Colorectal Cancer Epigenetics: Complex Simplicity
VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands Journal of Clinical Oncology
(Impact Factor: 18.43).
03/2011; 29(10):1382-91. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2010.28.2319
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has predominantly been considered a genetic disease, characterized by sequential accumulation of genetic alterations. Growing evidence indicates that epigenetic alterations add an additional layer of complexity to the pathogenesis of CRC, and characterize a subgroup of colorectal cancers with a distinct etiology and prognosis. Epigenetic dysregulation in colorectal cancer is organized at multiple levels, involving DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosomal occupancy and remodeling, chromatin looping, and noncoding RNAs. Interactions between these processes and complex associations with genetic alterations have recently been unraveled. It appears that CRC epigenetics will be the paradigm for multistep carcinogenesis, as CRC genetics has been for the past three decades. This review integrates recent data on epigenetic regulation of gene expression in CRC and describes how the understanding of these processes will alter the management of CRC.
Available from: Jichun Zhou
- "In contrast, HDACs suppress the transcription. Aberrant histone modifications not only influence gene expression and protein function but also are involved in the autophagic process (Table 2) . Histone acetylation has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism for many cellular processes including autophagy. "
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic modifications have been considered as hallmarks of cancer and play an important role in tumor initiation and development. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, may regulate cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy). Autophagy, as a crucial cellular homeostatic mechanism, performs a dual role, having pro-survival or pro-death properties. A variety of signaling pathways including epigenetic control have been implicated in the upregulation or downregulation of autophagy. However, the role of epigenetic regulation in autophagy is still less well acknowledged. Recent studies have linked epigenetic control to the autophagic process. Some epigenetic modifiers are also involved in the regulation of autophagy and potentiate the efficacy of traditional therapeutics. Thus, understanding the novel functions of epigenetic control in autophagy may allow us to develop potential therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Available from: Yue Guo
- "Importantly, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes by promoter CpG island hypermethylation has been recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer  and is frequently detected even in the early stages in colorectal cancer patients  . Multiple genes, including MLH1, p16, RASSF1A, and APC, are frequently silenced in colorectal cancer by promoter hypermethylation . Enhanced understanding of the aberrant methylation patterns in colorectal cancer has shed light on the development of agents that target enzymes responsible for reactivating epigenetically silenced genes. "
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer remains the most prevalent malignancy in humans. The impact of epigenetic alterations on the development of this complex disease is now being recognized. The dynamic and reversible nature of epigenetic modifications makes them a promising target in colorectal cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Curcumin (CUR), the major component in Curcuma longa, has been shown as a potent chemopreventive phytochemical that modulates various signaling pathways. Deleted in lung and esophageal cancer 1 (DLEC1) is a tumor suppressor gene with reduced transcriptional activity and promoter hypermethylation in various cancers, including colorectal cancer. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory role of DLEC1 in anchorage-independent growth of the human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and epigenetic regulation by CUR. Specifically, we found that CUR treatment inhibited colony formation of HT29 cells, whereas stable knockdown of DLEC1 using lentiviral short hairpin RNA vector increased cell proliferation and colony formation. Knockdown of DLEC1 in HT29 cells attenuated the ability of CUR to inhibit anchorage-independent growth. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), bisulfite genomic sequencing, and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation revealed that CUR decreased CpG methylation of the DLEC1 promoter in HT29 cells after 5 days of treatment, corresponding to increased mRNA expression of DLEC1. Furthermore, CUR decreased the protein expression of DNA methyltransferases and subtypes of histone deacetylases (HDAC4, 5, 6, and 8). Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibitory effect of CUR on anchorage-independent growth of HT29 cells could, at least in part, involve the epigenetic demethylation and up-regulation of DLEC1.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "The occurrence and development of colorectal cancer is a complicated multi-step process, which involves numerous factors and genes. A number of tumor-related events are involved in this process, including oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations and gene promoter hypermethylation (1,2). Since the identification of MMR genes, studies have investigated the association between the aberrant expression of MMR genes and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or sporadic colorectal cancer (3–5). "
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ABSTRACT: Mismatch repair (MMR) genes play an important role in the occurrence and development of sporadic colorectal cancer; however, the effect of MMR genes on clinicopathological features and prognosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to observe the clinical significance of MMR gene expression in sporadic colorectal cancer. Clinicopathological data and postoperative samples from 404 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer were obtained from the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University. The immunohistochemistry PV-9000 two-step method was performed to measure the protein expression of human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1), human mutS homolog (hMSH) 2, human postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (hPSM2) and hMSH6. Differences in clinicopathological features, family history and survival time subsequent to surgery between groups with normal and aberrant MMR protein (MMRP) expression were compared. A total of 27.23% of all patients showed aberrant nuclear staining of MMRP. Among the patients with aberrant MMRP expression, a higher proportion of patients showed aberrant expression of more than one type of MMRP than aberrant expression of only one type of MMRP. Aberrant expression of hMLH1/hPSM2 was most commonly observed (29/404). In addition, aberrant MMRP expression in colorectal cancer was indicated predominantly in the right hemicolon. Histological type primarily showed mucinous adenocarcinoma. In addition, with increasing body mass index (BMI), the MMRP deficiency rate was also shown to increase gradually. There was a close association between MMRP expression deficiency and family history of cancer (P<0.05). For TNM stage III patients, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the aberrant MMRP expression group had a three-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate of 66.67%, which was longer than the DFS rate of the normal group (55.41%), with no statistical difference (P>0.05). In conclusion, the immunohistochemistry PV-9000 two-step method can be used to measure MMRP expression in colorectal cancer. Aberrant MMRP expression is closely correlated with tumor location, histological type, BMI and tumor family history in sporadic colorectal cancer. Aberrant MMRP expression may have an effect on the prognosis of stage III patients.
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