The DSM-V-committee has recently published proposed diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders. We examine these criteria in some detail. We believe that the DSM-committee has overlooked a number of important issues, including social imagination, diagnosis in infancy and adulthood, and the possibility that girls and women with autism may continue to go unrecognised or misdiagnosed under the new manual. We conclude that a number of changes need to be made in order that the DSM-V-criteria might be used reliably and validly in clinical practice and research.
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"Concerns were further fueled by the inclusion of a new diagnosis of Social Communication Disorder in DSM-5, as this was felt by many to imply that higher functioning AS subjects would now migrate from the autistic spectrum to this new residual, consolation-prize category (Huerta et al., 2012). Others feel that the term AS should have continued to be mentioned in the manual as an admissible label for a particular group of patients within ASD, offering a clinical description of the syndrome but no diagnostic criteria (Wing et al., 2011). This would allow AS patients who regard the terms autism as unacceptably stigmatizing to keep their former diagnostic label. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: First described in 1944 by Hans Asperger, it was not before 1994 that Asperger Syndrome (AS) was included in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, only to disappear in the Manual’s 5th edition in 2013. During its brief existence as a diagnostic entity, AS aroused immense interest and controversy. Similar to patients with autism, AS patients show deficits in social interaction, inappropriate communication skills, and interest restriction, but also display a rich variety of subtle clinical characteristics that for many distinguish AS from autism. However, difficulties operationalising diagnostic criteria and differentiating AS from autism ultimately led to its merging into the unifying category of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Here we briefly review the short history of this fascinating condition.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Frontiers in Psychology
"The DSM-5 working group also considered that symptoms must be present in early childhood but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities. One criticism of DSM-IV and DSM-5 is that they are responsible for widening of the criteria for autism spectrum conditions, thus leading to a progressive increase in published prevalence rates (Wing et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose – During the last few years the prevalence of autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has increased greatly. A recurring issue is the overlap and boundaries between Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD), ASD and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). In clinical practice with people with IDD, the alternative or adjunctive diagnosis of ASD or SSD is particularly challenging. The purpose of this paper is to define the boundaries and overlapping clinical characteristics of IDD, ASD and SSD; highlight the most relevant differences in clinical presentation; and provide a clinical framework within which to recognize the impact of IDD and ASD in the diagnosis of SSD. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic mapping of the international literature was conducted on the basis of the following questions: first, what are considered to be core and overlapping aspects of IDD, ASD and SSD; second, what are the main issues in clinical practice; and third, can key diagnostic flags be identified to assist in differentiating between the three diagnostic categories? Findings – Crucial clinical aspects for the differentiation resulted to be age of onset, interest towards others, main positive symptoms, and anatomical anomalies of the central nervous system. More robust diagnostic criteria and semeiological references are desirable. Originality/value – The present literature mapping provides a comprehensive description of the most relevant differences in the clinical presentation of ASD and SSD in persons with IDD.
"For instance, the DSM-V no longer makes distinctions between the different subtypes of ASD, such as autistic disorder and Asperger disorder, and instead classifies a single category of ASD. The DSM-V new criteria for ASD are not without criticism (Waterhouse, 2013; Wing et al., 2011; McPartland et al., 2012; Ritvo, 2012), one of the main ones being this narrow and restricted phenotype of ASD (Fernell et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the research which has examined the link between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and offending behaviour and the impact of prison on individuals with ASDs. Studies suggest that inmates with ASDs may be at an increased risk of bullying, confrontations, exploitation, anxiety and social isolation as a result of their ASD traits such as obsessions, social naivety and impaired empathy. Design/methodology/approach – An extensive review of the literature. Findings – The review identifies a modest amount of studies (n=4) which have explored the experience of individuals with ASD in prison and highlights that inmates with ASDs face a multitude of problems when they enter prison. Despite an extensive literature search only one study was identified which investigated the knowledge and understanding of ASDs amongst prison staff. Research limitations/implications – Further research is urgently needed to consider the specific problems faced by inmates with ASD, to identify how to make the prison environment safer and more supportive for inmates with ASD and how to reduce the likelihood of re-offending. Practical implications – This review highlights that, to date, there has been relatively little to guide service design in order to develop support services for individuals with ASD in prison. There has been a scarcity of studies investigating the effectiveness of various treatment models to target offending behaviour in individuals with ASD. Originality/value – This paper fulfils an identified need to study and identify the specific problems faced by inmates with ASD and to identify changes which are required to provide an environment in prison which is safer and more supportive.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour