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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate oral changes in subjects who have assumed a vegan diet for a long time (at least 18 months), that is to say, a diet completely lacking in meat and animal derivatives. A sample of 15 subjects was analyzed, all from northern Italy and aged 24 to 60 year, composed of 11 men and 4 women who had been following a vegan diet for a minimum of 18 months to a maximum of 20 years. In parallel with the study sample, a control group (15 subjects) with the same criteria of age, sex, and place of origin all following an omnivorous diet was chosen. The sample answered a questionnaire that investigated their eating habits, the frequency with which they eat meals, the main foodstuffs assumed, oral hygiene habits, and any painful symptomatology of the teeth or more general problems in the oral cavity. The sample was then subject to objective examination in which the saliva pH was measured and the teeth were checked for demineralization of the enamel, white spots, and caries (using KaVo DIAGNOdent) with particular attention being paid to the localization of these lesions, and lastly, sounding was carried out to detect any osseous defects and periodontal pockets. The study revealed greater incidence of demineralization and white spots in the vegan subjects compared to the omnivorous ones localized at the neck of the teeth and on the vestibular surfaces of dental elements (with the exception of the lower anterior group). The saliva pH, more acid in the omnivorous patients, ranged between four and six. Changes in oral conditions in both groups of subjects were observed. In order to research into the cause-effect relationship of the vegan diet on the oral cavity effectively, the sample needs to be studied for a longer period of time and the results re-evaluated.
... To the best of Authors' knowledge, there is little available data on oral health in individuals consuming a plantbased diet. Some epidemiological studies (16)(17)(18)(19) suggest a multifactorial etiology for white spot lesions (incipient enamel demineralization), dental erosion, erosive tooth wear and abrasion, for which special nutrition habits, such as plant-based and raw plant-based diets, may play a significant etiological role. On the other hand, the same authors reported a lower incidence of gingival inflammation and better overall oral care among individuals on a plant-based diet. ...
... On average, 13 months had elapsed since the last dental visit and 19 months had elapsed since the last professional oral hygiene appointment. Different dental therapies in the previous three years were reported in 36 (46.8%) of the responders, 16.9% of which reported dental extractions, 36.4% reported dental fillings and 7.8% reported dental implants. Overall 11 participants (14.3%) reported bruxism, 4 (5.2%) reported periodontitis and 34 (44.2%) reported dental caries ( Table 2). ...
... It has been suggested that individuals adhering to plantbased and raw plant-based diets may be at an increased risk for white spot lesions, dental erosion, erosive tooth wear or abrasion. (16)(17)(18)(19) However, there is little data available concerning the oral health in these individuals. Recently, Laffranchi et al. (16) found a higher prevalence of white spot lesions and a more acidic salivary pH in a small subset of 15 subjects consuming a plant-based diet than in 15 control subjects. ...
Article
Introduction: Plant-based diets are associated with a lower: (i) body mass index, (ii) rates of death from ischemic heart disease, (iii) serum cholesterol, (iv) incidence of high blood pressure, (v) type II diabetes mellitus and cancer, with an overall longer life expectancy. However, little data concerning the oral health in individuals on a plant-based diet are available. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the general and clinical oral health status in a cohort of adults who had been following a plant-based diet for a minimum of 24 months. Material and methods: For this purpose, individuals were administered two questionnaires (a.Questionnaire investigating risk areas for oral diseases; b. Italian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile -14 (IOHIP-14)) by a dental hygienist and clinical examination of the oral cavity was carried out. Results: Seventy-seven adult individuals were enrolled. On average, they followed a plant-based diet for the last four years, had four meals a day and brushed their teeth twice a day. Fruit was the most frequently consumed food at breakfast by 48 of the participants. Thirty-four responders did not drink beer or wine, 65 did not drink spirits, 57 avoided carbonated beverages and 62 (80.5%) did not consume any highly-sugared beverages. Different dental therapies in the previous three years were reported in 36 of the responders. Overall, answers "never and almost never" to the IOHIP-14 questionnaire were observed in 87% to 100% of the individuals. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that fresh fruit consumption at lunch had a protective effect against caries (p<0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, this study showed that individuals on a plant-based diet have good overall oral health conditions. These features are in agreement with the behavior of these subjects towards an overall healthy life style.
