Variability and Predictors of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations during Pregnancy

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 01/2011; 119(1):131-7. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1002366
Source: PubMed


Prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may be associated with developmental toxicity, but few studies have examined the variability and predictors of urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy.
Our goal was to estimate the variability and predictors of serial urinary BPA concentrations taken during pregnancy.
We measured BPA concentrations during pregnancy and at birth in three spot urine samples from 389 women. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to assess BPA variability and estimated associations between log10-transformed urinary BPA concentrations and demographic, occupational, dietary, and environmental factors, using mixed models.
Geometric mean (GM) creatinine-standardized concentrations (micrograms per gram) were 1.7 (16 weeks), 2.0 (26 weeks), and 2.0 (birth). Creatinine-standardized BPA concentrations exhibited low reproducibility (ICC = 0.11). By occupation, cashiers had the highest BPA concentrations (GM: 2.8 μg/g). Consuming canned vegetables at least once a day was associated with higher BPA concentrations (GM = 2.3 μg/g) compared with those consuming no canned vegetables (GM = 1.6 μg/g). BPA concentrations did not vary by consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, canned fruit, or store-bought fresh and frozen fish. Urinary high-molecular-weight phthalate and serum tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with BPA concentrations.
These results suggest numerous sources of BPA exposure during pregnancy. Etiological studies may need to measure urinary BPA concentrations more than once during pregnancy and adjust for phthalates and tobacco smoke exposures.

Download full-text


Available from: Dana B Barr
    • "Braun et al. (2011) "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor commonly employed as a color developer in thermal papers. Consequently, BPA derived from thermal papers has been considered an important source of exposure for humans, since this chemical may migrate from paper to skin upon contact. Further, due to recent restrictions on BPA use in some countries, it has been replaced by a new analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). The aim of the present study was to determine levels of BPA and BPS in 190 different thermal receipts, randomly collected from different locations in São Paulo State, Brazil, including receipts from supermarkets, general and fast-food restaurants, gas stations, bus and airplane tickets, and credit card and bank accounts. BPA and/or BPS were detected in 98% of samples at concentrations ranging from below the quantification limit to 4.3% (mg/100 mg paper). The obtained values were higher than amounts previously reported in other countries. The estimated daily intake through dermal absorption from handling of thermal receipt papers was estimated on the basis of concentrations and frequencies of handling of papers by humans in both the general population and occupationally exposed individuals. Fifth percentile, median, and 95th percentile daily intakes by the general population were 0.44, 1.42, and 2 μg/d, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for occupationally exposed population are 21.8, 71 and 101 μg/d. The potential adverse consequences of elevated occupational exposure are currently being examined.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A
  • Source
    • "Very little biomonitoring data are available to determine whether cashiers, as compared to noncashiers , have higher urine or blood levels of BPA or BPA alternatives. There are reports of higher urinary BPA levels in cashiers participating in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study (Braun et al. 2011) and in people who reported working in retail industries in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (Lunder et al. 2010). However, neither of these studies specifically collected samples near the time of the work shift. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical associated with a wide range of health outcomes in animal and human studies. BPA is used as a developer in thermal paper products including cash register receipt paper; however little is known about exposure of cashiers to BPA and alternative compounds in receipt paper. To determine if handling receipt paper results in measurable absorption of BPA or the BPA alternatives, bisphenol S (BPS) and 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-isoprooxyphenylsulfone (BPSIP). Cashiers (n = 77) and non-cashiers (n=25) were recruited from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region of North Carolina during 2011-2013. Receipts were analysed for the presence of BPA or alternatives considered for use in thermal paper. In cashiers, total urine and serum BPA, BPS, and BPSIP levels in post-shift samples (collected ≤ 2h after completing a shift) were compared with pre-shift samples (collected ≥ 24 hours after a work shift). Urine levels in cashiers were compared to levels from non-cashiers. Each receipt contained 1-2% by weight of the paper of BPA, BPS, or BPSIP. The post-shift geometric mean total urinary BPS concentration was significantly higher than the pre-shift mean in 33 cashiers who handled receipts containing BPS. Mean urine BPA concentrations in 31 cashiers who handled BPA receipts were as likely to decrease as increase after a shift, but the mean post-shift concentration was significantly higher than in non-cashiers. BPSIP was detected more frequently in urine of cashiers handling BPSIP receipts compared to non-cashiers. Only a few cashiers had detectable levels of total BPA or BPS in serum, whereas BPSIP tended to be detected more frequently. Thermal receipt paper is a potential source of occupational exposure to BPA, BPS, and BPSIP.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Environmental Health Perspectives
  • Source
    • "First, the short half life and rapid elimination of phthalates and BPA creates a source of potential misclassification bias as the body burden of these chemicals may vary on a daily basis (Braun et al., 2011; Ye et al., 2011; Stahlhut et al., 2009; Volkel et al., 2002). In pregnant women, the reported intraclass correlation (ICCs) for serial measurements of BPA throughout pregnancy has been very low, ranging from 0.11 to 0.32 ([Braun et al., 2011,Meeker et al., 2014,Quirós-Alcalá et al., 2013,Jusko et al., 2014]). A Canadian study of pregnant women reported an ICC of 0.33 for BPA based on first trimester 24 h urine voids (Fisher et al., 2014). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development and resulting heightened susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental exposures. Epidemiologists and toxicologists have hypothesized that phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and perfluoroalkyl substance have immunotoxic properties. Immunotoxic effects of chemicals may manifest in an altered immune system profile at birth. Immunoglobulin E, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) are integral in the etiology of childhood allergy and detectable at birth. The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal levels of phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and perfluoroalkyl substances and elevated umbilical cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP, and IL-33. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Of these women, 1258 had a singleton, term birth and cord blood sample. A Bayesian hierarchical model was employed to determine associations between log-transformed continuous variables and immune system biomarkers while adjusting for potential confounding from correlated environmental contaminants. Inverse, nonlinear associations were observed between maternal urinary MCPP levels and elevated levels of both IL-33/TSLP and IgE and between maternal urinary BPA levels and elevated levels of IL-33/TSLP. In this primarily urban Canadian population of pregnant women and their newborns, maternal urinary and plasma concentrations of phthalate metabolites, BPA, and perfluoroalkyl substances were not associated with immunotoxic effects that manifest as increased odds of elevated levels of IgE, TSLP or IL-33. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Research
Show more