome this problem for the detection and differential diagnosis of rinderpest (RP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viruses (V), we have designed several sets of primers, based on well-conserved sequences in the P and F genes. Analysis of a large number of field isolates from every region of the world where RPV and PPRV are found showed that no sample failed to react with more than one of the primer sets. To facilitate the multiple analyses, the reverse transcription step was performed using random hexanucleotide primers and aliquots of the cDNA were then amplified using a panel of primer sets to identify and differentiate between the virus nucleic acids in the samples. Evaluation of the method was carried out using eye swabs collected from cattle experimentally infected with RPV and goats infected with PPRV during the course of vaccine trials and on field samples such as whole blood, mouth swabs, lung, spleen and other tissues submitted to the laboratory for diagnosis. Sequencing the PCR products enabled us to examine the genetic relationships between new and previous field isolates from different geographical areas.
Article
By the end of March 2002, a collection of some 200 gazelles, kept under semi range conditions in Saudi Arabia, was hit by a highly fatal peracute disease. The morbidity rate was 51% while the case mortality rate was 100%. Clinico-pathological and virological investigations were carried out. A virus was isolated from the ailing gazelles which was identified as Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV). Epidemiology of the disease in the Arabian peninsula is discussed.
Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection and characterization of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses for epidemiological studies
  • M A Forsyth
  • MA Forsyth