Erysipelothrix Spp. Genotypes, Serotypes, and Surface Protective Antigen Types Associated with Abattoir Condemnations

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc (Impact Factor: 1.35). 01/2011; 23(1):139-42. DOI: 10.1177/104063871102300126
Source: PubMed


The objective of the current study was to investigate characteristics of Erysipelothrix spp. from slaughter condemnations. Specimens from 70 carcasses with lesions suspect for swine erysipelas were collected at an abattoir in Iowa from October 2007 to February 2009. Erysipelothrix spp. were isolated from 59 of 70 carcasses (84.3%). Abattoir inspectors classified lesions as acute, subacute, or chronic; 8 of 8 (100%) were acute cases, 31 of 32 (96.9%) were subacute cases, and 20 of 30 (66.6%) were chronic cases that were isolation positive. The following serotypes were identified: 1a (40.7%; 24/59), 2 (49.2%; 29/59), 7 (1/59), 10 (1/59), 11 (1/59), and untypeable (5.1%; 3/59). Serotypes 1a and 2 were identified in pigs with acute, subacute, or chronic clinical manifestations, whereas serotypes 7, 10, and 11 were only present in chronic cases. Fifty-seven of the 59 isolates were determined to belong to E. rhusiopathiae, and 2 of 59 of the isolates were determined to be E. tonsillarum by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Surface protective antigen (spa) A was detected in all E. rhusiopathiae isolates but not in E. tonsillarum serotypes 7 and 10. The results of the present study indicate that E. rhusiopathiae serotypes 1a and 2 continue to be commonly isolated from condemned pig carcasses and that spaA is the exclusive spa type in U.S. abattoir isolates. Interestingly, E. tonsillarum, thought to be avirulent for swine, was isolated from systemic sites from 3.4% of the carcasses that were negative for E. rhusiopathiae, indicating the potential importance of this genotype in erysipelas pathogenesis.

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    • "There are currently 28 known serotypes, with 1a, 1b, and 2 being the most frequent serotypes in pig populations (Takahashi et al., 1996; Imada et al., 2004; Opriessnig et al., 2004; Bender et al., 2011). In addition, there are several recognized genotypes including E. rhusiopathiae, Erysipelothrix tonsillarum, Erysipelothrix inopinata sp. "
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    ABSTRACT: Swine erysipelas is an economically important disease caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Pen-based collection of oral fluids has recently been utilized for monitoring infection dynamics in swine operations. The diagnostic performance of bacterial isolation, real-time PCR, and antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) methods were evaluated on pen-based oral fluid samples from pigs experimentally infected with E. rhusiopathiae (n=112) and from negative controls (n=32). While real-time PCR was a sensitive method with an overall detection rate of 100% (7/7 pens) one day post inoculation (dpi), E. rhusiopathiae was successfully isolated in only 28.6% (2/7 pens). Anti-Erysipelothrix IgM and IgG antibodies in pen-based oral fluids was detected at 4 to 5 dpi by FMIA and at 5 and 8 dpi by ELISA. The number of infected animals per pen, and in particular the timing of antimicrobial treatment administration impacted bacterial isolation and ELISA results. In oral fluid field samples, E. rhusiopathiae DNA was found in 23.3% of the samples while anti-E. rhusiopathiae IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 59.6% and 5.5% of the samples, respectively. The results suggest that an algorithm integrating oral fluids as specimen and real-time PCR and FMIA as detection methods is effective for earlier detection of an erysipelas outbreak thereby allowing for a more effective treatment outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of microbiological methods
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to characterize Erysipelothrix sp. strains from recent erysipelas outbreaks in Japan. Eighty-three (100%) strains were identified as E. rhusiopathiae, based on serotyping and spaA PCR. Fifty (60.3%), 5 (6.0%), and 28 (33.7%) strains were isolated from animals with acute, subacute and chronic outbreaks, respectively, of which 79 (95.2%), 1 (1.2%), and 3 (3.6%) belonged to serotypes 1a, 2a, and untypeable, respectively. Fifteen strains (including 3, 2, and 10 from acute, subacute, and chronic cases, respectively) were sensitive to acriflavine, and showed high levels of virulence in mice; of which strains from acute cases, and from subacute and chronic cases killed 100%, and 80 to 100% mice, respectively at challenge doses of 10(2) CFU per mouse. Based on sequence analysis of a 432-bp hypervariable region in spaA gene, 83 strains could be divided into 3 groups: (i) group 1 (3 strains of serotype 1a) had Ala-195 and Ile-203; (ii) group 2 (76 strains of serotype 1a and 3 of untypeable) had Asp-195 and Met-203; and (iii) group 3 (one strain of serotype 2a) had Asn-195 and Ile-203. The results of the present study suggest that the serotype 1a strains belonging to the group 2 might be widespread in pig populations in Japan.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-Erysipelothrix spp. IgG in pig sera by utilizing recombinant polypeptide SpaA415 (rSpaA415) based on surface protective antigen (Spa) A (SpaA) of Erysipelothrix spp. The sensitivity of the rSpaA415 ELISA was evaluated on sera from pigs experimentally infected with E. rhusiopathiae serotype 1a (n=72), serotype 19 (n=12), or experimentally vaccinated with a commercial attenuated-live vaccine based on serotype 1a (n=12), a commercial bacterin based on serotype 2 (n=12), or an experimental bacterin based on serotype 2 (n=300). Specificity was tested using 221 negative control samples. The earliest antibody response was detected at 7days post-inoculation (dpi) and 14days post-vaccination (dpv). At the cutoff of 0.9 sample optical density, the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 100%. In experimentally infected pigs, the sensitivity of the rSpaA415 ELISA ranged from 5.5 to 100% which improved as dpi increased. Antimicrobial treatment, administered prior to appearance of clinical signs, decreased assay sensitivity. In vaccinated pigs, the rSpaA415 ELISA had a sensitivity of 48.3-100%. Serum samples from rabbits each hyperimmunized with one of the 28 Erysipelothrix spp. serotypes were used to determine cross-reactivity with strains expressing SpaB, SpaC or no currently recognized Spa protein and antibodies against E. tonsillarum were not detected. These data suggest that the novel rSpaA415 ELISA test is a useful tool to detect anti-IgG antibodies against different serotypes of E. rhusiopathiae in infected or vaccinated pigs without cross-reacting with the economically less important E. tonsillarum strains.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of microbiological methods
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