Dietary supplements and human health: For better or for worse?

ArticleinMolecular Nutrition & Food Research 55(1):122-35 · January 2011with18 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201000415 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Encouraged by the potential health benefits of higher dietary intake of substances with beneficial properties, the use of supplements containing these compounds has increased steadily over recent years. The effects of several of these, many of which are antioxidants, have been supported by data obtained in vitro, in animal models, and often by human studies as well. However, as carefully controlled human supplementation trials have been conducted, questions about the efficacy and safety of these supplements have emerged. In this Educational Paper, three different supplements were selected for consideration of the benefits and risks currently associated with their intake. The selected supplements include β-carotene, selenium, and genistein. The use of each is discussed in the context of preclinical and clinical data that provide evidence for both their use in reducing disease incidence and the possible liabilities that accompany their enhanced consumption. Variables that may influence their impact, such as lifestyle habits, baseline nutritional levels, and genetic makeup are considered and the application of these issues to broader classes of supplements is discussed.
    • "Expression of introns of LRG1 was significantly increased in the antioxidant treated tissues compared to control tumor tissue. LRG1 plays roles in protein-protein interaction, signal transduction, and cell adhesion and development; this gene has been linked to lung cancer [46,47]. According to Liu et al., LRG1 was overexpressed in both the blood level and tumor sections, which can be referred to separate lung cancer patients from healthy cases [55]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The notion that dietary antioxidants can help fight cancer is popular. However, the mechanism(s) behind the effect of antioxidants in cancer is still unclear. Previous studies indicate that supplements can influence gene expression; however, all of these studies were focused on the coding/exonic gene expression. Studies are now emerging to highlight critical functional roles for RNAs expressed from the non-coding regions. This project was designed to study the effect of antioxidant supplements on non-coding intronic RNA expression in human cancers. Vitamin E, N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) and Sulforaphane are commonly used supplements to prevent diseases including cancers. We studied the effect of these antioxidant supplements on the non-coding intronic RNA expression using publicly available datasets from a mouse model for lung cancer and prostate cancer cell lines. Although high throughput polyA-enriched RNA-Seq data characterize spliced coding mRNA regions, recent studies reveal the expression of reads from the non-coding intronic regions. Our analyses indicate that cancer cells have higher expression of introns compared to that of normal cells and that treatment with antioxidant supplements reduces the increased expression of introns of several genes. However, we did find high expression of introns of multiple genes including many oncogenes in the supplement treated groups compared to that of the control; this effect was distinct depending on the cell type and the supplement studied. Using RT-PCRs, we validated the expression of introns of two oncogenes, DLK1 and LRG1, known to be key players in lung cancer progression, and demonstrate changed intronic expression with supplement treatment in cancer cells. With regard to the antioxidant system, supplements did not change the intronic RNAs for endogenous antioxidant enzymes except for a significant decrease in the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) intronic RNA. Concurrently, we also found that a prolonged (48 h) exposure to Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Green tea extract reduced the enzymatic activity of SOD in lung cancer cells. The results from this study reveal that the antioxidant supplements have a significant effect on the intronic RNA expression of many genes including cancer genes that are not directly linked to the body's antioxidant system. It is important to study this novel effect of antioxidant supplements in detail as it may have a significant role in disease progression.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
    • "Conventional chemotherapy may also often result in undesirable effects [13, 22, 24]. There are plenty of natural products that found practical application in ther- apy [25, 26]. For example green tea (Camellia sinensis), thanks to its multiple beneficial health effects, is being increasingly consumed in beverages. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disturbances of angiogenesis and oxidative stress can lead to many serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes or ischemic heart disease. Substances neutralizing oxidative stress are known as antioxidants. They can affect angiogenesis process also, and thus, they modulate therapy results. Antioxidants become more and more frequently used in order to maintain homeostasis of the organism and diminish the risk of disease. Herein, we introduce some antioxidant preparations of natural plant origin (Rhodiola, Aloe vera, Resveratrol, Echinacea, Plumbagin) and antioxidant supplements (Padma 28, Reumaherb, Resvega). Analyses of their angiogenic properties, their multidirectional molecular effect on angiogenesis as well as medical application are within the scope of this review. Most of presented preparations down regulate neovascularization. They can be safely administered to patients with abnormally high angiogenesis. Rhodiola modulates, and Echinacea, Aloe vera and Plumbagin inhibit tumour-related angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo (animal models). Resveratrol and Resvega reduce neovascularization in the eye and may be applicable in eye disorders. Padma 28 preparation exhibits angioregulatory activity, decreasing high angiogenesis of cancer cells and increasing physiological angiogenesis, therefore can be used in therapy of patients with various disturbances of angiogenesis. Antioxidant application in the case of angiogenesis-related diseases should take into consideration angiogenic status of the patient.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
    • "Oxidative damage, which causes extensive damage to tissues and biomolecules leading to various disease conditions, can be overcome using many synthetic drugs which are associated with severe adverse side effects. An alternative suggestion would require one to consume natural antioxidants from food and traditional medicine [29,30]. Due to the importance of Dox in chemotherapy, researchers around the world have put in great efforts to reduce its toxic side effects. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (Dox) has been used for more than four decades to treat cancer, particularly solid tumours and haematological malignancies. However, the administration of this drug is a matter of concern in the clinical community, since Dox therapy is commonly associated with dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Attempts at alleviating drug generated cardiac damage using naturally occurring compounds with radical scavenging property are a promising area of research. p-Coumaric acid (. pCA) is one such compound which has significant antiradical scavenging effect. This study aims to investigate the effect of pre and co-administration of pCA on mitigating or preventing Dox induced cardiotoxicity in vitro using H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell lines. Addition of pCA and Dox were performed for both treatment and control sets on H9c2 cells. Sulphorhodamine B assay was used to study the cytotoxic effect of pCA and Dox. The effect of the drug on cell morphology, cell viability and nuclear damage was studied using AO/EB and DAPI staining. ROS production was studied using DCFH-DA staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium levels were assessed by rhodamine 123 and Fura 2AM staining. pCA showed strong ABTS cation radical scavenging activity and FRAP activity in a dose dependent manner. The results showed that Dox has significant cytotoxic effect in a dose dependent manner while pCA, even at higher concentrations did not display any significant cytotoxicity on H9c2 cells. Both pre treatment and co- administration of pCA reduced the drug induced toxic effects on cell morphology and enhanced the number of viable cells in comparison to the Dox treated cells as evident from the AO/EB and DAPI staining images. The Dox induced ROS production was found to be significantly reduced in pCA pre-treated and co-administered cells. Dox induced changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium levels were remarkably improved following pre and co-treatment of H9c2 cells with pCA. These results clearly suggest that pre-treatment and co-administration of pCA is a promising therapeutic intervention in managing Dox mediated cardiotoxicity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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