... 29 In a recent study, it was observed that individuals following a vegetarian diet had a lower incidence of gum inflammation and better overall oral hygiene. 30 It was also observed that vegetarians had better overall oral health, showing good self-care and prevention, which could be partly attributed to their focus on maintaining a healthy lifestyle. However, in two studies conducted by Laffranchi et al 31 and Smits and al. 32 respectively, it was found that subjects on a vegetarian diet had a higher prevalence of white spot lesions on the teeth and dental 284 erosions than controls, due to a lower salivary pH that was more acidic than controls. ...
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Simona Santonocito, Alessandro Polizzi, Giuseppe Palazzo, Francesco Indelicato, Gaetano Isola Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, Catania, ItalyCorrespondence: Gaetano IsolaUnit of Periodontology, Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, ItalyTel/Fax +390953782453Email gaetano.isola@unict.itAbstract: In the last few decades, growing evidence have shown a possible impact of diet and nutrients on oral health. This review aims to describe, in the light of current knowledge, the role of diet, nutrients, and micronutrients in periodontal health and periodontal diseases. A variety of macronutrients and micronutrients could have an impact on periodontal health. The balanced intake of unprocessed complex carbohydrates, vegetable proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins positively affects periodontal inflammation. On the other way, refined carbohydrates, non-vegetable proteins, proinflammatory saturated fatty acids and an unbalanced supply of vitamins and minerals may increase periodontal inflammation. This review will discuss the current evidence that shows how a healthy and balanced diet has anti-inflammatory and protective effects on periodontal health. Therefore, it appears that adopting a correct lifestyle and diet should be encouraged in patients with oral and periodontal disease.Keywords: periodontitis, nutrition, diet, macronutrients, micronutrients, oral health
... Vegetarians and vegans often consume less protein than omnivores [41,102], which is probably why they have lower saliva pH [103]. At the same time, Laffranchi et al. have found the opposite results: in their study omnivores had lower saliva pH [104]. ...
Article
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Vegetarians and especially vegans have a number of nutritional features, which leads to the fact that the risks of certain metabolic disorders and diseases are somewhat different from those of omnivores. This is also true for the state of the oral cavity. Thus, low serum vitamin B12 and selenium are likely to make vegetarians and vegans more prone to the development of dental caries. At the same time, high consumption of magnesium, ascorbate, folate, carotenoids, and vitamin E inadvertently has a beneficial effect on the oral soft tissue condition in vegans and vegetarians. In particular, it was found that they are less likely to suffer from inflammatory periodontal diseases. Also, there is evidence that the oral microbiome in vegetarians is slightly different from that of omnivores. Vegetarians usually have a lower bacterial content, but probably they have more candida.
... Patients with restricted dietary regimens were excluded because these have been found to influence the incidences of WSLs. We also excluded patients with previous enamel alterations or restorations on teeth lingual/palatal surface, as these alter the bonding pattern and constitute additional variables to be tested separately [28,29]. ...
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The risk of developing white spot lesions (WSLs) after orthodontic treatment with lingual brackets is generally considered lower than with labial ones, even if plaque accumulation is frequently higher due to the increased difficulty level in oral hygiene maintenance. In this prospective clinical study, selective enamel etching technique effectiveness in reducing plaque accumulation and WSLs was tested. Thirty patients were bonded with a split-mouth approach: two randomly selected opposite quadrants were used as the test sides, using customized plastic etching guides, and the other two as control sides, applying traditional direct etching methods. The plaque presence around the braces was recorded after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months according to a lingual plaque accumulation index (LPAI), as was the presence of WSLs. PAI measured values were significantly higher in the control sides during the observation period. Test and control sides differed significantly for new WSL onset only after 12 months of treatment. Therefore, the present research demonstrated that this guided enamel etching technique allowed for significant reduction in plaque accumulation around the lingual brackets and reduced onset of white spots after one year of treatment.
... Vegetarians and vegans often consume less protein than omnivores [41,102], which is probably why they have lower saliva pH [103]. At the same time, Laffranchi et al. have found the opposite results: in their study omnivores had lower saliva pH [104]. ...
Article
Vegetarians and especially vegans have a number of nutritional features, which leads to the fact that the risks of certain metabolic disorders and diseases are somewhat different from those of omnivores. This is also true for the state of the oral cavity. Thus, low serum vitamin B12 and selenium are likely to make vegetarians and vegans more prone to the development of dental caries. At the same time, high consumption of magnesium, ascorbate, folate, carotenoids, and vitamin E inadvertently has a beneficial effect on the oral soft tissue condition in vegans and vegetarians. In particular, it was found that they are less likely to suffer from inflammatory periodontal diseases. Also, there is evidence that the oral microbiome in vegetarians is slightly different from that of omnivores. Vegetarians usually have a lower bacterial content, but probably they have more candida.
