Measuring depression and PTSD after trauma: Common scales and checklists

Article (PDF Available)inInjury 42(3):288-300 · March 2011with50 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2010.11.045 · Source: PubMed
Traumatic injury is an important public health problem secondary to high levels of morbidity and mortality. Injured survivors face several physical, emotional, and financial repercussions that can significantly impact their lives as well as their family. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are the most common psychiatric sequelae associated with traumatic injury. Factors affecting the prevalence of these psychiatric symptoms include: concomitant TBI, the timing of assessment of depression and PTSD, the type of injury, premorbid, sociodemographic, and cultural factors, and co-morbid medical conditions and medication side effects. The appropriate assessment of depression and PTSD is critical to an understanding of the potential consequences of these disorders as well as the development of appropriate behavioural and pharmacological treatments. The reliability and validity of screening instruments and structured clinical interviews used to assess depression and PTSD must be considered. Common self-report instruments and structured clinical interviews used to assess depression and PTSD and their reliability and validity are described. Future changes in diagnostic criteria for depression and PTSD and recent initiatives by the National Institute of Health regarding patient-reported outcomes may result in new methods of assessing these psychiatric sequelae of traumatic injury.

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Available from: Hans Christoph Pape
    • "None of the sociodemographic (gender, age, educational level, having children) or clinical (previous contact with MHS) variables were predictive of PTSD. In this sample our data do not confirm that women are more vulnerable to PTSD despite the large number of studies reporting such findings (Carr et al. 1995; Karanci and Rustemli 1995; Sharan et al. 1996; C. C. Chen et al. 2001; Basoglu et al. 2002; Livanou et al. 2002; Salcioglu et al. 2003; Kiliç and Ulusoy 2003; Chang et al. 2005; Montazeri et al. 2005; Sattler et al. 2006; Hansson et al. 1994; C. H. Chen et al. 2007; Kuwabara et al. 2008; Priebe et al. 2009; Steel et al. 2011; Ahmad et al. 2010; Dell'Osso et al. 2011b; Zhang and Ho 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our 6-month follow-up study was to assess predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals seeking treatment at the General Hospital Psychiatric Unit within the first month following the L’Aquila earthquake. Clinical, trauma-related and neurocognitive variables were considered. At the 6-month follow-up, 91 (74.5%) out of 122 subjects were re-assessed and administered the Impact of Events Scale-revised (IES-R) for the detection of PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria. Within 4 weeks following the earthquake, patients were assessed with a checklist of traumatic-event-related variables, along with the Stanford Acute Stress Disorder Questionnaire (SASDQ) for the detection of ASD, with a short battery on working (Wechler Memory Scale-R, Digit Forward and Backward) and verbal memory (subtest of Milan Overall Dementia Assessment, MODA). A statistically significant higher proportion of subjects affected by ‘partial’ ASD showed a PTSD diagnosis (80.6%, N = 29) compared to not diagnosed subjects (40%, N = 22) and a PTSD diagnosis was shown by all the 4 subjects (4.4%) affected by ‘full’ ASD at the entry in the study. At the 6-month follow-up 56% of the sample could be considered affected by PTSD on the IES-R scale. The results of the logistic regression analysis on our selected predictors indicated that the persistent fear of aftershocks seemed to increase by over 57 times the likelihood of positive estimate of PTSD, followed by impairment of working memory backward (OR 48.2), and having being diagnosed as ASD case in the first 4 week after the earthquake (OR 17.4). This study underlines the importance of identifying PTSD predictors, in order to planning early treatment interventions after natural disasters.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
  • Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Some life-event experiences such as injuries in car accidents, gun shots and the like, can be life changing and traumatic. Objectives: The article investigated the relationship between mental health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after orthopaedic trauma, and attempted to understand whether social support moderates the relationship between mental health and PTSD.Method: A cross-sectional research model was used. Two hundred participants were selected using simple randomisation within a hospital complex in Gauteng, South Africa. The sample consisted of 110 men and 90 women (x̄ = 37.8 years, s.d. = 12.9 years). Data were collected using the Revised Civilian Mississippi Scale for PTSD, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the General Health Questionnaire version 28.Results: The findings of the study indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between mental health and PTSD after orthopaedic trauma, and a positive correlation between poor mental health and PTSD (r = 0.52, n = 200, p < 0.05). However, perceived social support did not moderate mental health or PTSD, indicating that perceived social support did not significantly influence mental health or PTSD, (MSPSS B = 0.07, p = 0.66). Those with high scores on social support had a lower regression coefficient (B = 0.19) for mental health and PTSD than those who reported low social support (B = 0.26).Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between mental health and PTSD of orthopaedic patients, and social support did not moderate the relationship between mental health and PTSD.
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