Prevention of allergic reactions to platelets and red blood cells through plasma reduction
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Transfusion
(Impact Factor: 3.23).
08/2011; 51(8):1676-83. DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.03008.x
The incidence of allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) ranges from 1% to 3% of all transfusions, and they are difficult to prevent. This study evaluated whether removing plasma from apheresis platelets (APs) or red blood cells (RBCs) by concentrating or washing transfusion products can decrease the incidence of ATRs.
A retrospective cohort study of 179 individuals who received unmanipulated and subsequently concentrated and/or washed APs was conducted. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations was used to estimate the incident rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ATRs.
The incidence of ATRs to unmanipulated APs was 5.5% (306 ATRs/5575 AP units). The incidence decreased to 1.7% (135 ATRs/4327 AP units) when individuals received concentrated APs (73% reduction; 95% CI, 65%-79%) and 0.5% (21 ATRs/4082 AP units) when individuals received washed APs (95% reduction; 95% CI, 91%-97%). Of the 39 individuals who received unmanipulated RBCs and subsequently washed RBCs, the incidence of ATRs decreased from 2.7% (33 ATRs/1236 RBC units) to 0.3% (2 ATRs/733 RBC units; 89.4% reduction; 95% CI, 55.5%-97.5%). The median number of AP transfusions to first ATR was six (interquartile range [IQR], 2-19) for unmanipulated APs and increased to 13 (IQR, 4-32) for concentrated APs and 40 (IQR, 29-73.5) for washed APs.
Concentrating APs and washing APs and RBCs substantially reduces ATRs, suggesting that the plasma component of APs and RBCs has an essential role in the etiology of ATRs.
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- "There is good evidence, supported by the impact of leucodepletion that many febrile reactions are caused by reactions to donor white cells or accumulation of biological response modifiers during component storage (Heddle, 2007). Except in rare cases, a specific allergen will not be identified in patients with allergic transfusion reactions (Sandler & Vassallo, 2011), although plasma reduction may lower their frequency (Tobian et al, 2011). Recent evidence suggests that recipient factors may be paramount in predicting allergic transfusion reactions and that preventative strategies should be directed at the minority of patients who have a propensity to severe reactions (Savage et al, 2011). "
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ABSTRACT: Although acute non-haemolytic febrile or allergic reactions (ATRs) are a common complication of transfusion and often result in little or no morbidity, prompt recognition and management are essential. The serious hazards of transfusion haemovigilance organisation (SHOT) receives 30–40 reports of anaphylactic reactions each year. Other serious complications of transfusion, such as acute haemolysis, bacterial contamination, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) may present with similar clinical features to ATR.
This guideline describes the approach to a patient developing adverse symptoms and signs related to transfusion, including initial recognition, establishing a likely cause, treatment, investigations, planning future transfusion and reporting within the hospital and to haemovigilance organisations.
Key recommendations are that adrenaline should be used as first line treatment of anaphylaxis, and that transfusions should only be carried out where patients can be directly observed and where staff are trained in manging complications of transfusion, particularly anaphylaxis. Management of ATRs is not dependent on classification but should be guided by symptoms and signs. Patients who have experienced an anaphylactic reaction should be discussed with an allergist or immunologist, in keeping with UK resuscitation council guidelines.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Plasma removal by the manual method is reported to result in less than 10% of loss of the platelets, and it does not affect the platelet function either . Tobian et al. reported that washed platelets decrease the incidence of ATRs . We also observed that ATRs could be prevented simply by transfusing washed platelets in our patient with anhaptoglobinemia. "
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ABSTRACT: Anaphylactic transfusion reactions are rare complications of blood transfusions. Anhaptoglobinemia, a condition that has high incidence in Asia, can cause allergic transfusion reactions or anaphylaxis in severe cases. A 50-yr-old Korean woman was diagnosed with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia. She developed thrombocytopenia during chemotherapy and an anaphylactic transfusion reaction on the 4th and 5th platelet transfusions immediately after the transfusion of the platelet concentrates was initiated. Blood analysis showed no detectable serum haptoglobin. We examined her genetic phenotype and detected anhaptoglobinemia, which occurs because of an allelic deletion in the Hp gene cluster. The presence of an antibody against haptoglobin was detected by performing ELISA. To prevent anaphylactic reactions, apheresis platelets were transfused after washing. Consequently, anaphylactic transfusion reactions did not develop. Here, we report the first case of anhaptoglobinemia causing anaphylactic transfusion reaction in Korea.
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ABSTRACT: The biologic mechanisms of allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) are largely unknown. We sought to compare the atopic predisposition of platelet (PLT) recipients who experienced an ATR to nonreactive control recipients.
We identified 37 consecutive apheresis PLT recipients who experienced an ATR and 26 matched controls. Total immunoglobulin (Ig)E and aero- and food allergen-specific IgE were quantified in plasma by a blood test for allergies (ImmunoCAP: Phadiatop and Fx5). IgE testing of apheresis PLT supernatants was also performed.
Pruritus and urticaria were manifest in 91.9 and 83.8% of all ATRs, with more severe respiratory symptoms and angioedema occurring in less than 15% of cases. No subject had anaphylaxis. Sex, age, and primary diagnosis were balanced between the two groups. Total and aeroallergen-specific IgE was higher among subjects experiencing an ATR in comparison to control subjects (median total IgE, 55.5 kU/L vs. 8.3 kU/L, p = 0.002; and median aeroallergen-specific IgE, 0.57 kUa/L vs. 0.36 kUa/L, p = 0.046). IgE antibody levels in apheresis products associated with ATRs were similar to control products (p > 0.1 for all IgE tests).
Recipient atopic predisposition, as defined by IgE sensitization, is a risk factor associated with ATRs.
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