... Exclusion criteria were extended to subjects with alternative food habits, such as vegan, suffering from eating disorders and assuming corticosteroids therapy [5,[17][18][19][20] or not willing to be involved. ...
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Background and objective: Dental fluorosis is a disease affecting dental hard tissues featured with white or yellowish lesions. Several treatments are proposed in the literature, some even invasive. This clinical study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of resin infiltration in terms of lesions resolution, trend of sensitive teeth and satisfaction of patients over time. Methods and material: 200 fluorosis lesions were treated using ICON infiltrating resin (DMG, Hamburg, Germany). Parameters related to patients were collected by a questionnaire and analyzed aesthetic dissatisfaction about lesions, Shiff Air Index Sensitive Scale, sensitive teeth after treatment, the satisfaction of duration of treatment. The same operator measured dimensions of lesions Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis (TSIF) and numbers of etching cycles needed for treating lesions. Statistical analysis was performed. The follow-up was of 1-year a measurement were performed at baseline (t0), immediately after the treatment (t1) and every three months during the observation period. Results: All lesions disappeared after one treatment. Pain or sensitive teeth were reported inside the 72 h and they disappeared after. Statistical analysis showed highly statistically correlation between etching cycles and the dimension of lesions and TSIF at the time-points evaluated as well as for pain during treatment, whereas a statistical significance was not noticed where etching cycles were correlated to sensitive teeth after 72 h. Overall, the treatment was found to be statistically significantly associated with differences in answers of aesthetic dissatisfaction between t0 and t1 and those collected between t1 and t2. Between t2 and t3 and between t3 and t4 no statistical differences were found in answers of patients about dissatisfaction, indicating the stability of the results. Conclusions: The ICON resin infiltration technique was found to be effective in lesions resolution with steady results.
... Early research with small sample sizes has suggested that a vegan diet may predispose patients to demineralisation and white spot lesions. 2 There are several reasons as to why this may be the case: vegans may substitute animal derived products with starchy, sugar-based carbohydrates that contribute to demineralisation, for example. Furthermore, Dental foundation trainees Joelle Booth and Julia Hurry explore how a vegan diet affects oral health and the role of the dental professional. ...
... In a caries incidence study conducted on students in India, it was found that the children with low incidence of caries often had a vegetarian diet type (30). In another study in which 15 individuals with a vegetarian diet type were examined and the oral effects of the diet type were investigated, it was found that they exhibited a lower DMFT, DT than the control group (31). ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of oral hygiene and dietary habits on body mass index (BMI) and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index of dentistry faculty students. A total of 166 students studying at Van Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Dentistry were included in the study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 16 questions related to diet and oral hygiene habits. The number of teeth in the mouth and DMFT indexes were recorded according to WHO criteria. During the general health examination, the length and weight of the participants were measured and recorded. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as kilograms per meter squared. Calculated BMI of the male and the female participants was found as 23.23 and 21.48 respectively. Statistically, no significant relationship was found between the diet and oral hygiene habits in the survey and BMI and DMFT(p>0.05). When ZINB regression results were examined, it was observed that there is a significant difference statistically between the classes in terms of DMFT (p<0.0001), however there is no difference in terms of BMI and gender (p>0.05). Considering the future roles of the students in the faculty of dentistry, it is very important to find out their information level about both oral hygiene habits and diet habits and if necessary to plan future trainings about this and aim to increase the information levels. Key Words: BMI, DMFT, diet habits
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Purpose of review To evaluate the impact of healthy dietary patterns compared to the Western diet on periodontal indices in adults, used in the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. Recent findings Four RCTs and seven case–control studies were included on a critical appraisal of the evidence using GRADE, based on random effects meta-analysis by methodological subgroups for periodontal indices, and a narrative synthesis. There is a clinically significant reduction on bleeding on probing, Gingival Index and periodontal inflamed surface area, Calculus and Debris Index and incidence of tooth loss on healthy dietary patterns group, with a very low to moderate certainty of the evidence. Methodological complementation between included studies allows to consider “real-world data” that RCTs ignore, which have a significant effect on this association. Although biological plausibility is reported, more studies are required to clarify these results. Summary healthy dietary patterns could impact on periodontal health–disease status, reducing the global burden of periodontal diseases by improving the results of the standard care actions, such as toothbrushing, interdental cleaning and periodontal therapy. Further research is required to improve the quality of the evidence.
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