Comparative Efficacy of Seven Hand Sanitizers against Murine Norovirus, Feline Calicivirus, and GII.4 Norovirus

Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
Journal of food protection (Impact Factor: 1.85). 12/2010; 73(12):2232-8.
Source: PubMed


Contaminated hands or inanimate surfaces can act as a source of infection during outbreaks of human norovirus infection. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of seven hand sanitizers containing various active ingredients, such as ethanol, triclosan, and chlorhexidine, and compared their effectiveness against feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and a GII.4 norovirus fecal extract. We also tested the efficacy of 50, 70, and 90% of ethanol and isopropanol. Reduction of viral infectivity was measured by plaque assay, and the number of genomic copies was determined with a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription PCR assay. Based on the results of a quantitative suspension test, only one ethanol-based product (72% ethanol, pH 2.9) and one triclosan-based product (0.1% triclosan, pH 3.0) reduced the infectivity of both MNV and FCV (by >2.6 and ≥3.4 log units, respectively). Four of the seven products were effective against either MNV or FCV, whereas chlorhexidine was ineffective against both viruses. For these hand sanitizers, no correlation was found between reduced infectivity and decline of viral RNA. Ethanol and isopropanol concentrations ≥70% reduced the infectivity of MNV by ≥2.6 log units, whereas 50 and 70% ethanol reduced the infectivity of FCV by ≥2.2 log units after exposure for 5 min. The susceptibility of FCV to low pH and the relative high susceptibility of MNV to alcohols suggest that both surrogate viruses should be considered for in vitro testing of hand sanitizers.

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    • "l . 2012 ) on the infectious titre of MNV and FCV . Our results as well as previous studies confirmed that MNV is more susceptible to alcohol and chlorhexidine than FCV ( Park et al . 2010 ; Tung et al . 2013 ; Cromeans et al . 2014 ) . These data also suggest differences between MNV and FCV regarding viral capsid integrity ( Cannon et al . 2006 ; Park et al . 2010 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. A knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food-contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic copy number. Due to the absence of a cell culture system for HuNoV, two HuNoV surrogates, such as murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, were used and the tests were performed in suspension, on gloves and on stainless steel discs. When, as criteria of efficacy, a log reduction >3 of the infectious viral titre on both surrogates and in the three tests is used, the most efficacious disinfectants in this study appear to be biocidal products B, C and D, representing the halogens, the oxidizing agents group and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde, respectively. In addition, these three disinfectants also elicited a significant effect on genomic copy number for both surrogate viruses and in all three tests. The results of this study demonstrate that a halogen compound, oxidizing agents and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde are advisable for HuNoV disinfection of either potentially contaminated surfaces or materials in contact with foodstuffs.
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    • "MNV (strain CW3), provided by Dr. Skip Virgin, Washington University School of Medicine (St Louis, Mo, USA), was propagated and assayed in RAW 264.7 cells (ATCC No. TIB-71, Manassas, VA). FCV strain F9 ATCC No.VR-782 was propagated and assayed in Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells (CRfK ATCC No. CCL-94), as previously described [30]. The infectivity titers of MNV and FCV stocks were approximately10 8.0 and 10 8.9 PFU mL À1 , respectively. "
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    • "Areas of controversy include the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand sanitizers and closures of affected units to new admissions. Despite widespread use, the evidence on the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand sanitizers is inconclusive [47,48], so they should be used in addition to, not instead of, hand washing during outbreaks. Some studies suggest that ward closure is effective at reducing cases and the duration of outbreaks [4]. "
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