Survival of Zirconia- and Metal-Supported Fixed Dental Prostheses: A Systematic Review

Department of Preclinical Research, Ivoclar Viadent, Benderersterasse 2, Schaan, Liechtenstein.
The International journal of prosthodontics (Impact Factor: 1.46). 11/2010; 23(6):493-502.
Source: PubMed


The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and compare the frequency of veneer chipping and core fracture of zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) FDPs and determine possible influencing factors.
The SCOPUS database and International Association of Dental Research abstracts were searched for clinical studies involving zirconia and PFM FDPs. Furthermore, studies that were integrated into systematic reviews on PFM FDPs were also evaluated. The principle investigators of any clinical studies on zirconia FDPs were contacted to provide additional information. Based on the available information for each FDP, a data file was constructed. Veneer chipping was divided into three grades (grade 1 = polishing, grade 2 = repair, grade 3 = replacement). To assess the frequency of veneer chipping and possible influencing factors, a piecewise exponential model was used to adjust for a study effect.
None of the studies on PFM FDPs (reviews and additional searching) sufficiently satisfied the criteria of this review to be included. Thirteen clinical studies on zirconia FDPs and two studies that investigated both zirconia and PFM FDPs were identified. These studies involved 664 zirconia and 134 PFM FDPs at baseline. Follow-up data were available for 595 zirconia and 127 PFM FDPs. The mean observation period was approximately 3 years for both groups. The frequency of core fracture was less than 1% in the zirconia group and 0% in the PFM group. When all studies were included, 142 veneer chippings were recorded for zirconia FDPs (24%) and 43 for PFM FDPs (34%). However, the studies differed extensively with regard to veneer chipping of zirconia: 85% of all chippings occurred in 4 studies, and 43% of all chippings included zirconia FDPs. If only studies that evaluated both types of core materials were included, the frequency of chipping was 54% for the zirconia-supported FDPs and 34% for PFM FDPs. When adjusting the survival rate for the study effect, the difference between zirconia and PFM FDPs was statistically significant for all grades of chippings (P = .001), as well as for chipping grade 3 (P = .02). If all grades of veneer chippings were taken into account, the survival of PFM FDPs was 97%, while the survival rate of the zirconia FDPs was 90% after 3 years for a typical study. For both PFM and zirconia FDPs, the frequency of grades 1 and 2 veneer chippings was considerably higher than grade 3. Veneer chipping was significantly less frequent in pressed materials than in hand-layered materials, both for zirconia and PFM FDPs (P = .04).
Since the frequency of veneer chipping was significantly higher in the zirconia FDPs than PFM FDPs, and as refined processing procedures have started to yield better results in the laboratory, new clinical studies with these new procedures must confirm whether the frequency of veneer chipping can be reduced to the level of PFM.

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Available from: Siegward Heintze, May 06, 2015
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    • "Digital and SEM photographs of the failed specimens were taken in order to assess failure patterns . According with the classification described by Heintze and Rousson [6], types of failures were divided in Repairable Fracture (Grades 1 and 2) and Non Repairable Failure (Grade 3). Between-group differences in fracture strength were statistically analyzed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Chipping is the most frequent clinical failure of zirconia crowns. Causes of chipping have not been completely understood and different possible reasons have been considered. The study was aimed at evaluating the fracture resistance of 3 different CAD/CAM zirconia frame designs veneered with porcelain. Methods: Thirty extracted sound premolars were divided into 3 groups (n=10). Chamfer preparations were performed, impressions were taken. Three zirconia frame designs (Aadva, GC) were realized: reproduction of the abutment contour (flat design, FD); wax-up as for porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns (PFM); anatomically guided, designed to keep constant the thickness of the overlying porcelain veneering (AG). Porcelain veneering was made with pressure layering technique (Initial Zr, GC). Crowns were cemented utilizing a self-adhesive resin cement (G-Cem, GC). After a 24-h water storage at 37°C, using a universal testing machine (1 mm crosshead speed), crowned teeth were loaded in the central fossa in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tooth. Load at fracture was recorded in Newtons (N). Digital photographs of the specimens were taken in order to assess failure patterns. Between-group differences in fracture strength were statistically analyzed (One-Way Analysis of Variance, Tukey test, p<0.05). Result: Load at fractures differed significantly among the groups (p=0.004). AG exhibited significantly higher fracture resistance 1721.6 (488.1) N than PFM 1004.6 (321.3) N and FD 1179.5 (536.2) N, that were comparable. Repairable failures occurred in 80% of AG, 70% of PFM, and 50% of FD specimens. Significance: Anatomically guided zirconia frames resisted significantly higher loads than flat and PFM-like frame designs.
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    • "Several studies have shown that the strength of zirconia test specimens has not been significantly affected by aging according to the ISO standard 13356 (steam autoclave: 5 hours at 0.2 MPa and 134 °C) [55]. Molin et al. followed zirconia restorations for at least 5 years concluding that the fracture of zirconia is rare [56-58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Since the immemorial, the replacement of missing teeth has been a medical and cosmetic necessity for human kind. Nowadays, middle-aged population groups have experienced improved oral health, as compared to previous generations, and the percentage of edentulous adults can be expected to further decline. However, with the continued increase in the number of older adult population, it is anticipated that the need for some form of full-mouth restoration might increase from 53.8 million in 1991 to 61 million in 2020 [1]. Denture prosthetics has undergone many development stages since the first dentures were fabricated. The introduction of computer-aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has resulted in a more accurate manufacturing of prosthetic frameworks, greater accuracy of dental restorations, and in particular, implant supported prosthesis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Open Dentistry Journal
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    • "Literature reviews such as those made by Raigrodski, Anusavice and Heintze show that the most frequent types of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses chipping are Grades 1 and 2, which do not involve restoration failure (5,8,9). "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words "zirconium oxide," "zirconia," "non-metal restorations," "ceramic oxides," "veneering ceramic," "zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses". Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis.
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