Jolin EM, Weller RA, Weller EB. Occurrence of affective disorders compared to other psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. J Affect Disord 136: 222-228
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) is a common genetic disorder with highly variable clinical manifestations that may include depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Studies of psychiatric disorders in youth with 22qDS often had methodological limitations. This study reviewed clinical studies with the currently best available methodology to determine the occurrence of affective disorders compared to other psychiatric disorders in youth with 22qDS. A PubMed search was performed to identify psychiatric studies published from 2000 through 2009 of children and adolescents with genetically confirmed 22qDS who underwent systematic psychiatric assessments. Studies that met defined inclusion/exclusion criteria were selected for further analysis. Seven studies with a total of 323 children and adolescents with 22qDS (mean age=10.8 years) met the defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Depressive disorders, but not bipolar spectrum disorders, were increased compared to community-based rates in youth without 22qDS. Anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were the most frequent disorders. Although psychotic-like phenomena and schizotypical traits were reported, only two adolescents (<1%) had a psychotic disorder. Unknown selection and assessment factors may have impacted on occurrence rates. The elevated occurrence of depressive, anxiety, and attention disorders in children with 22qDS, compared to community-based rates in children without 22qDS, suggest that psychiatric screening is needed. Longitudinal study is needed to determine if these childhood psychiatric disorders will resolve, continue into adulthood, or develop into more serious psychopathology.