Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis of membrane proteins in renal proximal and distal tubule

ArticleinAJP Cell Physiology 300(4):C755-70 · March 2011with21 Reads
DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00360.2010 · Source: PubMed
Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have provided means for large-scale phosphoproteomic profiling of specific tissues. Here, we report results from large-scale tandem MS [liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS]-based phosphoproteomic profiling of biochemically isolated membranes from the renal cortex, with focus on transporters and regulatory proteins. Data sets were filtered (by target-decoy analysis) to limit false-positive identifications to <2%. A total of 7,125 unique nonphosphorylated and 743 unique phosphorylated peptides were identified. Among the phosphopeptides identified were sites on transporter proteins, i.e., solute carrier (Slc, n = 63), ATP-binding cassette (Abc, n = 4), and aquaporin (Aqp, n = 3) family proteins. Database searches reveal that a majority of the phosphorylation sites identified in transporter proteins were previously unreported. Most of the Slc family proteins are apical or basolateral transporters expressed in proximal tubule cells, including proteins known to mediate transport of glucose, amino acids, organic ions, and inorganic ions. In addition, we identified potentially important phosphorylation sites for transport proteins from distal nephron segments, including the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (Slc12a1 or NKCC2) at Ser(87), Thr(101), and Ser(126) and the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (Slc12a3 or NCC) at Ser(71) and Ser(124). A subset of phosphorylation sites in regulatory proteins coincided with known functional motifs, suggesting specific regulatory roles. An online database from this study ( provides a resource for future studies of transporter regulation.
    • "The enumeration of the list of components has been greatly benefited from the recent advancements in high-throughput techniques such as DNA and oligonucleotide microarrays, deep sequencing, protein mass spectrometry, multiplex affinity-based assays, and cell sorting-based assays. We have previously used mass spectrometry to perform phosphoproteomic profiling in several cell types in the kidney (3, 20, 23, 50). Although tyrosine phosphorylation plays a critical role in cellular signaling and has been the target of dysregulation in a number of diseases, its extremely low abundance [estimated to constitute only 1.8% of the phosphoproteome (43)] makes its detection in phosphoproteomic analyses challenging. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although extensive phosphoproteomic information is available for renal epithelial cells, previous emphasis has been on phosphorylation of serines and threonines with little focus on tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we have carried out large-scale identification of phosphotyrosine sites in pervanadate-treated native inner medullary collecting ducts of rat, with a view towards identification of physiological processes in epithelial cells that are potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. The method combined antibody-based affinity purification of tyrosine phosphorylated peptides coupled with immobilized metal ion chromatography to enrich tyrosine phosphopeptides, which were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 418 unique tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 273 proteins were identified. A large fraction of these sites have not been previously reported on standard phosphoproteomic databases. All results are accessible via an online database: Analysis of surrounding sequences revealed four overrepresented motifs: [D/E]xxY*, Y*xxP, DY*, and Y*E, where the asterisk symbol indicates the site of phosphorylation. These motifs plus contextual information, integrated using the NetworKIN tool, suggest that the protein tyrosine kinases involved include members of the insulin- and ephrin-receptor kinase families. Analysis of the gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways whose protein elements are overrepresented in our data set point to structures involved in epithelial cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions ("adherens junction," "tight junction," and "focal adhesion") and to components of the actin cytoskeleton as major sites of tyrosine phosphorylation in these cells. In general, these findings mesh well with evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a key role in epithelial polarity determination.
    Article · Sep 2011
    • "These observations could indicate that phosphorylation of NCC at the N terminus only occurs when the cotransporter is anchored in the plasma membrane. Several novel phosphorylation sites including Ser 124 (rat, equivalent to Ser 126 in human NCC) and Ser 811 in NCC have recently been identified; however at the present time, no function has been assigned to these residues [12, 23] (Fig. 1). In addition to phosphorylation, trafficking of NCC from subapical vesicles to the plasma membrane may also be an important factor in regulating NaCl cotransport in the DCT. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) plays key roles in renal electrolyte transport and blood pressure maintenance. Regulation of this cotransporter has received increased attention recently, prompted by the discovery that mutations in the with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases are the molecular explanation for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). Studies suggest that WNK4 regulates NCC via two distinct pathways, depending on its state of activation. Furthermore, an intact STE20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress response 1 kinase (OSR1) pathway was found to be necessary for a WNK4 PHAII mutation to increase NCC phosphorylation and blood pressure in mice. The mouse protein 25α is a novel regulator of the SPAK/OSR1 kinase family, which greatly increases their activity. The phosphorylation status of NCC and the WNK is regulated by the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1, suggesting novel mechanisms whereby aldosterone modulates NCC activity. Dephosphorylation of NCC by protein phosphatase 4 strongly influences the activity of the cotransporter, confirming an important role for NCC phosphorylation. Finally, γ-adducin increases NCC activity. This stimulatory effect is dependent on the phosphorylation status of the cotransporter. γ-Adducin only binds the dephosphorylated cotransporter, suggesting that phosphorylation of NCC causes the dissociation of γ-adducin. Since γ-adducin is not a kinase, it is tempting to speculate that the protein exerts its function by acting as a scaffold between the dephosphorylated cotransporter and the regulatory kinase. As more molecular regulators of NCC are identified, the system-controlling NCC activity is becoming increasingly complex. This intricacy confers an ability to integrate a variety of stimuli, thereby regulating NCC transport activity and ultimately blood pressure.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011
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