Evaluation of different esthetic smile criteria
The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of different esthetic smile criteria as determined on the smiles of celebrities, which were considered by lay people to be beautiful.
An Internet search for "best smile" and "female celebrities" in the years 2007 and 2008 identified 50 celebrities who were voted to have beautiful smiles. Another search was made for images of these celebrities that showed the entire face with an open smile. The images were analyzed using Digimizer image analysis software for different esthetic smile criteria.
Eighty percent of the sample was classified as having an average upper lip position, 62% showed upward upper lip curvature, and 78% had a parallel smile line. Forty-two percent of the images showed the maxillary anterior teeth not touching the lower lip, while 34% were touching, and 24% slightly covered it. Sixty percent displayed up to the second premolar, and 32% displayed up to the first molar when smiling. Midline deviation was detected in 36% of the sample. Diastema and golden proportion were not seen in any of the subjects.
Female celebrities voted to have the best smile by lay people showed most of the esthetic smile criteria with slight variations, except for the golden proportion. The opinions and perceptions of lay people about beauty should be studied and evaluated.
Available from: Carlos Alberto Aiello
- "Orthodontists increasingly deal with subjectivity of beauty in their offices, because most of patients who seek for treatment have esthetic complaints and want to improve attractiveness by treating their smile and faces (Aljohany , Algahtani, Algahtani & Alzahrani, 2011; Springer et al., 2011; Feu, Oliveira, Celeste & Miguel, 2012). Studies has shown that esthetic smiles are associated to status, intelligence, emotional stability, dominance, sexuality and even improve individual's reception and inclusion in society (Al-johany et al., 2011; Batwa, Hunt, Petrie & Gill, 2012). "
Available from: europepmc.org
- "In addition, curvatures of upper lip during full smile were measured and categorized using the following criteria (Figure 3):6,7 (i) upward lip curvature means that the corner of the mouth is at 1 mm higher than a horizontal line drawn through the center of the lower border of the upper lip; (ii) straight lip curvature means that the corner of the mouth at or within 1 mm above and below a horizontal line drawn through the center of the lower border of the upper lip; (iii)downward lip curvature means that the corner of the mouth is at more than 1 mm lower than a horizontal line drawn through the center of the lower border of the upper lip. "
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ABSTRACT: During smile evaluation and anterior esthetic construction, the anatomic and racial variations should be considered in order to achieve better matching results. The aims of this study were to validate an objective method for recording spontaneous smile process and to categorize the smile and upper lip curvature of Chinese Han-nationality youth. One hundred and eighty-eight Chinese Han-nationality youths (88 males and 100 females) ranged from 20 to 35 years of age were selected. Spontaneous smiles were elicited by watching comical movies and the dynamics of the spontaneous smile were captured continuously with a digital video camera. All subjects' smiles were categorized into three types: commissure, cuspid and gummy smile based on video editing software and final images. Subjects' upper lip curvatures were also measured and divided into three groups: upward, straight and downward. Reliability analysis was conducted to obtain intra-rater reliabilities on twice measurements. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare differences for each parameters (α=0.05). In smile classification, 60.6% commissure smile, 33.5% cuspid smile and 5.9% gummy smile were obtained. In upper lip measurement, 26.1% upward, 39.9% straight and 34.0% downward upper lip curvature were determined. The commissure smile group showed statistically significant higher percentage of straight (46.5%) and upward (40.4%) in upper lip curvatures (P<0.05), while cuspid smile group (65.1%) and gummy smile group (72.7%) showed statistically significant higher frequency in downward upper lip curvature (P<0.05). It is evident that differences in upper lip curvature and smile classification exist based on race, when comparing Chinese subjects with those of Caucasian descent, and gender.International Journal of Oral Science (2013) 5, doi:10.1038/ijos.2013.17; published online 5 April 2013.
Available from: Barbara De Lima Lucas
- "The lack of Divine Proportion among dental and facial structures are also stated in recent literature (Bukhary et.al., 2007; Murthy and Ramani, 2008; Mizumoto et.al., 2009; Nikgoo et.al., 2011; Condon et.al., 2011; Al-Johany et.al., 2011) attesting this proportion as an unsuitable method to relate dentofacial dimensions with natural or even 'attractive' appearance during rehabilitation treatments. According to the values presented on table 3, the lip commissure distance was in Golden Proportion to the interalar distance only in 1,3% of the total sample (LCD-IAD), and the mean ratio found was 1,395 instead of 1,618 as stated by Rickets (1981). "
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